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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675694/-principles-of-pet
#1
B Beuthien-Baumann
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a procedure in nuclear medicine, which is applied predominantly in oncological diagnostics. In the form of modern hybrid machines, such as PET computed tomography (PET/CT) and PET magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) it has found wide acceptance and availability. The PET procedure is more than just another imaging technique, but a functional method with the capability for quantification in addition to the distribution pattern of the radiopharmaceutical, the results of which are used for therapeutic decisions...
April 19, 2018: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675413/influence-of-the-size-and-curvedness-of-neural-projections-on-the-orientationally-averaged-diffusion-mr-signal
#2
Evren Özarslan, Cem Yolcu, Magnus Herberthson, Hans Knutsson, Carl-Fredrik Westin
Neuronal and glial projections can be envisioned to be tubes of infinitesimal diameter as far as diffusion magnetic resonance (MR) measurements via clinical scanners are concerned. Recent experimental studies indicate that the decay of the orientationally-averaged signal in white-matter may be characterized by the power-law, Ē ( q ) ∝ q -1 , where q is the wavenumber determined by the parameters of the pulsed field gradient measurements. One particular study by McKinnon et al . [1] reports a distinctively faster decay in gray-matter...
2018: Frontiers in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675355/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-monitors-human-cutaneous-wound-healing-over-time
#3
Anthony J Deegan, Wendy Wang, Shaojie Men, Yuandong Li, Shaozhen Song, Jingjiang Xu, Ruikang K Wang
Background: In vivo imaging of the complex cascade of events known to be pivotal elements in the healing of cutaneous wounds is a difficult but essential task. Current techniques are highly invasive, or lack the level of vascular and structural detail required for accurate evaluation, monitoring and treatment. We aimed to use an advanced optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based angiography (OCTA) technique for the non-invasive, high resolution imaging of cutaneous wound healing. Methods: We used a clinical prototype OCTA to image, identify and track key vascular and structural adaptations known to occur throughout the healing process...
March 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675120/supervised-multiway-factorization
#4
Eric F Lock, Gen Li
We describe a probabilistic PARAFAC/CANDECOMP (CP) factorization for multiway (i.e., tensor) data that incorporates auxiliary covariates, SupCP . SupCP generalizes the supervised singular value decomposition (SupSVD) for vector-valued observations, to allow for observations that have the form of a matrix or higher-order array. Such data are increasingly encountered in biomedical research and other fields. We use a novel likelihood-based latent variable representation of the CP factorization, in which the latent variables are informed by additional covariates...
2018: Electronic Journal of Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674616/quantifying-mri-frequency-shifts-due-to-structures-with-anisotropic-magnetic-susceptibility-using-pyrolytic-graphite-sheet
#5
Matthew J Cronin, Richard Bowtell
Magnetic susceptibility is an important source of contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with spatial variations in the susceptibility of tissue affecting both the magnitude and phase of the measured signals. This contrast has generally been interpreted by assuming that tissues have isotropic magnetic susceptibility, but recent work has shown that the anisotropic magnetic susceptibility of ordered biological tissues, such as myelinated nerves and cardiac muscle fibers, gives rise to unexpected image contrast...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674013/the-tipping-point-key-oncologic-imaging-findings-resulting-in-critical-changes-in-the-management-of-malignant-tumors-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan Wu, Lipika Goyal, Ryan Nipp, Jennifer Wo, Motaz Qadan, Raul N Uppot
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review tumor staging systems for gastrointestinal tumors including pancreatic adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, small bowel adenocarcinoma, rectal carcinoma, and anal carcinoma and identify the key imaging findings ("tipping points"), which change patient management based on changes in tumor staging. CONCLUSION: For all malignant gastrointestinal tumors, there are key imaging findings ("tipping points") including tumor size, tumor extension, lymphadenopathy, vascular invasion, and distant metastasis that dictate patient management and prognosis, based on changes in tumor stage...
January 31, 2018: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672949/planar-diffractive-lenses-fundamentals-functionalities-and-applications
#7
REVIEW
Kun Huang, Fei Qin, Hong Liu, Huapeng Ye, Cheng-Wei Qiu, Minghui Hong, Boris Luk'yanchuk, Jinghua Teng
Traditional objective lenses in modern microscopy, based on the refraction of light, are restricted by the Rayleigh diffraction limit. The existing methods to overcome this limit can be categorized into near-field (e.g., scanning near-field optical microscopy, superlens, microsphere lens) and far-field (e.g., stimulated emission depletion microscopy, photoactivated localization microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy) approaches. However, they either operate in the challenging near-field mode or there is the need to label samples in biology...
