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Ting-Ting Cao, Xiu-Li Sun, Shi-Yan Wang, Xin Yang, Jian-Liu Wang
BACKGROUND: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a major health concern that affects women. Surgeons have increasingly used prosthetic meshes to correct POP. However, the most common used is synthetic mesh, and absorbable mesh is less reported. This research aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS). METHODS: Consecutive forty POP patients who met the inclusion criteria underwent pelvic reconstruction surgery with SIS between March 2012 and December 2013...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Becky D Clarkson, Shachi Tyagi, Derek J Griffiths, Neil M Resnick
OBJECTIVE: To assess short-term repeatability of an fMRI protocol widely used to assess brain control of the bladder. fMRI offers the potential to discern incontinence phenotypes as well as the mechanisms mediating therapeutic response. If so, this could enable more targeted efforts to enhance therapy. Such data, however, require excellent test-retest repeatability. METHODS: Fifty-nine older women (age ≥60 years) with urgency incontinence underwent two fMRI scans within 5-10 min with a concurrent bladder infusion/withdrawal protocol...
October 24, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
P F Hemou, H D Sama, P Tchétikè, T Potkar
Le crush syndrome se définit comme l'ensemble des manifestations locales et générales secondaires à une rhabdomyolyse traumatique avec ischémie de grosses masses musculaires par compression prolongée, à l'origine d'un syndrome compartimental ou syndrome des loges. Rarement isolé, il peut passer inaperçu dans les 24 à 48 premières heures de la phase aiguë d'un traumatisme sévère quand les principales préoccupations médicales sont la sauvegarde des fonctions vitales. La souffrance musculaire liée au syndrome compartimental entraîne la libération de myoglobine dans la circulation générale...
December 31, 2015: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
Bobby Yanagawa, Gosta B Pettersson, Gilbert Habib, Marc Ruel, Gustavo Saposnik, David A Latter, Subodh Verma
There has been an overall improvement in surgical mortality for patients with infective endocarditis (IE), presumably because of improved diagnosis and management, centered around a more aggressive early surgical approach. Surgery is currently performed in approximately half of all cases of IE. Improved survival in surgery-treated patients is correlated with a reduction in heart failure and the prevention of embolic sequelae. It is reported that between 20% and 40% of patients with IE present with stroke or other neurological conditions...
October 25, 2016: Circulation
Matthew Ward
: Aim To understand the frequency, urgency, and rationale of emergency department and urgent care (ED/UC) use by diabetic patients of a Family Medicine Health Team (FHT). METHODS: A retrospective, observational study with comparison control groups was conducted from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2014. A total of 693 diabetic patients were compared with two, age-standardized non-diabetic groups: one with a higher disease burden based on International Classification of Diseases 9 diagnoses and the other from a randomized patient pool...
October 25, 2016: Primary Health Care Research & Development
Tetsuya Nishimoto, Kosuke Mukaigawa, Shigeru Tominaga, Nils Lubbe, Toru Kiuchi, Tomokazu Motomura, Hisashi Matsumoto
The present study was undertaken to construct an algorithm for an advanced automatic collision notification system based on national traffic accident data compiled by Japanese police. While US research into the development of a serious-injury prediction algorithm is based on a logistic regression algorithm using the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System, the present injury prediction algorithm was based on comprehensive police data covering all accidents that occurred across Japan...
October 21, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Kimberly A Kilfoyle, Roxanne Vrees, Christina A Raker, Kristen A Matteson
BACKGROUND: Emergency department use is common among pregnant women. Non-urgent emergency department use may represent care that would be better provided by an established obstetric provider in an ambulatory setting. OBJECTIVE: To identify socio-demographic factors associated with non-urgent emergency department use in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study of women recruited during their postpartum hospitalization. Data regarding prenatal care and emergency department visits was collected from medical records; participants completed a survey with questions regarding demographics and emergency department use...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Mark Doherty, Philippe Buchy, Baudouin Standaert, Carlo Giaquinto, David Prado-Cohrs
Unlike most drugs, whose benefit is restricted to the individual who takes the drug, prophylactic vaccines have the potential for far-reaching effects that encompass health service utilisation, general health and wellbeing, cognitive development and, ultimately, economic productivity. The impact of immunisation is measured by evaluating effects directly on the vaccinated individual, indirectly on the unvaccinated community (herd protection), the epidemiology of the pathogen (such as changing circulating serotypes or prevention of epidemic cycles), and the additional benefits arising from improved health...
