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Temperature dependent sex determination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036698/chromosomal-context-affects-the-molecular-evolution-of-sex-linked-genes-and-their-autosomal-counterparts-in-turtles-and-other-vertebrates
#1
Srihari Radhakrishnan, Nicole Valenzuela
Sex chromosomes evolve differently from autosomes because natural selection acts distinctly on them given their reduced recombination and smaller population size. Various studies of sex-linked genes compared to different autosomal genes within species support these predictions. Instead, here we take a novel alternative approach comparing the rate of evolution between subsets of genes that are sex-linked in selected reptiles/vertebrates and the same genes located in autosomes in other amniotes. We report for the first time the faster evolution of Z-linked genes in a turtle (the Chinese soft-shell turtle Pelodiscus sinensis) relative to autosomal orthologs in other taxa, including turtles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD)...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992907/scaling-relationships-among-heart-rate-electrocardiography-parameters-and-body-weight
#2
Amanda Sarita Cruz Aleixo, Angélica Alfonso, Eunice Oba, Fabiana Ferreira de Souza, Raíssa Karolliny Salgueiro Cruz, Maurício Gianfrancesco Fillippi, Simone Biagio Chiacchio, Miriam Tsunemi, Maria Lucia Gomes Lourenço
Although heart rate (HR) is one of the most important clinical parameters determined via physical examinations, little information is available on the normal HR in dogs, which may be related to the high variability of body weight (BW) in this species. HR is determined by the discharge rate of the sinus node, which is dependent on the autonomic nervous system and the release of catecholamines. The allometric relationship between BW and HR in different species has been described as inversely proportional; however, this relationship has been refuted...
June 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959033/temperature-dependent-sex-reversal-by-a-transformer-2-gene-edited-mutation-in-the-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii
#3
Jianwei Li, Alfred M Handler
Female to male sex reversal was achieved in an emerging agricultural insect pest, Drosophila suzukii, by creating a temperature-sensitive point mutation in the sex-determination gene, transformer-2 (tra-2), using CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) homology-directed repair gene-editing. Ds-tra-2 (ts2) mutants developed as normal fertile XX and XY adults at permissive temperatures below 20 °C, but at higher restrictive temperatures (26 to 29 °C) chromosomal XX females developed as sterile intersexuals with a predominant male phenotype, while XY males developed with normal morphology, but were sterile...
September 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859684/sex-differences-in-thermal-detection-and-thermal-pain-threshold-and-the-thermal-grill-illusion-a-psychophysical-study-in-young-volunteers
#4
Beate Averbeck, Lena Seitz, Florian P Kolb, Dieter F Kutz
BACKGROUND: Sex-related differences in human thermal and pain sensitivity are the subject of controversial discussion. The goal of this study in a large number of subjects was to investigate sex differences in thermal and thermal pain perception and the thermal grill illusion (TGI) as a phenomenon reflecting crosstalk between the thermoreceptive and nociceptive systems. The thermal grill illusion is a sensation of strong, but not necessarily painful, heat often preceded by transient cold upon skin contact with spatially interlaced innocuous warm and cool stimuli...
September 1, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764866/experimental-assessment-of-the-effects-of-moisture-on-loggerhead-sea-turtle-hatchling-sex-ratios
#5
Alexandra Lolavar, Jeanette Wyneken
Many reptiles have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Sex determination in marine turtles is described by a cool-male, warm-female pattern. Nest sand temperature strongly influences sea turtle embryo development and sex differentiation. Yet, variation in hatchling sex ratios is explained only partially by nest temperature and can be predicted only at the warmest and coolest temperatures. Hence, other factors during development influence sex determination. Rainfall is a common environmental variable that may impact development and sex determination...
August 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760766/climate-driven-shifts-in-adult-sex-ratios-via-sex-reversals-the-type-of-sex-determination-matters
#6
Veronika Bókony, Szilvia Kövér, Edina Nemesházi, András Liker, Tamás Székely
Sex reversals whereby individuals of one genetic sex develop the phenotype of the opposite sex occur in ectothermic vertebrates with genetic sex-determination systems that are sensitive to extreme temperatures during sexual differentiation. Recent rises in global temperatures have led researchers to predict that sex reversals will become more common, resulting in the distortion of many populations' sex ratios. However, it is unclear whether susceptibility to climate-driven sex-ratio shifts depends on the type of sex determination that varies across species...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730343/age-at-maturation-has-sex-and-temperature-specific-effects-on-telomere-length-in-a-fish
#7
Kristina Noreikiene, Anna Kuparinen, Juha Merilä
Telomeres are highly conserved nucleoprotein structures which protect genome integrity. The length of telomeres is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors, but relatively little is known about how different hereditary and environmental factors interact in determining telomere length. We manipulated growth rates and timing of maturation by exposing full-sib nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius) to two different temperature treatments and quantified the effects of temperature treatments, sex, timing of maturation, growth rate and family (genetic influences) on telomere length...
