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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107213/computed-tomography-in-the-management-of-adrenal-tumors-does-size-still-matter
#1
Saïd C Azoury, Neeraja Nagarajan, Allen Young, Aarti Mathur, Jason D Prescott, Elliot K Fishman, Martha A Zeiger
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate computed tomography (CT) imaging as a predictor of adrenal tumor pathology. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of patients who underwent unilateral adrenalectomy for an adrenal mass between January 2005 and July 2015. Tumors were classified as benign, indeterminate, or malignant based on preoperative CT findings. RESULTS: Of 697 patients who underwent unilateral adrenalectomy, 216 met the inclusion criteria...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106426/unified-time-and-frequency-picture-of-ultrafast-atomic-excitation-in-strong-laser-fields
#2
H Zimmermann, S Patchkovskii, M Ivanov, U Eichmann
Excitation and ionization in strong laser fields lies at the heart of such diverse research directions as high-harmonic generation and spectroscopy, laser-induced diffraction imaging, emission of femtosecond electron bunches from nanotips, self-guiding, filamentation and mirrorless lasing during propagation of light in atmospheres. While extensive quantum mechanical and semiclassical calculations on strong-field ionization are well backed by sophisticated experiments, the existing scattered theoretical work aiming at a full quantitative understanding of strong-field excitation lacks experimental confirmation...
January 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106185/direct-mapping-of-the-electric-permittivity-of-heterogeneous-non-planar-thin-films-at-gigahertz-frequencies-by-scanning-microwave-microscopy
#3
Maria Chiara Biagi, Giorgio Badino, Rene Fabregas, Georg Gramse, Laura Fumagalli, Gabriel Gomila
We obtained maps of electric permittivity at ∼19 GHz frequencies on non-planar thin film heterogeneous samples by means of combined atomic force-scanning microwave microscopy (AFM-SMM). We show that the electric permittivity maps can be obtained directly from the capacitance images acquired in contact mode, after removing the topographic cross-talk effects. This result demonstrates the possibility of identifying the electric permittivity of different materials in a thin film sample irrespectively of their thickness by just direct imaging and processing...
January 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105532/machiavellian-emotion-regulation-in-a-cognitive-reappraisal-task-an-fmri-study
#4
Anita Deak, Barbara Bodrogi, Brigitte Biro, Gabor Perlaki, Gergely Orsi, Tamas Bereczkei
Affective coldness is one of the main features of Machiavellianism. Recent studies have revealed that Machiavellians are emotionally detached and that this "affective blunting" is associated with intense feelings, emotional instability, negative emotions, and difficulty in enduring distress. We used brain-imaging techniques to investigate emotion regulation in Machiavellianism at a neuropsychological level. We used situations in which participants were required to demonstrate emotional flexibility to explore the controversy surrounding the fact that Machiavellianism is associated with both cold-mindedness and emotional instability...
January 19, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104952/pitfalls-in-interpretation-of-fdg-pet-ct-septic-pulmonary-emboli-mimicking-metastases-in-a-case-of-gastric-carcinoma
#5
Harkirat Singh, Aftab Alam, T V S V G K Tilak, Prateek Kinra, Brijesh K Soni
Inflammatory lesions may sometimes show intense tracer uptake and mimic neoplastic lesions on (18) F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). We report one such false positive case on FDG PET/CT, where septic pulmonary emboli (SPE) mimicked pulmonary metastases. A 45-year-old man with stomach cancer had an indwelling central venous catheter (CVC) in situ while on neoadjuvant chemotherapy. He underwent FDG PET/CT scan for response assessment and the images revealed multiple, intensely FDG avid, peripheral, lung nodules with feeding vessels, which were suspicious for pulmonary metastases...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104480/the-effect-of-spatial-resolution-and-filtering-on-mapping-cardiac-fibrillation
#6
Benjamin King, Andreu Porta-Sánchez, Stéphane Massé, Nima Zamiri, Krishanand Balasundaram, Marjan Kusha, Nicholas Jackson, Shouvik Haldar, Karthikeyan Umapathy, Kumaraswamy Nanthakumar
BACKGROUND: Endocardial mapping tools use variable inter-electrode resolution whilst body surface mapping tools use narrow band pass filtering (BPF) to map fibrillatory mechanisms established by high resolution optical imaging. OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of resolution and BPF on the underlying mechanism being mapped. METHODS: Hearts from 14 healthy New Zealand white rabbits were Langendorff perfused. We studied the effect of spatial resolution and BPF on the location and characterization of rotors, by comparing phase singularities (PS) detected by high resolution un-filtered optical maps (OM), of fibrillating myocardium with decimated and filtered maps with simulated electrode spacing of 2, 5 and 8mm...