April 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672808/anterior-chest-wall-in-axial-spondyloarthritis-imaging-interpretation-and-differential-diagnosis
#8
Winston J Rennie, Lennart Jans, Anne Grethe Jurik, Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska, Claudia Schueller-Weidekamm, Iris Eshed
Anterior chest wall (ACW) inflammation is not an uncommon finding in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (ax-SpA) and reportedly occurs in 26% of these patients. Radiologists may only be familiar with spinal and peripheral joint imaging, possibly due to the inherent challenges of ACW imaging on some cross-sectional imaging modalities. Knowledge of relevant joint anatomy and the location of sites of inflammation allows the interpreting radiologist to better plan appropriate imaging tests and imaging planes...
April 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672309/a-web-based-education-program-for-colorectal-lesion-diagnosis-with-narrow-band-imaging-classification
#9
Hiroyuki Aihara, Nitin Kumar, Christopher C Thompson
BACKGROUND: An education system for narrow band imaging (NBI) interpretation requires sufficient exposure to key features. However, access to didactic lectures by experienced teachers is limited in the United States. AIM: To develop and assess the effectiveness of a colorectal lesion identification tutorial. METHODS: In the image analysis pretest, subjects including 9 experts and 8 trainees interpreted 50 white light (WL) and 50 NBI images of colorectal lesions...
April 19, 2018: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671740/spectral-reflectance-estimation-using-gaussian-processes-and-combination-kernels
#10
Ville Heikkinen
This paper explores hyperspectral reflectance factor estimation using Gaussian process regression with multispectral- and trichromatic measurements. Estimations are performed in visible- (400-700 nm) or visible-near infrared (400-980 nm) wavelength ranges using the learning-based approach, where sensor and light spectral characteristics are not required. We first construct new estimation models via Gaussian processes, show connection to previous kernel-based models, and then evaluate new models by using marginal likelihood optimization within the probabilistic interpretation...
July 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671208/different-pixel-pitch-and-maximum-luminance-of-medical-grade-displays-may-result-in-different-evaluations-of-digital-radiography-images
#11
Alberto Laffranchi, Calogero Cicero, Manuela Lualdi, Chiara M Ciniselli, Giuseppina Calareso, Stefano Canestrini, Francesca G Greco, Enrico Alberioli, Claudia Cavatorta, Alessandro Guarise, Emanuele Pignoli, Maddalena Plebani, Davide Scaramuzza, Claudio Siciliano, Paolo Verderio, Alfonso Marchianò
AIM: To evaluate the effects of display pixel pitch and maximum luminance on intra- and inter-observer reproducibility and observer performance when evaluating chest lesions and bone fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a multi-institutional study for a retrospective interpretation of selected digital radiography images. Overall, 82 images were selected by senior radiologists, including 50 cases of chest lesions and 32 cases of bone fractures. These images were displayed at two pixel pitches (0...
April 18, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669816/identification-of-particles-in-parenteral-drug-raw-materials
#12
Kathryn Lee, Markus Lankers, Oliver Valet
Particles in drug products are not good and are therefore regulated. These particles can come from the very beginning of the manufacturing process, from the raw materials. To prevent particles, it is important to understand what they are and where they come from so the raw material quality, processing, and shipping can be improved. Thus, it is important to correctly identify particles seen in raw materials. Raw materials need to be of a certain quality with respect to physical and chemical composition, and need to have no contaminants in the form of particles which could contaminate the product or indicate the raw materials are not pure enough to make a good quality product...
April 18, 2018: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669600/review-of-targeted-therapy-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-what-a-radiologist-needs-to-know-about-ct-interpretation
#13
REVIEW
Babina Gosangi, Matthew Davids, Bhanusupriya Somarouthu, Francesco Alessandrino, Angela Giardino, Nikhil Ramaiya, Katherine Krajewski
The last 5 years have been marked by profound innovation in the targeted treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and indolent lymphomas. Using CLL as a case study, we present a timeline and overview of the current treatment landscape for the radiologist, including an overview of clinical and radiological features of CLL, discussion of the targeted agents themselves, and the role of imaging in response and toxicity assessment. The goal is to familiarize the radiologist with multiple Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved targeted agents used in this setting and associated adverse events which are commonly observed in this patient population...
April 18, 2018: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669002/tractography-verified-by-intraoperative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-subcortical-stimulation-during-tumor-resection-near-the-corticospinal-tract
#14
Timo Münnich, Jan Klein, Elke Hattingen, Anika Noack, Eva Herrmann, Volker Seifert, Christian Senft, Marie-Therese Forster
BACKGROUND: Tractography is a popular tool for visualizing the corticospinal tract (CST). However, results may be influenced by numerous variables, eg, the selection of seeding regions of interests (ROIs) or the chosen tracking algorithm. OBJECTIVE: To compare different variable sets by correlating tractography results with intraoperative subcortical stimulation of the CST, correcting intraoperative brain shift by the use of intraoperative MRI. METHODS: Seeding ROIs were created by means of motor cortex segmentation, functional MRI (fMRI), and navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS)...
