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Image interpretation

Laura D Lewis, Kawin Setsompop, Bruce R Rosen, Jonathan R Polimeni
Recent developments in fMRI acquisition techniques now enable fast sampling with whole-brain coverage, suggesting fMRI can be used to track changes in neural activity at increasingly rapid timescales. When images are acquired at fast rates, the limiting factor for fMRI temporal resolution is the speed of the hemodynamic response. Given that HRFs may vary substantially in subcortical structures, characterizing the speed of subcortical hemodynamic responses, and how the hemodynamic response shape changes with stimulus duration (i...
June 20, 2018: NeuroImage
Arunabha Karmakar, Apeksha Kumtakar, Himanshu Sehgal, Savith Kumar, Arjun Kalyanpur
PURPOSE: Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1) is the gold standard for imaging response evaluation in cancer trials. We sought to evaluate consistency of applying RECIST 1.1 between 2 conventionally trained radiologists, designated as A and B; identify reasons for variation; and reconcile these differences for future studies. METHODS: The study was approved as an institutional quality check exercise. Since no identifiable patient data was collected or used, a waiver of informed consent was granted...
June 19, 2018: Academic Radiology
Jesse Knight, Graham W Taylor, April Khademi
Many algorithms have been proposed for automated segmentation of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in brain MRI. Yet, broad uptake of any particular algorithm has not been observed. In this work, we argue that this may be due to variable and suboptimal validation data and frameworks, precluding direct comparison of methods on heterogeneous data. As a solution, we present Leave-One-Source-Out Cross Validation (LOSO-CV), which leverages all available data for performance estimation, and show that this gives more realistic (lower) estimates of segmentation algorithm performance on data from different scanners...
June 19, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
F Berthias, L Feketeová, H Abdoul-Carime, F Calvo, B Farizon, M Farizon, T D Märk
Velocity distributions of neutral water molecules evaporated after collision induced dissociation of protonated water clusters H+(H2O)n≤10 were measured using the combined correlated ion and neutral fragment time-of-flight (COINTOF) and velocity map imaging (VMI) techniques. As observed previously, all measured velocity distributions exhibit two contributions, with a low velocity part identified by statistical molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations as events obeying the Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics and a high velocity contribution corresponding to non-ergodic events in which energy redistribution is incomplete...
June 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jian G Wen, Jens C Djurhuus, Peter F W M Rosier, Stuart B Bauer
AIMS: To introduce the standard procedure and results interpretation of pressure/flow study (PFS) in children. METHODS: The literature on PFS in children in PubMed for the last 20 years was reviewed. The updated knowledge on PFS in children in children regarding indication, preparation, technique, and interpretation were summarized. RESULTS: This educational module explains when and how to do a PFS and how to analyze the results. All requirements and instructions for the PFS in children described in this document follow ICS reports on Good Urodynamic Practice and urodynamic equipment performance as well as guidelines from the ICCS...
June 21, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Ji Soo Choi, Boo-Kyung Han, Eun Young Ko, Ga Ram Kim, Eun Sook Ko, Ko Woon Park
OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of synthetic mammography (SM) and digital mammography (DM) with digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) or alone for the evaluation of microcalcifications. METHODS: This retrospective study includes 198 mammography cases, all with DM, SM, and DBT images, from January to October 2013. Three radiologists interpreted images and recorded the presence of microcalcifications and their conspicuity scores and final BI-RADS categories (1, 2, 3, 4a, 4b, 4c, 5)...
June 21, 2018: European Radiology
BiCheng Yong, YiQiang Li, JingChun Li, Antonio Andreacchio, Vito Pavone, Bruno Pereria, HongWen Xu, Federico Canavese
PURPOSE: Closed reduction and spica cast immobilization are routinely used for young patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip with reducible hips. Our primary objective was to assess the interpretation quality of immediate post-operative pelvis radiographs after treatment. METHODS: A series of 28 randomly selected patients (30 hips) with pre- and post-operative pelvis radiographs and post-operative magnetic resonance imaging were included. Each was presented twice with an interval of two weeks, in alternating orders...