January 16, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103419/family-presence-during-resuscitation-a-double-edged-sword
#7
Hadi Hassankhani, Vahid Zamanzadeh, Azad Rahmani, Hamidreza Haririan, Joanne E Porter
PURPOSE: To illuminate the meaning of the lived experiences of resuscitation team members with the presence of the patient's family during resuscitation in the cultural context of Iran. DESIGN: An interpretative phenomenology was used to discover the lived experiences of the nurses and physicians of Tabriz hospitals, Iran, with family presence during resuscitation (FPDR). A total of 12 nurses and 9 physicians were interviewed over a 6-month period. METHODS: The interviews were audio recorded and semistructured, and were transcribed verbatim...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102960/nine-degrees-of-freedom-flexmap-for-a-cone-beam-computed-tomography-imaging-device-with-independently-movable-source-and-detector
#8
Peter Keuschnigg, Daniel Kellner, Karl Fritscher, Andrea Zechner, Ulrich Mayer, Philipp Huber, Felix Sedlmayer, Heinz Deutschmann, Philipp Steininger
PURPOSE: Couch-mounted cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging devices with independently rotatable x-ray source and flat-panel detector arms for acquisitions of arbitrary regions of interest (ROI) have recently been introduced in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). This work analyzes mechanical limitations and gravity-induced effects influencing the geometric accuracy of images acquired with arbitrary angular constellations of source and detector in nonisocentric trajectories, which is considered essential for IGRT...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101760/a-cad-of-fully-automated-colonic-polyp-detection-for-contrasted-and-non-contrasted-ct-scans
#9
Gökalp Tulum, Bülent Bolat, Onur Osman
PURPOSE: Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems are developed to help radiologists detect colonic polyps over CT scans. It is possible to reduce the detection time and increase the detection accuracy rates by using CAD systems. In this paper, we aimed to develop a fully integrated CAD system for automated detection of polyps that yields a high polyp detection rate with a reasonable number of false positives. METHODS: The proposed CAD system is a multistage implementation whose main components are: automatic colon segmentation, candidate detection, feature extraction and classification...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101403/quantitative-assessment-of-hemodynamic-and-structural-characteristics-of-in-vivo-brain-tissue-using-total-diffuse-reflectance-spectrum-measured-in-a-non-contact-fashion
#10
Yinchen Song, Sarahy Garcia, Yisel Frometa, Jessica C Ramella-Roman, Mohammad Soltani, Mohamed Almadi, Jorge J Riera, Wei-Chiang Lin
Here we present a new methodology that investigates the intrinsic structural and hemodynamic characteristics of in vivo brain tissue, in a non-contact fashion, and can be easily incorporated in an intra-operative environment. Within this methodology, relative total diffuse reflectance spectra (RTD(λ)) were acquired from targets using a hybrid spectroscopy imaging system. A spectral interpretation algorithm was subsequently applied to RTD(λ) to retrieve optical properties related to the compositional and structural characteristics of each target...
January 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099446/reconstruction-of-the-cortical-maps-of-the-tasmanian-tiger-and-comparison-to-the-tasmanian-devil
#11
Gregory S Berns, Ken W S Ashwell
The last known Tasmanian tiger (Thylacinus cynocephalus)-aka the thylacine-died in 1936. Because its natural behavior was never scientifically documented, we are left to infer aspects of its behavior from museum specimens and historical recollections of bushmen. Recent advances in brain imaging have made it possible to scan postmortem specimens of a wide range of animals, even more than a decade old. Any thylacine brain, however, would be more than 100 years old. Here, we show that it is possible to reconstruct white matter tracts in two thylacine brains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097215/an-ambiguity-principle-for-assigning-protein-structural-domains
#12
Guillaume Postic, Yassine Ghouzam, Romain Chebrek, Jean-Christophe Gelly
Ambiguity is the quality of being open to several interpretations. For an image, it arises when the contained elements can be delimited in two or more distinct ways, which may cause confusion. We postulate that it also applies to the analysis of protein three-dimensional structure, which consists in dividing the molecule into subunits called domains. Because different definitions of what constitutes a domain can be used to partition a given structure, the same protein may have different but equally valid domain annotations...
January 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097078/the-human-central-canal-of-the-spinal-cord-a-comprehensive-review-of-its-anatomy-embryology-molecular-development-variants-and-pathology
#13
REVIEW
Erfanul Saker, Brandon M Henry, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski, Marios Loukas, Joe Iwanaga, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
The human central canal of the spinal cord is often overlooked. However, with advancements in imaging quality, this structure can be visualized in more detail than ever before. Therefore, a timely review of this part of the cord seemed warranted. Using standard search engines, a literature review was performed for the development, anatomy, and pathology involving the central canal. Clinicians who treat patients with issues near the spine or interpret imaging of the spinal cord should be familiar with the morphology and variants of the central canal...
