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Mri techniques

Philipp Kickingereder, Ovidiu Cristian Andronesi
Magnetic resonance imaging plays a key role in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of brain tumors. Novel imaging techniques that specifically interrogate aspects of underlying tumor biology and biochemical pathways have great potential in neuro-oncology. This review focuses on the emerging role of 2-hydroxyglutarate-targeted magnetic resonance spectroscopy, as well as radiomics and radiogenomics in establishing diagnosis for isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant gliomas, and for monitoring treatment response and predicting prognosis of this group of brain tumor patients...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Naoki Ohno, Tosiaki Miyati, Shuto Suzuki, Hirohito Kan, Toshitaka Aoki, Yoshitaka Nakamura, Yuki Hiramatsu, Satoshi Kobayashi, Toshifumi Gabata
PURPOSE: To suppress olefinic signals and enable simultaneous and quantitative estimation of multiple functional parameters associated with water and lipid, we investigated a modified method using chemical shift displacement and recovery-based separation of lipid tissue (SPLIT) involving acquisitions with different inversion times (TIs), echo times (TEs), and b-values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-shot diffusion echo-planar imaging (SSD-EPI) with multiple b-values (0-3000 s/mm2 ) was performed without fat suppression to separate water and lipid images using the chemical shift displacement of lipid signals in the phase-encoding direction...
March 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
E V Aleksandrova, A I Batalov, E L Pogosbekyan, N E Zakharova, L M Fadeeva, A D Kravchuk, I N Pronin, A A Potapov
The study purpose was to develop a technique for intravital visualization of the brainstem reticular formation fibers in healthy volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 21 subjects (13 males and 8 females) aged 21 to 62 years. The study was performed on a magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a magnetic field strength of 3 T in T1, T2, T2-FLAIR, DWI, and SWI modes. A CSD-HARDI algorithm was used to identify thin intersecting fibers of the reticular formatio...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
D J Murphy, A Aghayev, M L Steigner
Non-invasive cross-sectional imaging techniques play a crucial role in the assessment of the varied manifestations of vascular disease. Vascular imaging encompasses a wide variety of pathology. Designing vascular imaging protocols can be challenging owing to the non-uniform velocity of blood in the aorta, differences in cardiac output between patients, and the effect of different disease states on blood flow. In this review, we provide the rationale behind-and a practical guide to-designing and implementing straightforward vascular computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols...
March 14, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Carmelo Messina, Gabriele Maffi, Jacopo Antonino Vitale, Fabio Massimo Ulivieri, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Luca Maria Sconfienza
Osteoporosis and sarcopenia represent two major health problems with an increasing prevalence in the elderly population. The correlation between these diseases has been widely reported, leading to the development of the term "osteosarcopenia" to diagnose those patients suffering from both diseases. Several imaging methods for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis exist, with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) being the most commonly used for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). Imaging technique other than DXA is represented by conventional radiography, computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US)...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Sara Guerri, Daniele Mercatelli, Maria Pilar Aparisi Gómez, Alessandro Napoli, Giuseppe Battista, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Alberto Bazzocchi
Bone and muscle are two deeply interconnected organs and a strong relationship between them exists in their development and maintenance. The peak of both bone and muscle mass is achieved in early adulthood, followed by a progressive decline after the age of 40. The increase in life expectancy in developed countries resulted in an increase of degenerative diseases affecting the musculoskeletal system. Osteoporosis and sarcopenia represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population and are associated with a significant increase in healthcare costs...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Iain Rankin, Haroon Rehman, Mark Frame
Background: Traditional ACL reconstruction with non-anatomic techniques can demonstrate unsatisfactory long-term outcomes with regards instability and the degenerative knee changes observed with these results. Anatomic ACL reconstruction attempts to closely reproduce the patient's individual anatomic characteristics with the aim of restoring knee kinematics, in order to improve patient short and long-term outcomes. We designed an arthroscopic, patient-specific, ACL femoral tunnel guide to aid anatomical placement of the ACL graft within the femoral tunnel...
