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Sasha C Voss, Paola Magni, Ian Dadour, Christian Nansen
Forensic entomology is primarily concerned with the estimation of time since death and involves determination of the age of immature insects colonising decomposing remains. Accurate age determination of puparia is usually accomplished by dissection, which means destructive sampling of evidence. As part of improving abilities to correctly identify species and developmental age, it is highly desirable to have available non-destructive methods. In this study, we acquired external hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data (77 spectral bands, 389-892 nm) from the dorsal and ventral sides of individual puparia of two species of blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Calliphora dubia Macquart 1855 and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart 1842...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Alice Ricardo-Silva, Teresa Cristina Monte Gonçalves, José Francisco Luitgards-Moura, Catarina Macedo Lopes, Silvano Pedrosa da Silva, Amanda Queiroz Bastos, Nathalia Coelho Vargas, Maria-Rosa Goreti Freitas
During a medical entomology course in Boa Vista, Roraima, colonies of Triatoma maculata closely associated with pigeon nests were observed in concrete air-conditioner box located on the external plastered and cemented walls of a modern brick-built apartment block. In only one eight-hole ceramic brick, located inside one air-conditioner box, 127 specimens of T. maculata were collected. T. maculata is a recognised vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in the surrounding area and its domiciliation increases the risk of Chagas disease transmission...
October 13, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Craig S McIntosh, Ian R Dadour, Sasha C Voss
The rate of decomposition and insect succession onto decomposing pig carcasses were investigated following burning of carcasses. Ten pig carcasses (40-45 kg) were exposed to insect activity during autumn (March-April) in Western Australia. Five replicates were burnt to a degree described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) level #2, while five carcasses were left unburnt as controls. Burning carcasses greatly accelerated decomposition in contrast to unburnt carcasses. Physical modifications following burning such as skin discolouration, splitting of abdominal tissue and leathery consolidation of skin eliminated evidence of bloat and altered microambient temperatures associated with carcasses throughout decomposition...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Yan Li, Jie Zhang, Dafeng Chen, Pengcheng Yang, Feng Jiang, Xianhui Wang, Le Kang
Locusts are important agricultural pests worldwide and regarded as study models for entomology. However, the absence of targeted gene manipulation systems for locusts has restricted their applications for research. Herein, we report the successful use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to induce a targeted heritable mutagenesis of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. The target sequence of gRNA was designed to disrupt the gene encoding the odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and examine the roles of the odorant receptor pathway in the locust...
October 12, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Benny O Manin, Heather M Ferguson, Indra Vythilingam, Kim Fornace, Timothy William, Steve J Torr, Chris Drakeley, Tock H Chua
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the primate malaria Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged in human populations throughout South East Asia, with the largest hotspot being in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Control efforts are hindered by limited knowledge of where and when people get exposed to mosquito vectors. It is assumed that exposure occurs primarily when people are working in forest areas, but the role of other potential exposure routes (including domestic or peri-domestic transmission) has not been thoroughly investigated...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Arvind K, Mitul J, Kuldeep K, Uma K, Biswas N
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Didier Raoult, Rezak Drali, Kosta Mumcuoglu
Lice are a classic example of cospeciation. Human lice confirm this cospeciation with lice specialized in hominids which differ from those of gorillas and chimpanzees. Head lice and body lice seem to belong to closely related species with different ecotypes and a different geographical distribution which may reflect population movements. Paleo-entomology allows us in some cases to trace the migrations of archaic human populations. The analysis of lice found on mummies in Egypt and South America has clarified a certain number of these migrations, also the study of lice and the diseases they transmit has shed a new light on the epidemics of the past...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Luciano Toma, Monica Catalani, Antonella Catalano, Maria Goffredo, Roberto Romi, Marco Di Luca
This study reports the mosquito collections conducted in July-August 2013 in Castiglione del Lago (Umbria Region, Italy) during the entomological surveillance within the West Nile national control program. The mosquito collections showed the noteworthy occurrence of Anopheles hyrcanus s.l. (n = 156; 35.8% of the whole sample), a relatively rare mosquito species in Italy, with molecular analyses con rming that these mosquitoes belong to An. hyrcanus s.s. The same catching site was characterized by a relevant richness in mosquito species, in particular the following were found: Anopheles maculipennis s...