July 20, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705237/ddradseq-reveals-determinants-for-temperature-dependent-sex-reversal-in-nile-tilapia-on-lg23
#8
Stephan Wessels, Ina Krause, Claudia Floren, Ekkehard Schütz, Jule Beck, Christoph Knorr
BACKGROUND: In Nile tilapia sex determination is governed by a male heterogametic system XX/XY either on LG1 or LG23. The latter carries a Y-specific duplicate of the amh gene, which is a testis-determining factor. Allelic variants in the amh gene demonstrated to be major triggers for autosomal and temperature-dependent sex reversal. Further, QTL on LG23 and LG20 show a temperature-responsiveness with influence on the phenotypic sex relative to the sex chromosomes. Here we present a ddRADseq based approach to identify genomic regions that show unusual large differentiation in terms of fixation index (FST) between temperature-treated pseudomales and non-masculinized females using a comparative genome-scan...
July 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693572/sex-difference-in-thermal-preference-of-adult-mice-does-not-depend-on-presence-of-the-gonads
#9
Kasiphak Kaikaew, Jacobie Steenbergen, Axel P N Themmen, Jenny A Visser, Aldo Grefhorst
BACKGROUND: The thermoneutral zone (TNZ) is a species-specific range of ambient temperature (T a), at which mammals can maintain a constant body temperature with the lowest metabolic rate. The TNZ for an adult mouse is between 26 and 34 °C. Interestingly, female mice prefer a higher T a than male mice although the underlying mechanism for this sex difference is unknown. Here, we tested whether gonadal hormones are dominant factors controlling temperature preference in male and female mice...
July 11, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630932/differential-intron-retention-in-jumonji-chromatin-modifier-genes-is-implicated-in-reptile-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#10
Ira W Deveson, Clare E Holleley, James Blackburn, Jennifer A Marshall Graves, John S Mattick, Paul D Waters, Arthur Georges
In many vertebrates, sex of offspring is determined by external environmental cues rather than by sex chromosomes. In reptiles, for instance, temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is common. Despite decades of work, the mechanism by which temperature is converted into a sex-determining signal remains mysterious. This is partly because it is difficult to distinguish the primary molecular events of TSD from the confounding downstream signatures of sexual differentiation. We use the Australian central bearded dragon, in which chromosomal sex determination is overridden at high temperatures to produce sex-reversed female offspring, as a unique model to identify TSD-specific features of the transcriptome...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630712/quantifying-drivers-of-wild-pig-movement-across-multiple-spatial-and-temporal-scales
#11
Shannon L Kay, Justin W Fischer, Andrew J Monaghan, James C Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Tyler A Campbell, Susan M Cooper, Stephen S Ditchkoff, Steve B Hartley, John C Kilgo, Samantha M Wisely, A Christy Wyckoff, Kurt C VerCauteren, Kim M Pepin
BACKGROUND: The movement behavior of an animal is determined by extrinsic and intrinsic factors that operate at multiple spatio-temporal scales, yet much of our knowledge of animal movement comes from studies that examine only one or two scales concurrently. Understanding the drivers of animal movement across multiple scales is crucial for understanding the fundamentals of movement ecology, predicting changes in distribution, describing disease dynamics, and identifying efficient methods of wildlife conservation and management...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621028/climate-change-and-temperature-linked-hatchling-mortality-at-a-globally-important-sea-turtle-nesting-site
#12
Jacques-Olivier Laloë, Jacquie Cozens, Berta Renom, Albert Taxonera, Graeme C Hays
The study of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) in vertebrates has attracted major scientific interest. Recently, concerns for species with TSD in a warming world have increased because imbalanced sex ratios could potentially threaten population viability. In contrast, relatively little attention has been given to the direct effects of increased temperatures on successful embryonic development. Using 6603 days of sand temperature data recorded across 6 years at a globally important loggerhead sea turtle rookery-the Cape Verde Islands-we show the effects of warming incubation temperatures on the survival of hatchlings in nests...
June 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611256/a-duplicated-truncated-amh-gene-is-involved-in-male-sex-determination-in-an-old-world-silverside
#13
Dilip Kumar Bej, Kaho Miyoshi, Ricardo S Hattori, Carlos A Strüssmann, Yoji Yamamoto
A master sex-determining gene, the Y chromosome-linked anti-Müllerian hormone (amhy) gene, has been described in two New World atheriniform species but little is known on the distribution, evolution, and function(s) of this gene in other Atheriniformes. Interestingly, amhy has been found to coexist with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), providing a unique opportunity to explore the interplay between genotypic and environmental sex determination. In this study, the search for an amhy homolog was extended to an Old World atheriniform, the cobaltcap silverside Hypoatherina tsurugae (Atherinidae)...
