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Paola A Magni, Marco Pazzi, Jessica Droghi, Marco Vincenti, Ian R Dadour
Entomotoxicology is a branch of forensic entomology that studies the detection of drugs or other toxic substances from insects developing on the decomposing tissues of a human corpse or animal carcass. Entomotoxicology also investigates the effects of these substances on insect development, survival and morphology to provide an estimation of the minimum time since death. Ketamine is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia. In recent years ketamine has also been used as a recreational drug, and occasionally as a sedating drug to facilitate sexual assault...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Abrar Essarras, Marco Pazzi, Ian R Dadour, Paola A Magni
Entomotoxicology involves the analysis of the presence and the effects of toxicological substances in necrophagous insects. Results obtained by entomotoxicological studies may assist in the investigation of both the causes and the time of death of humans and animals. Ethylene glycol (EG) is easy to purchase, sweet and extremely toxic. It may be consumed accidentally or purposefully, in an attempt to cause death for suicidal or homicidal intent. Several cases report fatalities of humans and animals. The present study is the first to examine the effects of EG on the survival, developmental rate and morphology of two blowfly species, (Diptera: Calliphoridae) typically found on corpses and carcasses: Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and L...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Ana Letícia Trivia, Carlos José de Carvalho Pinto
Forensic entomotoxicology investigates the effects of chemical substances in the development of scavenger insects and the reflection on estimating the minimum postmortem interval (PMI). To evaluate the impact of the chemotherapeutic drugs cyclophosphamide (CF) and methotrexate (MTX) on the postembryonic development of Chrysomya megacephala, controlled experiments were performed by rearing the larvae on spiked minced beef with different concentrations of these drugs. The results indicated that CF significantly decreased their developmental rate up to 28 h but had no significant effect on larval and adult sizes, survival rate, and sex ratio, whereas MTX decreased larval and adult sizes, survival rate, and there was a deviation in the expected sex ratio toward females in MTX-exposed larvae but had no significant impact on developmental rate...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Paola A Magni, Marco Pazzi, Marco Vincenti, Valerio Converso, Ian R Dadour
Entomotoxicology studies employ analytical methods and instrumentation to detect chemical substances in carrion insects feeding from the decomposing tissues. The identification of such chemicals may determine the cause of death and may be used for the estimation of the minimum time since death. To date, the main focus of entomotoxicological studies has been the detection of drugs, whereas little information concerns the effects of pesticides on blowflies. Pesticides are generally freely available and more affordable than drugs but they can also be a home hazard and an accessible candidate poison at a crime scene...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
V Bugelli, L Papi, S Fornaro, F Stefanelli, S Chericoni, M Giusiani, S Vanin, C P Campobasso
One of the most common methods of maternal filicide is by fire. In this case study, a 40-year-old female and her children were found completely burned in a burnt out car. All bodies showed a degree of destruction by fire consisting to a level 3 of the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) and early stage of insect activity. Toxicological analyses were performed on soft tissues and body fluids still available. The results were positive for diazepam and its metabolites only for children with blood concentrations consistent with therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines...
July 9, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Erica I T da Silva, Brendan Wilhelmi, Martin H Villet
Forensic entomotoxicology is the use of insects as evidence of whether a toxicant is present in an environment such as a corpse, river or landscape. The earliest overtly forensic study was published in 1977, and since then, at least 63 papers have been published, most of them focused on the detection of toxicants in insects or on effects of toxicants on diverse insect indicator taxa. A comprehensive review of the published literature revealed various inconsistencies between studies that could be addressed by introducing standard protocols for such studies...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Paola A Magni, Marco Pazzi, Marco Vincenti, Eugenio Alladio, Marco Brandimarte, Ian R Dadour
Entomotoxicology is the application of toxicological methods and analytical procedures on necrophagous insects feeding on decomposing tissues to detect drugs and other chemical components, and their mechanisms affecting insect development and morphology and modifying the methodology for estimation of minimum time since death. Nicotine is a readily available potent poison. Because of its criminal use, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the detection of nicotine in Calliphora vomitoria L...