2018: Open Orthopaedics Journal
Hidenori Takeshima, Kanako Saitoh, Shuhei Nitta, Taichiro Shiodera, Tomoyuki Takeguchi, Shuhei Bannae, Shigehide Kuhara
PURPOSE: Dynamic MR techniques, such as cardiac cine imaging, benefit from shorter acquisition times. The goal of the present study was to develop a method that achieves short acquisition times, while maintaining a cost-effective reconstruction, for dynamic MRI. k - t sensitivity encoding (SENSE) was identified as the base method to be enhanced meeting these two requirements. METHODS: The proposed method achieves a reduction in acquisition time by estimating the spatiotemporal (x - f) sensitivity without requiring the acquisition of the alias-free signals, typical of the k - t SENSE technique...
March 13, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Maria Oliveira, James Fraser McConnell, Thomas W Maddox, Daniel Sanchez-Masian, Rita Gonçalves
The constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequence has been widely used in human neuroimaging. It has been shown to be advantageous in the evaluation of intra-axial and extra-axial cystic abnormalities, arteriovenous and dysraphic malformations and disturbances of cerebrospinal fluid circulation. To assess the utility of this technique in small animals, interpretations based on this sequence were compared with those based on T2-weighted (T2W) sequences in 145 dogs that underwent MRI of the spine for suspected spinal cord disease...
March 14, 2018: Veterinary Record
Marc-Etienne Parent, François Vézina, Nathalie Carrier, Ariel Masetto
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the indications for and clinical procedures resulting from knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in older patients. DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed 215 medical records of patients 50 years of age and older who had undergone a unilateral knee MRI in 2009. SETTING: Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke in Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: Patients 50 years of age and older who underwent a knee MRI in 2009...
March 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
I Thomassin-Naggara, S Bendifallah, P Rousset, M Bazot, M Ballester, E Darai
Diagnostic performance of MR imaging for the diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis are good. Even if some differences of performances exists according the location considered, the risk of misdiagnosis is lower than 10% for trained teams (NP2). The performance of pelvic MR imaging and surgery are quite similar to diagnose endometrioma (sensitivity and specificity>90%). A negative pelvic MR imaging allows to exclude deep pelvic endometriosis with a performance similar to surgery but a positive MR imaging is less accurate than surgery because of a high number of false positives (23%)...
March 11, 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
Benjamin J Zimmerman, Austin T Mudd, Joanne E Fil, Ryan N Dilger, Bradley P Sutton
Accurate quantitative non-invasive assessments of arterial cerebral blood volume (aCBV) can greatly benefit the study of cerebral vascular health in both humans and in animal models. In recent years, progress has been made in the techniques available to quantify CBV with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we compared a non-invasive technique, measuring inflowing vascular space occupancy with dynamic subtraction (iVASO-ds) with a contrast-based vascular space occupancy measurement in piglets. In addition, we measured how the iVASO-ds derived aCBV changed with piglet development from 4 weeks to 8 weeks...
March 11, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Bernadette O Erokwu, Christian E Anderson, Chris A Flask, Katherine M Dell
BACKGROUND: Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease (ARPKD) is associated with significant mortality and morbidity and there are currently no disease-specific treatments available for ARPKD patients. One major limitation in establishing new therapies for ARPKD is a lack of sensitive measures of kidney disease progression. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can provide multiple quantitative assessments of disease. METHODS: We applied quantitative image analysis of high resolution (non-contrast) T2-weighted MRI techniques to study cystic kidney disease progression and response to therapy in the PCK rat model of ARPKD...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Zarrar Shehzad, Gregory McCarthy
Whether category information is discretely localized or represented widely in the brain remains a contentious issue. Early functional MRI studies supported the localizationist perspective that category information was represented in discrete brain regions. More recent fMRI studies using machine learning pattern classification techniques provide evidence for widespread distributed representations. However, these latter studies have not typically accounted for shared information. Here, we find strong support for distributed representations when brain regions are considered separately...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Peiying Liu, Ying Qi, Zixuan Lin, Qiyong Guo, Xiaoming Wang, Hanzhang Lu
Abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) is implicated in several neonatal and infant diseases. However, measurement of CBF in this population remains difficult and has not been used in routine clinical MRI. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) methods suffer from both low SNR and poor quantification when applied to very young children. Furthermore, rapid change in brain physiology in this age range makes it difficult to choose sequence parameters such as labeling pulse flip angle and post labeling delay. Phase-contrast (PC) MRI is another approach to measure flow...