August 3, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Maria Goffredo, Rudy Meiswinkel, Valentina Federici, Francesca Di Nicola, Giuseppe Mancini, Carla Ippoliti, Alessio Di Lorenzo, Michela Quaglia, Adriana Santilli, Annamaria Conte, Giovanni Savini
As Bluetongue virus (BTV) spread in Italy following its first incursion in 2000, it soon became apparent that, besides Culicoides imicola, additional species of the subgenus Avaritia were involved as vectors, namely one or more of the species that belong to the so-called 'Culicoides obsoletus group', which comprises C. dewulfi, C. chiopterus, C. obsoletus sensu stricto, C. scoticus and C. montanus; the three last named species are considered generally as forming the Obsoletus complex. This study presents the findings made over the last decade and more, within the Italian entomological surveillance program for Bluetongue...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Annamaria Conte, Peter Daniels, Maria Goffredo, Eileen Noel Ostlund, Alessio Di Lorenzo, Lara Savini, Susanna Tora, Baratang Alison Lubisi, Paolo Calistri, Rossana Bruno, Dario Di Sabatino, Carla Ippoliti, Federica Monaco, Peter P C Mertens, Alessio Lorusso, Andrea Capobianco, Alessandro Ripani, Nigel James MacLachlan, Giovanni Savini
Bluetongue (BT) is a mild to severe disease of domestic and wild ruminants caused by the Bluetongue virus (BTV) and generally transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Its occurrence also determines a livestock trade ban in affected countries with severe economic consequences on national and international trade. For this reason, in May 2011, the OIE encouraged the OIE Reference Laboratories to establish and maintain a BT network to provide expertise and training to the OIE and OIE Member Countries for BT diagnosis, surveillance and control...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Teresa Bonacci, Pierpaolo Storino, Stefano Scalercio, Pietro Brandmayr
Many environmental and intrinsic factors (e.g. limited access to the body) can disrupt insect activity, causing a delay in the colonization of a corpse. These elements could hinder an accurate estimation of the minimum Post-mortem Interval (minPMI), raising questions about the limits of forensic entomology. Blow fly are considered mainly diurnal and relatively inactive at night, at extreme temperatures and in dark conditions. Data on their ability to lay eggs in darkness and in laboratory conditions are scarce...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
D Bravo-Barriga, R Parreira, C Maia, M O Afonso, J Blanco-Ciudad, F J Serrano, J E Pérez-Martín, L Gómez-Gordo, L Campino, D Reina, E Frontera
Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is present in Mediterranean countries, with high prevalence in areas of the center and south of Spain. However, in some regions such as Extremadura (in southwest of Spain), data has not been updated since 1997. The aim of this work was (i) to provide information about the distribution of phlebotomine sand fly species in western of Spain (Extremadura region), (ii) to determine risk factors for the presence of sand fly vectors and (iii) to detect Leishmania DNA and identify blood meal sources in wild caught females...
October 5, 2016: Acta Tropica
Emmanuel Chanda, Birkinesh Ameneshewa, Magaran Bagayoko, John M Govere, Michael B Macdonald
The increasing global threat of emerging and re-emerging vector-borne diseases (VBDs) poses a serious health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integrated vector management (IVM) strategy for combating VBD transmission. An IVM approach requires entomological knowledge, technical and infrastructure capacity, and systems facilitating stakeholder collaboration. In sub-Saharan Africa, successful operational IVM experience comes from relatively few countries. This article provides an update on the extent to which IVM is official national policy, the degree of IVM implementation, the level of compliance with WHO guidelines, and concordance in the understanding of IVM, and it assesses the operational impact of IVM...
October 3, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
Jessica J Hellmann, Ralph Grundel, Chris Hoving, Gregor W Schuurman
As climate change moves insect systems into uncharted territory, more knowledge about insect dynamics and the factors that drive them could enable us to better manage and conserve insect communities. Climate change may also require us to revisit insect management goals and strategies and lead to a new kind of scientific engagement in management decision-making. Here we make five key points about the role of insect science in aiding and crafting management decisions, and we illustrate those points with the monarch butterfly and the Karner blue butterfly, two species undergoing considerable change and facing new management dilemmas...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Kevin Myles, Zach Adelman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
M Mamun Huda, Vijay Kumar, Murari Lal Das, Debashis Ghosh, Jyoti Priyanka, Pradeep Das, Abdul Alim, Greg Matlashewski, Axel Kroeger, Eduardo Alfonso-Sierra, Dinesh Mondal
BACKGROUND: New methods for controlling sand fly are highly desired by the Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination program of Bangladesh, India and Nepal for its consolidation and maintenance phases. To support the program we investigated safety, efficacy and cost of Durable Wall Lining to control sand fly. METHODS: This multicentre randomized controlled study in Bangladesh, India and Nepal included randomized two intervention clusters and one control cluster. Each cluster had 50 households except full wall surface coverage (DWL-FWSC) cluster in Nepal which had 46 households...
October 6, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
M Dutto, M Bertero, N Petrosillo, M Pombi, D Otranto
Ebola virus is a pathogen responsible for a severe disease that affects humans and several animal species. To date, the natural reservoir of this virus is not known with certainty, although it is believed that fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) play an important role in maintaining the virus in nature. Although information on viral transmission from animals to humans is not clear, the role of arthropods has come under suspicion. In this article, we review the potential role of arthropods in spreading Ebola virus, acting as mechanical or biological vectors...
October 6, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
Danielle Flores, Amy L Miller, Angelique Showman, Caitlyn Tobita, Lori M N Shimoda, Carl Sung, Alexander J Stokes, Jeffrey K Tomberlin, David O Carter, Helen Turner
Entomological protocols for aging blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae to estimate the time of colonization (TOC) are commonly used to assist in death investigations. While the methodologies for analyzing fly larvae differ, most rely on light microscopy, genetic analysis, or, more rarely, electron microscopy. This pilot study sought to improve resolution of larval stage in the forensically important blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies using high-content fluorescence microscopy and biochemical measures of developmental marker proteins...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Diego Montenegro, Mauricio Vera, Liliana Zuleta, Violeta Llanos, Angela Junqueira
Objectives Present a strategy to determine the baseline in endemic areas in the process of vector interruption for Chagas disease (CHD). Methods A social and environmental questionnaire and an entomological survey evaluated the physical conditions of dwellings, the inhabitants' knowledge of CHD, the entomological triatomine indicators and the statistical relationship among these variables. Results Colonization and natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi exist in Rhodnius prolixus, the principal vector of CHD in Colombia...
June 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Juan Márquez, Julieta Asiain
Mexican species of Thyreocephalus were analyzed taxonomically based on review of 125 specimens in eight entomological collections. We propose that T. dugesi (Casey, 1906) could be a junior synonym of T. scutellaris (Sharp, 1885), but refrain from formal changes until the types can be examined. Thyreocephalus arizonicus Smetana, 1982 is recorded for the first time from Mexico in the states of Estado de México, Jalisco and Morelos. Currently nine species are recorded from Mexico, which is the most species-rich country on the American continent...
September 20, 2016: Zootaxa
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