April 2016: Forensic Science International
Zhi-jiang Liu, Xian-dun Zhai, Ling Guan, Yao-nan Mo
Forensic entomotoxicology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies entomology, toxicology and other related studies to solve the poisoning cases. It has an obvious advantage in the investigation on poisoning death. Based on the expounding definition and research of entomotoxicology, this paper reviews research progress and application value in some aspects of forensic medicine, such as the effects of drugs/toxins on the growth and development of sarcosaphagous insects and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the drugs/toxins in the poisoned body tissue...
June 2015: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Nora L El-Tantawy
By definition, parasites cause harm to their hosts. But, considerable evidence from ancient traditional medicine has supported the theory of using parasites and their products in treating many diseases. Maggots have been used successfully to treat chronic, long-standing, infected wounds which failed to respond to conventional treatment by many beneficial effects on the wound including debridement, disinfection, and healing enhancement. Maggots are also applied in forensic medicine to estimate time between the death and discovery of a corpse and in entomotoxicology involving the potential use of insects as alternative samples for detecting drugs and toxins in death investigations...
February 2015: Parasitology Research
Paola A Magni, Tommaso Pacini, Marco Pazzi, Marco Vincenti, Ian R Dadour
Entomotoxicology is the study of using insects for the detection of drugs and other chemical substances in decomposing tissues. One research aspect in particular is the effects of these substances on arthropod development and morphology, and their consequences on the post mortem interval estimation. Since methamphetamine (MA) is becoming commonplace as an illegal recreational drug, a GC-MS method for the detection of MA in Calliphora vomitoria L. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was developed and validated. Furthermore, the effect of MA on the development, growth rates and survival of the blowfly was investigated...
August 2014: Forensic Science International
Fábio Rezende, Marcela A Alonso, Carina M Souza, Patrícia J Thyssen, Arício X Linhares
Entomotoxicology is focused on obtaining data on necrophagous entomofauna, for criminal investigations purposes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of methylphenidate hydrochloride, phenobarbital, and their association on the developmental rate, larval and pupal survivorship, and the interval of emergence of adults of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Considering the therapeutic dose (TD) of methylphenidate hydrochloride (0...
May 2014: Parasitology Research
Yi Zou, Ming Huang, Ruiting Huang, Xinwu Wu, Zhijie You, Jieqiong Lin, Xiaoyan Huang, Xiaoting Qiu, Sheng Zhang
The estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) based on the growth patterns of necrophagous arthropods is the main mission of forensic entomology in practice. The larval development rates can be affected by various drugs or toxins, causing deviation in PMI estimate. Ketamine is a widely used anesthetic and recreational drug in Asia, which is rarely focused on in the previous entomotoxicological studies. The present work investigated the effect of ketamine on the development of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by the measurement of body length and weight and the analysis of relationship between the ketamine effect and drug dosage or time interval, meanwhile the difference between ketamine effect on larval body length and weight was also analyzed...
March 10, 2013: Forensic Science International
Sarah K Bushby, Nicky Thomas, Petra A Priemel, Carolyn V Coulter, Thomas Rades, Jules A Kieser
The aim of this study was to examine the potential forensic utilisation of blowfly larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as an alternative toxicological specimen for the detection of the psychotropic model drug methylphenidate (MPH). MPH was extracted from biological matrices (rat brain, serum and Calliphorid larvae) by liquid-liquid extraction with recovery of >80%, and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The LC-MS/MS assay was validated for entomotoxicological use and initially applied to male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6) that were dosed with MPH (20mg/kg) ante-mortem...