June 21, 2018: International Orthopaedics
James I Ausman, David S Liebeskind, Nestor Gonzalez, Jeffrey Saver, Neil Martin, J Pablo Villablanca, Paul Vespa, Gary Duckwiler, Reza Jahan, Tianyi Niu, Noriko Salamon, Bryan Yoo, Satoshi Tateshima, Manuel M Buitrago Blanco, Sidney Starkman
We have reviewed the English literature published in the last 70 years on Diseases of the Vertebral Basilar Circulation, or Posterior Circulation Disease (PCD). We have found that errors have been made in the conduct and interpretation of these studies that have led to incorrect approaches to the management of PCD. Because of the difficulty in evaluating the PC, the management of PCD has been incorrectly applied from anterior circulation disease (ACD) experience to PCD. PCD is a common form of stroke affecting 20-40% patients with stroke...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Giovanni Corso, Joana Figueiredo, Carlo La Vecchia, Paolo Veronesi, Gabriella Pravettoni, Debora Macis, Rachid Karam, Roberto Lo Gullo, Elena Provenzano, Antonio Toesca, Ketti Mazzocco, Fátima Carneiro, Raquel Seruca, Soraia Melo, Fernando Schmitt, Franco Roviello, Alessandra Margherita De Scalzi, Mattia Intra, Irene Feroce, Elisa De Camilli, Maria Grazia Villardita, Chiara Trentin, Francesca De Lorenzi, Bernardo Bonanni, Viviana Galimberti
Recent studies have reported germline CDH1 mutations in cases of lobular breast cancer (LBC) not associated with the classical hereditary diffuse gastric cancer syndrome. A multidisciplinary workgroup discussed genetic susceptibility, pathophysiology and clinical management of hereditary LBC (HLBC). The team has established the clinical criteria for CDH1 screening and results' interpretation, and created consensus guidelines regarding genetic counselling, breast surveillance and imaging techniques, clinicopathological findings, psychological and decisional support, as well as prophylactic surgery and plastic reconstruction...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Saro H Armenian, Derek Rinderknecht, Kaylene Au, Lanie Lindenfeld, George Mills, Aida Siyahian, Claudia Herrera, Karla Wilson, Kalyanasundaram Venkataraman, Kristen Mascarenhas, Peyman Tavallali, Marianne Razavi, Niema Pahlevan, Jon Detterich, Smita Bhatia, Morteza Gharib
Purpose: Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for anthracycline-related cardiac dysfunction, often developing at a time when they are least engaged in long-term survivorship care. New paradigms in survivorship care and chronic disease screening are needed in this population. We compared the accuracy of a novel handheld mHealth platform (Vivio) as well as echocardiography for assessment of cardiac function [left ventricular ejection fraction (EF)] in childhood cancer survivors with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging (reference)...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Altaib Al Yassin, Mohammad Salehi Sadaghiani, Suyash Mohan, R Nick Bryan, Ilya Nasrallah
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Efficiency is central to current radiology practice. Knowledge of report generation timing is essential for workload optimization and departmental staffing decisions. Yet little research evaluates the distribution of activities performed by neuroradiologists in daily work. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational study tracked radiologists interpreting 358 brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an academic practice over 9 months. We measured the total duration from study opening to report signing and times for five activities performed during this period: image viewing, report transcription, obtaining clinical data, education, and other...
June 18, 2018: Academic Radiology
Abdel-Naser A Zohri, Mohamed Abdelazim, Sara Ibrahim
3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) reducing sugar assay is the most convenient method for quantification of total reducing sugar in biomass hydrolysate, fermentation samples, sugar industry and biotechnology laboratories. The dimeric proton transfer salt 2-aminoethanaminium 2-(ethoxycarbonyl)-4,6-dinitrophenolate (AED) is an intensely colored derivative of DNS and in turn its reduced form intense color showed a superior properties in reducing sugar quantification eliminating phenol and rochelle salt additives using the same practical methodology of DNS giving an overall methodology advantageous than using DNS assay as a greener route...