March 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Firas Bannout, Sheri Harder, Michael Lee, Alexander Zouros, Ravi Raghavan, Travis Fogel, Kenneth De Los Reyes, Travis Losey
The neurosurgical treatment of skull base temporal encephalocele for patients with epilepsy is variable. We describe two adult cases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with spheno-temporal encephalocele, currently seizure-free for more than two years after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and lesionectomy sparing the hippocampus without long-term intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring. Encephaloceles were detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confirmed by maxillofacial head computed tomography (CT) scans...
March 12, 2018: Brain Sciences
J S Zhang, L Qu, Q Wang, Q P Gui, Y Z Hou, G C Sun, F Y Li, Z Z Zhang, X L Chen, J Zhang, Z H Sun, X G Yu, B N Xu
Objective: To investigate the clinical value of multimodal navigation-based virtual reality (MNVR) in the needle biopsy of intracranial eloquent lesions. Methods: From January 2016 to January 2017, 20 patients with intracranial deep-seated lesions involving eloquent brain areas underwent MNVR-aided needle biopsy at Department of Neurosurgery, People's Liberation Army General Hospital. Preoperatively, MNVR was used to propose and revise the biopsy planning. Intraoperatively, navigation helped trajectory avoid the eloquent structures...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Sarah L Pownder, Kei Hayashi, Brian G Caserto, Mary Lou Norman, Hollis G Potter, Matthew F Koff
OBJECTIVES:  The purpose of this study was to evaluate regional differences of canine stifle articular cartilage using the quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique of T2 mapping. METHODS:  Fourteen stifle joints from seven juvenile male Beagle dogs with no evidence or prior history of pelvic limb lameness were imaged ex vivo using standard of care fast spin echo MRI and quantitative T2 mapping protocols. Regions of interest were compared between the femoral, patellar and tibial cartilages, as well as between the lateral and medial femorotibial compartments...
February 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Dennis M Hedderich, Kilian Weiss, Judith E Spiro, Daniel Giese, Gabriele M Beck, David Maintz, Thorsten Persigehl
PURPOSE:  Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging of the liver is typically acquired using breath-hold techniques to reduce motion artifacts and to allow for optimal diagnostic image quality. Insufficient breath-holds during MR data collection can cause severe reduction of image quality up to the point of being non-diagnostic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subjective and objective clinical image quality of a novel free-breathing radial k-space sampling MR technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Consent for this study was given by the local IRB committee...
March 13, 2018: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Fei Cong, Jia-Wei Wang, Bo Wang, Zhangyan Yang, Jing An, Zhentao Zuo, Zihao Zhang, Yu-Qing Zhang, Yan Zhuo
OBJECTIVES: To image the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN), a deep brain stimulation (DBS) target for Parkinson disease, using MRI with validated results. METHODS: This study used the MP2RAGE sequence with high resolution and enhanced grey-white matter contrast on a 7-T ultra-high-field MRI system to image the PPN as well as a diffusion spectrum imaging method on a 3-T MRI system to reconstruct the main fibre systems surrounding the PPN. The coordinates of the rostral and caudal PPN poles of both sides were measured in relation to the third and fourth ventricular landmarks on the 7-T image...
March 12, 2018: European Radiology
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