August 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605522/seasonality-and-temperature-dependent-flight-dispersal-of-triatoma-infestans-hemiptera-reduviidae-and-other-vectors-of-chagas-disease-in-western-argentina
#14
Osvaldo Di Iorio, Ricardo E Gürtler
Flight dispersal of Triatominae is affected by climatic conditions and determines the spatiotemporal patterns of house invasion and transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). We investigated the detailed time structure and temperature dependencies of flight occurrence of Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and other triatomine species in a rural village of western Argentina by taking advantage of the attraction of adult triatomines to artificial light sources. Most of the village's streetlight posts were systematically inspected for triatomines twice between sunset and midnight over 425 nights in the spring-summer seasons of 1999-2002, an unprecedented light-trap sampling effort for any triatomine species...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584392/seasonal-shifts-in-sex-ratios-are-mediated-by-maternal-effects-and-fluctuating-incubation-temperatures
#15
Amanda W Carter, Rachel M Bowden, Ryan T Paitz
Sex-specific maternal effects can be adaptive sources of phenotypic plasticity. Reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) are a powerful system to investigate such maternal effects because offspring phenotype, including sex, can be sensitive to maternal influences such as oestrogens and incubation temperatures.In red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta), concentrations of maternally derived oestrogens and incubation temperatures increase across the nesting season; we wanted to determine if sex ratios shift in a seasonally concordant manner, creating the potential for sex-specific maternal effects, and to define the sex ratio reaction norms under fluctuating temperatures across the nesting season...
April 2017: Functional Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545092/are-thermal-barriers-higher-in-deep-sea-turtle-nests
#16
Pilar Santidrián Tomillo, Luis Fonseca, Frank V Paladino, James R Spotila, Daniel Oro
Thermal tolerances are affected by the range of temperatures that species encounter in their habitat. Daniel Janzen hypothesized in his "Why mountain passes are higher in the tropics" that temperature gradients were effective barriers to animal movements where climatic uniformity was high. Sea turtles bury their eggs providing some thermal stability that varies with depth. We assessed the relationship between thermal uniformity and thermal tolerance in nests of three species of sea turtles. We considered that barriers were "high" when small thermal changes had comparatively large effects and "low" when the effects were small...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533820/medip-seq-and-ncpg-analyses-illuminate-sexually-dimorphic-methylation-of-gonadal-development-genes-with-high-historic-methylation-in-turtle-hatchlings-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#17
Srihari Radhakrishnan, Robert Literman, Beatriz Mizoguchi, Nicole Valenzuela
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation alters gene expression but not DNA sequence and mediates some cases of phenotypic plasticity. Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) epitomizes phenotypic plasticity where environmental temperature drives embryonic sexual fate, as occurs commonly in turtles. Importantly, the temperature-specific transcription of two genes underlying gonadal differentiation is known to be induced by differential methylation in TSD fish, turtle and alligator. Yet, how extensive is the link between DNA methylation and TSD remains unclear...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506988/dmrt1-induces-the-male-pathway-in-a-turtle-species-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#18
Chutian Ge, Jian Ye, Haiyan Zhang, Yi Zhang, Wei Sun, Yapeng Sang, Blanche Capel, Guoying Qian
The molecular mechanism underlying temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) has been a long-standing mystery; in particular, the thermosensitive genetic triggers for gonadal sex differentiation are largely unknown. Here, we have characterized a conserved DM domain gene, Dmrt1, in the red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta (T. scripta), which exhibits TSD. We found that Dmrt1 has a temperature-dependent, sexually dimorphic expression pattern, preceding gonadal sex differentiation, and is capable of responding rapidly to temperature shifts and aromatase inhibitor treatment...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498935/the-association-of-changes-in-dna-methylation-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination-in-cucumber
#19
Yun-Song Lai, Xiaohui Zhang, Wei Zhang, Di Shen, Haiping Wang, Yudong Xia, Yang Qiu, Jiangping Song, Chenchen Wang, Xixiang Li
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is characterized by its diverse and flexible sexual types. Here, we evaluated the effect of low temperature (LT) exposure on cucumber femaleness under short-day conditions. Shoot apices were subjected to whole-genome bisulfate sequencing (WGBS), mRNA-seq, and sRNA-seq. The results showed that temperature had a substantial and global impact on transposable element (TE)-related small RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) mechanisms, resulting in large amounts of CHH-type cytosine demethylation...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484749/constant-temperature-artificial-incubation-of-spawned-eggs-in-natural-nests-from-the-chinese-freshwater-soft-shelled-turtle-tryonyx-sinensis-strauch-1862
#20
Young Nam Oh, Sung Han Kim
On June 14, 2008 (the first experiment) and July 24, 2008 (the second experiment), the shores of the Boseong River and the sandy beaches, Seokgok-myun, Moksadong-myun, Gokseong-gun in Jeollanam Province were investigated and a total of 29 soft-shelled turtle (Tryonyx sinensis) eggs in the natural spawning nest eggs were collected (13 eggs were collected in the first experiment and 16 eggs in the second experiment). The temperatures in the natural spawning nests were 25.9-36.9±0.5℃, the depth of the eggs was 5...
March 2017: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
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