2018: MethodsX
Sara K Swanson, Mohamed M Sayyouh, Dianna M E Bardo, Maryam Ghadimi Mahani, Jimmy C Lu, Adam L Dorfman, Prachi P Agarwal
Knowledge of coronary artery nomenclature in transposition of the great arteries is essential, given the increasing population of adults with congenital heart disease and greater utilization of imaging in these patients. This article reviews appropriate terminology for describing coronary artery anatomy, commonly encountered coronary artery patterns, and postoperative coronary complications in the setting of transposition of the great arteries.
July 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Xinrui Huang, Sha Li, Song Gao
Cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) imaging has the unique potential to bridge the gap between cellular and molecular biology by revealing the structures of large macromolecular assemblies and cellular complexes. Therefore, cryo-EM three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction has been rapidly developed in recent several years and applied widely in life science research; however, it suffers from reduced contrast and low signal-to-noise ratios with a high degree of noise under low electron dose conditions, resulting in failures of many conventional filters...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
Aniket N Tavare, Philip Robinson, Rola Altoos, Gary M LiMarzi, Kurt F Scherer, Mark J Kransdorf, Laura W Bancroft
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to assist radiologists in developing an organized, systematic approach to imaging interpretation in the care of patients who have been surgically treated for sarcoma. CONCLUSION: Postoperative imaging interpretation of sarcoma can be complex and requires an organized, systematic approach that includes review of the patient's clinical and surgical history and pretreatment images to gain context for differentiating recurrence from time-dependent posttreatment changes...
June 21, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Pedro D M Lourenco, Ryan Rawski, Mohammed F Mohammed, Faisal Khosa, Savvas Nicolaou, Patrick McLaughlin
OBJECTIVE: Sensitivity of CT of the abdomen for detection of acute bowel ischemia (ABI) can be as low as 60%. In this study, we assessed the diagnostic performance of iodine-map and monoenergetic (40-keV) images in patients with suspected ABI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 60 consecutive patients with suspected ABI who underwent a standardized imaging protocol dual-source dual-energy CT (DECT) over a 26-month period. Clinical and operative outcomes were recorded as the reference standard...
June 21, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Stavros I Dimitriadis, Dimitris Liparas
Neuroinformatics is a fascinating research field that applies computational models and analytical tools to high dimensional experimental neuroscience data for a better understanding of how the brain functions or dysfunctions in brain diseases. Neuroinformaticians work in the intersection of neuroscience and informatics supporting the integration of various sub-disciplines (behavioural neuroscience, genetics, cognitive psychology, etc.) working on brain research. Neuroinformaticians are the pathway of information exchange between informaticians and clinicians for a better understanding of the outcome of computational models and the clinical interpretation of the analysis...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Susan J Back, J Christopher Edgar, Dana A Weiss, Edward R Oliver, Richard D Bellah, Kassa Darge
BACKGROUND: A multidisciplinary urinary tract dilation (UTD) classification system was published in 2014 to standardize definitions and renal/bladder ultrasound image interpretation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intra- and inter-rater reliability of this system on postnatal RBUS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Renal/bladder US of 60 infants (<12 months) with urinary tract dilation were anonymized, retrospectively reviewed and scored twice using the UTD classification system by a pediatric urologist and four pediatric radiologists...
June 20, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Shahar A Glomski, Jeremy R Wortman, Jennifer W Uyeda, Aaron D Sodickson
PURPOSE: To compare dual-energy CT (DECT) iodine overlay images with renal mass protocol CT in the evaluation of polycystic kidneys with respect to reading time, diagnostic confidence, and detection of renal lesions that are not definitively benign. METHODS: Following IRB approval, portal venous phase dual-source DECT scans performed between September 2013 and February 2016 from 55 patients (mean age 67 ± 15 years, 31 male, 24 female) with polycystic kidneys (4 or more cysts) were included...
June 20, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Steven M Bradley, Katie Foag, Khua Monteagudo, Pam Rush, Craig E Strauss, Mario Gössl, Paul Sorajja
OBJECTIVE: To determine the implications of applying guideline-recommended definitions of aortic stenosis to echocardiographic data captured in routine clinical care. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of 213 174 patients who underwent transthoracic echocardiographic imaging within Allina Health between January 2013 and October 2017. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of echocardiographic measures for severe aortic stenosis were determined relative to the documented interpretation of severe aortic stenosis...
June 20, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
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