December 12, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096729/advanced-mri-for-pediatric-brain-tumors-with-emphasis-on-clinical-benefits
#14
REVIEW
Hyun Woo Goo, Young-Shin Ra
Conventional anatomic brain MRI is often limited in evaluating pediatric brain tumors, the most common solid tumors and a leading cause of death in children. Advanced brain MRI techniques have great potential to improve diagnostic performance in children with brain tumors and overcome diagnostic pitfalls resulting from diverse tumor pathologies as well as nonspecific or overlapped imaging findings. Advanced MRI techniques used for evaluating pediatric brain tumors include diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, perfusion imaging, spectroscopy, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095493/thoracic-temporal-subtraction-three-dimensional-computed-tomography-3d-ct-screening-for-vertebral-metastases-of-primary-lung-cancers
#15
Shingo Iwano, Rintaro Ito, Hiroyasu Umakoshi, Takatoshi Karino, Tsutomu Inoue, Yuanzhong Li, Shinji Naganawa
PURPOSE: We developed an original, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) software that subtracts the initial thoracic vertebral three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) image from the follow-up 3D-CT image. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this CAD software during screening for vertebral metastases on follow-up CT images of primary lung cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The interpretation experiment included 30 sets of follow-up CT scans in primary lung cancer patients and was performed by two readers (readers A and B), who each had 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095313/prefrontal-mediation-of-emotion-regulation-in-social-anxiety-disorder-during-laughter-perception
#16
Benjamin Kreifelts, Carolin Brück, Thomas Ethofer, Jan Ritter, Lena Weigel, Michael Erb, Dirk Wildgruber
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by negatively biased perception of social cues and deficits in emotion regulation. While negatively biased perception is thought to maintain social anxiety, emotion regulation represents an ability necessary to overcome both biased perception and social anxiety. Here, we used laughter as a social threat in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to identify cerebral mediators linking SAD with attention and interpretation biases and their modification through cognitive emotion regulation in the form of reappraisal...
January 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095202/interpretation-of-the-precision-matrix-and-its-application-in-estimating-sparse-brain-connectivity-during-sleep-spindles-from-human-electrocorticography-recordings
#17
Anup Das, Aaron L Sampson, Claudia Lainscsek, Lyle Muller, Wutu Lin, John C Doyle, Sydney S Cash, Eric Halgren, Terrence J Sejnowski
The correlation method from brain imaging has been used to estimate functional connectivity in the human brain. However, brain regions might show very high correlation even when the two regions are not directly connected due to the strong interaction of the two regions with common input from a third region. One previously proposed solution to this problem is to use a sparse regularized inverse covariance matrix or precision matrix (SRPM) assuming that the connectivity structure is sparse. This method yields partial correlations to measure strong direct interactions between pairs of regions while simultaneously removing the influence of the rest of the regions, thus identifying regions that are conditionally independent...
January 17, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095020/current-status-of-ventilation-perfusion-scintigraphy-for-suspected-pulmonary-embolism
#18
Darlene Metter, Mark Tulchinsky, Leonard M Freeman
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to outline recent progress made in ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy imaging techniques and the interpretation systems used for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). Various state-of-the-art approaches that can be selected according to the needs dictated by the medical practice environment and specific patient groups are presented. CONCLUSION: Although advances in tomographic imaging have certainly improved the sensitivity of V/Q scans for the diagnosis of PE, they may lead to overdiagnosis by revealing small and clinically insignificant PEs...
January 17, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094243/linear-and-ultrafast-nonlinear-plasmonics-of-single-nano-objects
#19
Aurelien Crut, Paolo Maioli, Fabrice Vallee, Natalia Del Fatti
Single-particle optical investigations have greatly improved our understanding of the fundamental properties of nano-objects, avoiding the spurious inhomogeneous effects that affect ensemble experiments. Correlation with high-resolution imaging techniques providing morphological information (e.g., electron microscopy) allows a quantitative interpretation of the optical measurements by means of analytical models and numerical simulations. In this topical review, we first briefly recall the principles underlying some of the most commonly used single-particle optical techniques: near-field, dark-field, spatial modulation and photothermal microscopies/spectroscopies...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093707/meaning-of-self-in-multiple-sclerosis-implications-for-treatment-and-rehabilitation
#20
Maciej Wilski, Tomasz Tasiemski
Low participation of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in the therapeutic process is considered a primary area in research on the management of this condition. One of the key research directions is the role of self and self-involvement in MS patients. Clinical symptoms of MS and unpredictability of this condition may affect patients' attitude to their self and self-involvement. Self-image and self-appraisal of one's abilities to cope with the disease exert significant effects not only on patient's emotional status but also on their behavior...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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