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Brenda K Schroeder, William L Schneider, Douglas G Luster, Aaron Sechler, Timothy D Murray
Aplanobacter agropyri was first described in 1915 by O'Gara and later transferred to the genus Corynebacterium by Burkholder in 1948 but it was not included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in 1980 and, consequently, is not recognized as a validly published species. In the 1980s, bacteria resembling Corynebacterium agropyri were isolated from plant samples stored at the Washington State Mycological Herbarium and from a diseased wheatgrass plant collected in Cardwell, Montana, USA. In the framework of this study, eight additional isolates were recovered from the same herbarium plant samples in 2011...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Yan Zhang, Ricardo S Hattori, Munti Sarida, Estefany C García, Carlos Augusto Strüssmann, Yoji Yamamoto
To shed light on the mechanisms of and interactions of GSD and TSD in pejerrey, we investigated how the transcriptional profiles of amhy and amha are affected by feminizing (17°C) and masculinizing (29°C) temperatures during the critical period of sex determination/differentiation and their relation with the expression profiles of AMH receptor type II (amhrII), gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1a), and 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (hsd11b2). Careful consideration of the results of this study and all information currently available for this species, including similar analyzes for an intermediate, mixed-sex promoting temperature (25°C), suggests a model for genotypic/temperature-dependent sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation that involves a) cyp19a1a-dependent, developmentally-programmed ovarian development as the default state that becomes self-sustaining in the absence of a potent and timely masculinizing stimulus, b) early, developmentally-programmed amhy expression and high temperature as masculinization signals that antagonize the putative female pathway by suppressing cyp19a1a expression, c) increasing stress response, cortisol, and the synthesis of the masculinizing androgen 11-keto-testosterone via hsd11b2 with increasing temperature that is important for masculinization in both genotypes but particularly so in XX individuals, and d) an endocrine network with positive/negative feedback mechanisms that ensure fidelity of the male/female pathway once started...
March 14, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Sarah N Powell, Megan M Wallen, Shweta Bansal, Janet Mann
Bottlenose dolphins are excellent bioindicators of ocean ecosystem health for three reasons: (a) as long-lived apex predators they accumulate biotoxins and contaminants; (b) they are visible, routinely appearing at the water's surface in coastal areas, often coming into close contact with humans; and, (c) they exhibit a range of pathogenic lesions attributable to environmental degradation. In this study, we analyzed tattoo-like skin lesions in a population of Tursiops aduncus studied for 30+years in Shark Bay, Australia, a UNESCO World Heritage Site...
February 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Li Xue Sun, Jian Teng, Yan Zhao, Ning Li, Hui Wang, Xiang Shan Ji
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the molecular mechanisms governing TSD (temperature-dependent sex determination) or GSD + TE (genotypic sex determination + temperature effects) remain a mystery in fish. METHODS: We developed three all-female families of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ), and the family with the highest male ratio after high-temperature treatment was used for transcriptome analysis. RESULTS: First, gonadal histology analysis indicated that the histological morphology of control females (CF) was not significantly different from that of high-temperature-treated females (TF) at various development stages...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Liu Yang, Yu Lei, Lubin Wang, Pinhong Chen, Shan Cheng, Shanshan Chen, Jicheng Sun, Yanyan Li, Yihan Wang, Wendong Hu, Zheng Yang
Sleep deprivation (SD) can alter the intrinsic brain functional organization. However, its effects on intrinsic low-frequency connectivity in the whole brain have not been well characterized. In this study, we used voxel-based functional connectivity density (FCD) analysis to investigate the effects of SD on the spontaneous functional organization of the brain. Thirty-seven healthy participants underwent this within-subject crossover functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study during rested wakefulness (RW) and after 36 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD)...