November 2012: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Matthias Gosselin, Sarah M R Wille, Maria del Mar Ramírez Fernandez, V Di Fazio, Nele Samyn, Gert De Boeck, Benoit Bourel
Forensic entomotoxicology studies the usefulness of insects as alternative toxicological samples. Use of insects as alternative matrix for drug detection is well documented and recommended when conventional matrices such as blood, urine or internal organs are no longer available. However, several limitations of entomotoxicology have been highlighted, especially concerning interpretation of the drug concentrations in insects on human forensic cases. In addition, the lack of knowledge in pharmacokinetic of drugs in insects, large variability of experimental set-up and toxicological analysis compromise the utility of this science...
May 20, 2011: Forensic Science International
Matthias Gosselin, Maria Del Mar Ramirez Fernandez, Sarah M R Wille, Nele Samyn, Gert De Boeck, Benoit Bourel
Entomotoxicology studies the application of toxicological analysis on necrophageous insects present on human remains. This paper describes the development and validation of a sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of methadone and its main metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), in developmental stages of Lucilia sericata. One single larva was pulverized in a disposable vial and then extracted with 1-chlorobutane. After evaporation of the organic layer, samples were reconstituted in the mobile phase...
September 2010: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
A Tracqui, C Keyser-Tracqui, P Kintz, B Ludes
We present a series of 29 necropsies in which organic compounds (including benzodiazepines, barbiturates, antidepressants, phenothiazine, opiates, cannabinoids, meprobamate, digoxin and nefopam) were detected in arthropod larvae sampled on human corpses. No correlation was observed between drug concentrations in the larvae versus human samples. When tested, inter-larvae and inter-site variations of drug concentrations (i.e., within larvae when analyzed separately, and within anatomic sites when larvae were grouped according to their site of sampling) were enormous and not reproducible from one case to another, confirming that arthropod larvae are unreliable for quantitative toxicological analysis...
August 2004: International Journal of Legal Medicine
F Introna, C P Campobasso, M L Goff
Entomotoxicology is a relatively new branch of forensic entomology. The potential use of insects for detecting drugs and other toxins in decomposing tissues has been widely demonstrated. In death investigations, Diptera and other arthropods can be reliable alternate specimens for toxicological analyses in the absence of tissues and fluids normally taken for such purposes. Entomotoxicology also investigates the effects caused by drugs and toxins on arthropod development in order to assist the forensic postmortem interval estimates...
August 15, 2001: Forensic Science International
B Bourel, L Fleurisse, V Hédouin, J C Cailliez, C Creusy, D Gosset, M L Goff
Morphine was detected by immunohistochemistry on sections of third stage larvae of Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera, Calliphoridae) reared on minced beef meat previously treated with morphine hydrochloride. The detection was performed with an avidin-biotin-peroxidase-complex method. Positive specimens showed specific staining of the haemolymph and a more intense immunoreaction in an area located at the limit between exocuticle and endocuticle. These results constitute an evidence of morphine accumulation inside the cuticle of Diptera larvae during their development...
May 2001: Journal of Forensic Sciences
R Gagliano-Candela, L Aventaggiato
Entomotoxicology (the study of drugs in insects), a new field of forensic investigations, has still to be precisely defined especially with respect to the toxic substances that can be assessed in entomological specimens. The aim of the present work was to review the relevant entomological publications in order to analyse and describe the various toxic substances that have been detected in biological specimens. Experimental studies have been reviewed separately from case reports. Toxic substances have been classified according to forensic toxicology methodology and on the basis of the chemical and analytical features...
2001: International Journal of Legal Medicine
V Hédouin, B Bourel, L Martin-Bouyer, A Bécart, G Tournel, M Deveaux, D Gosset
In order to establish an animal model for entomotoxicological studies, the kinetics of morphine elimination from blood after a single intravenous injection of morphine and the concentration of morphine in tissues following a continuous perfusion were studied. The aim of these experiments was to obtain controlled morphine tissue concentrations similar to those encountered in fatal human heroin overdoses. These tissues can be used as a food source for developing fly larvae in entomotoxicological studies. In the single injection experiment, seven rabbits were administered 1 or 2 mg/kg body weight of morphine chlorhydrate via the main ear artery...
March 1999: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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