October 20, 2016: Vaccine
Vipin M Vashishtha, Sachidanand Kamath
Poliomyelitis, a dreaded disease of the last century that had already crippled millions of people across the globe, is now on the verge of eradication thanks mainly to two polio vaccines, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and oral polio vaccine (OPV). Ever since their development in late 1950s and early 1960s, the journey of their early development process, clinical trials, licensure and ultimately widespread clinical use in different countries provide a fascinating tale of events. Oral polio vaccine has been the mainstay of global polio eradication initiative (GPEI) in most of the countries...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Abdolbaset Ghorbani, Barbara Gravendeel, Sugirthini Selliah, Shahin Zarré, Hugo de Boer
Tubers of terrestrial orchids are harvested and traded from the eastern Mediterranean to the Caspian Sea for the traditional product Salep. Over-exploitation of wild populations and increased middle-class prosperity have escalated prices for Salep, causing overharvesting, depletion of native populations and providing an incentive to expand harvesting to untapped areas in Iran. Limited morphological distinctiveness among traded Salep tubers renders species identification impossible, making it difficult to establish which species are targeted and affected the most...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Elizabeth Watts, Uwe Hossfeld, Irina Tolstikova, Georgy S Levit
This paper provides a detailed look at how creationism originated in the United States and then explores how this evangelical trend was exported to Russia by American missionaries following the fall of the USSR. The comparison between these two countries is particularly interesting since the rivalry between the US and the USSR during the race to space caused both countries to revamp their science education. Yet, while political interests led both governments to focus on science education, creationist activities were simultaneously focused on diminishing the coverage of evolution in science classrooms...
October 20, 2016: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
Conor O'Neill, Damian Smith, Martin Caddow, Fergal Duffy, Philip Hickey, Mary Fitzpatrick, Fintan Caddow, Tom Cronin, Mark Joynt, Zetti Azvee, Bronagh Gallagher, Claire Kehoe, Catherine Maddock, Benjamin O'Keeffe, Louise Brennan, Mary Davoren, Elizabeth Owens, Ronan Mullaney, Laurence Keevans, Ronan Maher, Harry G Kennedy
BACKGROUND: People with major mental illness are over-represented in prison populations however there are few longitudinal studies of prison in-reach services leading to appropriate healthcare over extended periods. AIMS: We aimed to examine measures of the clinical efficiency and effectiveness of a prison in-reach, court diversion and liaison service over a 3 year period. Secondly, we aimed to compare rates of identification of psychosis and diversion with rates previously reported for the same setting in the 6 years previously...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Richard Laugharne, Matt Branch, Anji Mitchell, Lindsay Parkin, Phil Confue, Rohit Shankar, Diane Wilson-James, Mike Marshall, Maria Edgecombe, Bernie Keaney, Kiran Gill, Juliet Harrison
OBJECTIVE: The sudden closure of 30 out of 54 acute psychiatric beds in Cornwall presented a stressful challenge to staff but also a natural experiment on how a service dealt with this situation. We aimed to evaluate the outcomes of patients needing to leave the closed ward, how bed occupancy rates were affected and the impact on admission rates. DESIGN: A service evaluation of the impact of the ward closure. SETTING: A comprehensive secondary NHS mental health service in Cornwall serving 550,000 population...