February 27, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Izumi Mashima, Yu-Chieh Liao, Hiroshi Miyakawa, Citra F Theodorea, Boonyanit Thawboon, Sroisiri Thaweboon, Frank A Scannapieco, Futoshi Nakazawa
A strain of a novel anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative coccus was isolated from the tongue biofilm of a Thai child. This strain was shown, at the phenotypic level and based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, to be a member of the genus Veillonella. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA, dnaK and rpoB gene sequences indicated that phylogenetically the strain comprised a distinct novel branch within the genus Veillonella. The novel strain showed 99.8, 95.1 and 95.9 % similarity to partial 16S rRNA, dnaK and rpoB gene sequences, respectively, to the type strains of the two most closely related species, Veillonella dispar ATCC 17748T and Veillonella tobetsuensis ATCC BAA-2400T ...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Xi-Yin Li, Xiao-Li Liu, Yao-Jun Zhu, Jun Zhang, Miao Ding, Ming-Tao Wang, Zhong-Wei Wang, Zhi Li, Xiao-Juan Zhang, Li Zhou, Jian-Fang Gui
Most vertebrates reproduce sexually, and plastic sex determination mechanisms including genotypic sex determination (GSD) and environmental sex determination (ESD) have been extensively revealed. However, why sex determination mechanisms evolve diversely and how they correlate with diverse reproduction strategies remain largely unclear. Here, we utilize the superiority of a hexaploid gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) that is able to reproduce by unisexual gynogenesis and contains a rare but diverse proportion of males to investigate these puzzles...
February 2, 2018: Heredity
Elissa Y Pasula, Gregory G Brown, Benjamin S McKenna, Alix Mellor, Travis Turner, Clare Anderson, Sean P A Drummond
Study Objectives: Working memory (WM) has been described as a multi-component process, comprised of: attention-driven encoding, maintenance/rehearsal of information, and encoding to/retrieval from episodic memory. Impairments can impact higher order cognitive processes and many everyday functions. Investigation is needed into the impact of sleep changes on these cognitive processes across the life span. The current study aimed to examine the effects of sleep deprivation on component processes of WM, comparing younger and older adults across verbal and visuospatial modalities...
January 18, 2018: Sleep
Daniel A Warner, Timothy S Mitchell, Brooke L Bodensteiner, Fredric J Janzen
Exogenous application of steroids and related substances to eggs affects offspring sex ratios in species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Laboratory studies demonstrate that this effect is most pronounced near the constant temperature that produces 1:1 sex ratios (i.e., pivotal temperature). However, the impact of such chemicals on sex determination under natural nest temperatures (which fluctuate daily) is unknown, but could provide insight into the relative contributions of these two factors under natural conditions...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Marie-Françoise Van Bressem, Koen Van Waerebeek, Pádraig J Duignan
Clinical and epidemiological features of tattoo skin disease (TSD) are reported for 257 common bottlenose dolphins held in 31 facilities in the Northern Hemisphere. Photographs and biological data of 146 females and 111 males were analyzed. Dolphins were classified into three age classes: 0-3 years, 4-8 years, and older than 9 years. From 2012 to 2014, 20.6% of the 257 dolphins showed clinical TSD. The youngest dolphins with tattoo lesions were 14 and 15 months old. TSD persisted from 4 to 65 months in 30 dolphins...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
K A Honn, D A Grant, J M Hinson, P Whitney, Hpa Van Dongen
Sleep deprivation impairs performance on cognitive tasks, but it is unclear which cognitive processes it degrades. We administered a semantic matching task with variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) and both speeded and self-paced trial blocks. The task was administered at the baseline and 24 hours later after 30.8 hours of total sleep deprivation (TSD) or matching well-rested control. After sleep deprivation, the 20% slowest response times (RTs) were significantly increased. However, the semantic encoding time component of the RTs remained at baseline level...
January 17, 2018: Chronobiology International
Xiaosong Zhang, Pengling Li, Yongli Hua, Peng Ji, Wanling Yao, Qi Ma, Ziwen Yuan, Yanqiao Wen, Chaoxue Yang, Yanming Wei
Taohong Siwu Decoction (TSD) is a classic prescription in traditional Chinese medicine and is widely used to promote blood circulation to remove blood stasis. However, the effect mechanisms are not yet well understood. Here, a urinary metabolomic approach based on liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF-MS) was conducted to explore the changes in the endogenous metabolites and to assess the integral efficacy of TSD on acute blood stasis model rats. Then, parameters for hemorheology and coagulation functions were detected...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Michael P Jensen, Camryn D Allen, Tomoharu Eguchi, Ian P Bell, Erin L LaCasella, William A Hilton, Christine A M Hof, Peter H Dutton
Climate change affects species and ecosystems around the globe [1]. The impacts of rising temperature are particularly pertinent in species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), where the sex of an individual is determined by incubation temperature during embryonic development [2]. In sea turtles, the proportion of female hatchlings increases with the incubation temperature. With average global temperature predicted to increase 2.6°C by 2100 [3], many sea turtle populations are in danger of high egg mortality and female-only offspring production...