April 14, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668333/blood-biomarkers-in-ischemic-stroke-potential-role-and-challenges-in-clinical-practice-and-research
#15
Konstantinos Makris, Alexander Haliassos, Maria Chondrogianni, Georgios Tsivgoulis
Fast and accurate diagnosis of stroke is crucial for the immediate application of the right therapy to patients. However, rapid diagnosis is still a challenge since an ischemic stroke cannot be identified based only on clinical assessment. CT or MRI imaging is required to rule out hemorrhagic stroke since thrombolytic therapy can lead to increased intracranial bleeding and further aggravation of hemorrhagic stroke. In addition, clinical situations that imitate the signs and symptoms of stroke may also impede the rapid diagnosis and treatment of stroke victims...
April 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667890/novel-quality-indicators-for-radiologists-interpreting-abdominopelvic-ct-images-risk-adjusted-outcomes-among-emergency-department-patients-with-right-lower-quadrant-pain
#16
Matthew S Davenport, Shokoufeh Khalatbari, James H Ellis, Richard H Cohan, Suzanne T Chong, Keith E Kocher
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether individual radiologists are predictive of important relevant health outcomes among emergency department (ED) patients undergoing abdominopelvic CT for right lower quadrant pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single-institution retrospective cohort study included 2169 patients undergoing abdominopelvic CT for right lower quadrant pain in the ED from February 1, 2012, through August 31, 2016. CT examinations were interpreted by 15 radiologists (four emergency, 11 abdominal) who each reported on more than 70 CT examinations in the cohort...
April 18, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667635/-the-application-of-the-biometriclal-dactylography-17-0-program-complex-for-the-digital-interpretation-of-the-finger-dermatoglyphic-features
#17
V N Zvyagin, V A Rakitin, E E Fomina
The objective of the present study was the development of the computer software for the scale-free interpretation of the finger dermatoglyphic features needed for the objective comprehensive evaluation of their principal characteristics in the digital terms. We have elaborated the program complex making it possible to address the following problems: thr formulation of the database of electronic copies of the finger print and toe print images in the family groups, the display of the finger print and toe print images on the screen, marking the points and lines for automated readout of digital angular and metric information or automated calculation of relative values, the formulation of the database of digital information about the papillary patterns on the fingers and toes in the family triplets (farther + mother + child) and its import into an Excel file...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667606/applying-a-new-computer-aided-detection-scheme-generated-imaging-marker-to-predict-short-term-breast-cancer-risk
#18
Seyedehnafiseh Mirniaharikandehei, Alan B Hollingsworth, Bhavika Patel, Morteza Heidari, Hong Liu, Bin Zheng
This study aims to investigate the feasibility of identifying a new quantitative imaging marker based on false-positives generated by computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to help predict short-term breast cancer risk. An image dataset including four view mammograms acquired from 1,044 women was retrospectively assembled. All mammograms were originally interpreted as negative by radiologists. In the next subsequent mammography screening, 402 women were diagnosed with breast cancer and 642 remained negative...
April 18, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666860/fluorescence-imaging-of-antibiotic-clofazimine-encapsulated-within-mesoporous-silica-particle-carriers-relevance-to-drug-delivery-and-the-effect-on-its-release-kinetics
#19
Lorenzo Angiolini, Sabrina Valetti, Boiko Cohen, Adam Feiler, Abderrazzak Douhal
We report on the encapsulation of the antibiotic clofazimine (CLZ) within the pores of mesoporous silica particles having hydrophilic (CBET value of 137) and more hydrophobic (CBET value of 94 after calcination at 600 °C) surfaces. We studied the effect of pH on the released amount of CLZ in aqueous solutions and observed a maximum at pH 4.1 in correlation with the solubility of the drug. Less release of the drug was observed from the more hydrophobic particles which was attributed to a difference in the affinity of the drug to the carrier particles...
April 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666047/comparison-of-magnetic-resonance-angiography-and-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-in-large-vessel-vasculitis
#20
Kaitlin A Quinn, Mark A Ahlman, Ashkan A Malayeri, Jamie Marko, Ali Cahid Civelek, Joel S Rosenblum, Armin A Bagheri, Peter A Merkel, Elaine Novakovich, Peter C Grayson
OBJECTIVES: To assess agreement between interpretation of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) for disease extent and disease activity in large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) and determine associations between imaging and clinical assessments. METHODS: Patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA), Takayasu's arteritis (TAK) and comparators were recruited into a prospective, observational cohort. Imaging and clinical assessments were performed concurrently, blinded to each other...
April 17, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
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