October 2016: JRSM Open
Ghasem-Sam Toloo, Peter Aitken, Julia Crilly, Gerry FitzGerald
BACKGROUND: Patients attending hospital emergency departments (ED) commonly cite the urgency and severity of their condition as the main reason for choosing the ED. However, the patients' perception of urgency and severity may be different to the nurses' perception of their urgency and severity, which is underpinned by their professional experience, knowledge, training and skills. This discordance may be a cause of patient dissatisfaction. The purpose of this study is to understand the extent of agreement/disagreement between the patient's perceived priority and actual triage category and associated factors...
October 18, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Shi Lu, Hong-Ling Zhang, Ya-Jun Zhang, Qing-Chun Shao
This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence (UI) among perimenopausal women in Wuhan. A cross-sectional survey was performed on 1067 women aged 40-65 years sampled in Wuhan urban area from April to October 2014. Information about demographic characteristics, menstruation, parity and UI symptoms was collected using a questionnaire. The data were evaluated by Chi-square test and multiple Logistic regression analysis. The prevalence rate of UI was 37.2%, with stress UI (32.2%) being more prevalent than urgency UI (21...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Roberto Zinicola, N Cracco, A Totaro, R Dalla Valle, G Pedrazzi
PURPOSE: The assessment of bowel habit is important in the management of patients with colorectal disease. There is not an ideal and practical bowel habit scoring system. The current scores have been designed only for a subclass of patients having a particular disorder. Furthemore, they are complex and time consuming. We propose a simple score to quickly assess the bowel function in all patients with proctological disorders. METHODS: We developed a bowel habit scoring system including three parameters: bowel frequency, stool consistency, and urgency...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Yuko M Komesu, Rebecca G Rogers, Robert E Sapien, Ronald M Schrader, Timothy Simmerman-Sierra, Andrew R Mayer, Loren H Ketai
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We describe the rationale and methodology for a study comparing mind-body treatment and pharmacotherapy in women with urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). To explore brain associations in UUI, a subset of patients will also undergo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We hypothesize that hypnotherapy, a mind-body intervention, will be at least as effective as pharmacotherapy in treating UUI. We also hypothesize that fMRI findings will change following treatment, with changes potentially differing between groups...
October 17, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
Rebecca Anna Leslie, Stephen Michael Kinsella, Jeremy Astin, Jennifer Patricia Tuckey
We performed a prospective observational audit to evaluate the application of the Lucas caesarean section urgency classification to assisted vaginal delivery in the operating theatre. We collected data from 400 women having category 1-3 delivery in the operating theatre. Twenty percent of the caesarean sections and 4% of the vaginal deliveries were category 1. The median (IQR) decision-delivery interval was 25 (19.5-37) min for category 1 caesarean section and 19.5 (15-29) min for category 1 vaginal delivery, and 43...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Wanbo Tai, Guangyu Zhao, Shihun Sun, Yan Guo, Yufei Wang, Xinrong Tao, Chien-Te K Tseng, Fang Li, Shibo Jiang, Lanying Du, Yusen Zhou
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first identified in 2012, and it continues to threaten human health worldwide. No MERS vaccines are licensed for human use, reinforcing the urgency to develop safe and efficacious vaccines to prevent MERS. MERS-CoV spike protein forms a trimer, and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) serves as a vaccine target. Nevertheless, the protective efficacy of RBD in its native trimeric form has never been evaluated. In this study, a trimeric protein, RBD-Fd, was generated by fusing RBD with foldon trimerization motif...
October 14, 2016: Virology
Chelsea Hepler, Rana K Gupta
The rising incidence of obesity and associated metabolic diseases has increased the urgency in understanding all aspects of adipose tissue biology. This includes the function of adipocytes, how adipose tissue expands in obesity, and how expanded adipose tissues in adults can impact physiology. Here, we highlight the growing appreciation for the importance of de novo adipocyte differentiation to adipose tissue expansion in adult humans and animals. We detail recent efforts to identify adipose precursor populations that contribute to the physiological postnatal recruitment of white, brown, and beige adipocytes in mice, and summarize new data that reveal the complexity of adipose tissue development in vivo...
October 12, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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