January 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
A W Carter, B M Sadd, T D Tuberville, R T Paitz, R M Bowden
Patterns of temperature fluctuations in nature affect numerous biological processes, yet, empirical studies often utilize constant temperature treatments. This can limit our understanding of how thermally sensitive species respond to ecologically relevant temperatures. Research on turtles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) provides good examples of this, since nest temperatures from many populations rarely exceed those necessary to produce females under constant laboratory conditions. We hypothesized that exposure to brief periods of warm temperatures (i...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Brieann C Satterfield, John M Hinson, Paul Whitney, Michelle A Schmidt, Jonathan P Wisor, Hans P A Van Dongen
Adaptive decision making is profoundly impaired by total sleep deprivation (TSD). This suggests that TSD impacts fronto-striatal pathways involved in cognitive control, where dopamine is a key neuromodulator. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC), dopamine is catabolized by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). A functional polymorphism (Val158Met) influences COMT's enzymatic activity, resulting in markedly different levels of prefrontal dopamine. We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on adaptive decision making during TSD...
November 26, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Sarah L Whiteley, Clare E Holleley, Wendy A Ruscoe, Meghan Castelli, Darryl L Whitehead, Juan Lei, Arthur Georges, Vera Weisbecker
Background: The development of male- or female-specific phenotypes in squamates is typically controlled by either temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) or chromosome-based genetic sex determination (GSD). However, while sex determination is a major switch in individual phenotypic development, it is unknownhow evolutionary transitions between GSD and TSD might impact on the evolution of squamate phenotypes, particularly the fast-evolving and diverse genitalia. Here, we take the unique opportunity of studying the impact of both sex determination mechanisms on the embryological development of the central bearded dragon ( Pogona vitticeps )...
2017: EvoDevo
Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Brain sexual differentiation is orchestrated by precise coordination of sex steroid hormones. In some species, programming of select male brain regions is dependent upon aromatization of testosterone to estrogen. In mammals, these hormones surge during the organizational and activational periods that occur during perinatal development and adulthood, respectively. In various fish and reptiles, incubation temperature during a critical embryonic period results in male or female sexual differentiation, but this can be overridden in males by early exposure to estrogenic chemicals...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Guillermina Canesini, Cora Stoker, Germán H Galoppo, Milena L Durando, María V Tschopp, Enrique H Luque, Mónica M Muñoz-de-Toro, Jorge G Ramos
Caiman latirostris is a species with temperature dependent sex determination (TSD), which implies that the incubation temperature of the eggs is the main factor that determines the sex during a thermo-sensitive period (TSP). However, estrogens play a critical role in this process. The administration of 17β-estradiol (E2 ) previous to TSP overrides the effects of male incubation temperature, producing phenotypic females. This effect has been defined as sex reversal or estrogen-induced sex determination (E2 SD)...
April 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Robert Literman, Alexandria Burrett, Basanta Bista, Nicole Valenzuela
The evolutionary lability of sex-determining mechanisms across the tree of life is well recognized, yet the extent of molecular changes that accompany these repeated transitions remain obscure. Most turtles retain the ancestral temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) from which multiple transitions to genotypic sex determination (GSD) occurred independently, and two contrasting hypotheses posit the existence or absence of reversals back to TSD. Here we examined the molecular evolution of the coding regions of a set of gene regulators involved in gonadal development in turtles and several other vertebrates...
January 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Sujan Timilsina, Gerald V Minsavage, James Preston, Eric A Newberry, Matthews L Paret, Erica M Goss, Jeffrey B Jones, Gary E Vallad
An unusual fluorescent pseudomonad was isolated from tomato exhibiting leaf spot symptoms similar to bacterial speck. Strains were fluorescent, oxidase- and arginine-dihydrolase-negative, elicited a hypersensitive reaction on tobacco and produced a soft rot on potato slices. However, the strains produced an unusual yellow, mucoid growth on media containing 5 % sucrose that is not typical of levan. Based on multilocus sequence analysis using 16S rRNA, gap1, gltA, gyrB and rpoD, these strains formed a distinct phylogenetic group in the genus Pseudomonas and were most closely related to Pseudomonas viridiflava within the Pseudomonassyringae complex...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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