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Temperature dependent sex determination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902763/temperature-shift-alters-dna-methylation-and-histone-modification-patterns-in-gonadal-aromatase-cyp19a1-gene-in-species-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#1
Yuiko Matsumoto, Brette Hannigan, David Crews
The environment surrounding the embryos has a profound impact on the developmental process and phenotypic outcomes of the organism. In species with temperature-dependent sex determination, gonadal sex is determined by the incubation temperature of the eggs. A mechanistic link between temperature and transcriptional regulation of developmental genes, however, remains elusive. In this study, we examine the changes in DNA methylation and histone modification patterns of the aromatase (cyp19a1) gene in embryonic gonads of red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) subjected to a temperature shift during development...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891218/projected-changes-in-climatic-suitability-for-kinosternon-turtles-by-2050-and-2070
#2
Christopher J Butler, Brian D Stanila, John B Iverson, Paul A Stone, Matthew Bryson
Chelonians are expected to be negatively impacted by climate change due to limited vagility and temperature-dependent sex determination. However, few studies have examined how freshwater turtle distributions may shift under different climate change scenarios. We used a maximum entropy approach to model the distribution of five widespread North American Kinosternon species (K. baurii, K. flavescens, K. hirtipes, K. sonoriense, and K. subrubrum) under four climate change scenarios. We found that areas with suitable climatic conditions for K...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887945/kisspeptin-system-in-pejerrey-fish-odontesthes-bonariensis-characterization-and-gene-expression-pattern-during-early-developmental-stages
#3
M Oswaldo Tovar Bohórquez, Alejandro S Mechaly, Lily C Hughes, Daniela Campanella, Guillermo Ortí, Luis F Canosa, Gustavo M Somoza
In vertebrates, kisspeptins and their receptors are known to be related to puberty onset and gonadal maturation, however, there are few studies concerning their role in early development. Here, we characterize the kisspeptin system in the pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis, a fish with strong temperature-dependent sex determination. We reconstructed the phylogenetic history of the two ligands (kiss1 and kiss 2) and two receptors (kissr2 and kissr3) in pejerrey in the context of recent classifications of bony fishes, determined their tissue distribution and documented the early expression pattern of these ligands and receptors...
November 22, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815669/effect-of-agro-ecological-zone-season-of-birth-and-sex-on-pre-weaning-performance-of-nguni-calves-in-limpopo-province-south-africa
#4
T J Mpofu, M M Ginindza, N A Siwendu, K A Nephawe, B J Mtileni
The study was conducted to determine the effect of agro-ecological zone, season of birth and sex on Nguni calves' pre-weaning performance. Production indices such as birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), pre-weaning average daily gain (P-ADG) and pre-weaning gain (P-WG) were assessed in the different agro-ecological zones. Herd records on performance of 826 Nguni calves' from nine Nguni herds representing different agro-ecological zones: arid zone (n = 217); semi-arid zone (n = 296); dry sub-humid zone (n = 118) and humid zone (n = 195) were used for the analysis of pre-weaning calf performance...
November 4, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798296/thyroid-hormone-modulates-offspring-sex-ratio-in-a-turtle-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#5
Bao-Jun Sun, Teng Li, Yi Mu, Jessica K McGlashan, Arthur Georges, Richard Shine, Wei-Guo Du
The adaptive significance of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) has attracted a great deal of research, but the underlying mechanisms by which temperature determines the sex of a developing embryo remain poorly understood. Here, we manipulated the level of a thyroid hormone (TH), triiodothyronine (T3), during embryonic development (by adding excess T3 to the eggs of the red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta, a reptile with TSD), to test two competing hypotheses on the proximate basis for TSD: the developmental rate hypothesis versus the hormone hypothesis Exogenous TH accelerated embryonic heart rate (and hence metabolic rate), developmental rate, and rates of early post-hatching growth...
October 26, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794577/sex-reversal-in-reptiles-reproductive-oddity-or-powerful-driver-of-evolutionary-change
#6
Clare E Holleley, Stephen D Sarre, Denis O'Meally, Arthur Georges
Is sex a product of genes, the environment, or both? In this review, we describe the diversity of sex-determining mechanisms in reptiles, with a focus on systems that display gene-environment interactions. We summarise the field and laboratory-based evidence for the occurrence of environmental sex reversal in reptiles and ask whether this is a widespread evolutionary mechanism affecting the evolution of sex chromosomes and speciation in vertebrates. Sex determination systems exist across a continuum of genetic and environmental influences, blurring the lines between what was once considered a strict dichotomy between genetic sex determination and temperature-dependent sex determination...
October 29, 2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671871/a-timecourse-analysis-of-systemic-and-gonadal-effects-of-temperature-on-sexual-development-of-the-red-eared-slider-turtle-trachemys-scripta-elegans
#7
Michael Czerwinski, Anirudh Natarajan, Lindsey Barske, Loren L Looger, Blanche Capel
Temperature dependent sex determination (TSD) is the process by which the environmental temperature experienced during embryogenesis influences the sex of an organism, as in the red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta elegans. In accord with current paradigms of vertebrate sex determination, temperature is believed to exert its effects on sexual development in T. scripta entirely within the middle third of development, when the gonad is forming. However, whether temperature regulates the transcriptome in T...
December 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646974/comparison-of-cytotoxicity-between-extracts-of-clinacanthus-nutans-burm-f-lindau-leaves-from-different-locations-and-the-induction-of-apoptosis-by-the-crude-methanol-leaf-extract-in-d24-human-melanoma-cells
#8
Siat Yee Fong, Terrence Piva, Chaitali Dekiwadia, Sylvia Urban, Tien Huynh
BACKGROUND: Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau leaves are widely used by cancer patients and the leaf extracts possess cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects on several human cancer cell lines. However, the effect of C. nutans leaf extract on human melanoma, which is the least common but most fatal form of skin cancer and one of the most common cancers diagnosed in both sexes worldwide, is unknown. There is also limited information on whether the bioactivity of extracts differs between C...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579608/female-bias-in-a-long-term-study-of-a-species-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination-monitoring-sex-ratios-for-climate-change-research
#9
Joanne Braun McNeill, Larisa Avens, April Goodman Hall, Lisa R Goshe, Craig A Harms, David W Owens
Alterations have occurred and continue to manifest in the Earth's biota as a result of climate change. Animals exhibiting temperature dependent sex determination (TSD), including sea turtles, are perhaps most vulnerable to a warming of the Earth as highly skewed sex ratios can result, potentially leading to population extinction resulting from decreased male recruitment. Recent studies have begun to quantify climate change impacts to sea turtle populations, especially in terms of predicting effects on hatchling sex ratios...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503736/the-impact-of-geographical-origin-of-two-strains-of-the-herbivore-eccritotarsus-catarinensis-on-several-fitness-traits-in-response-to-temperature
#10
Mohannad Ismail, Margot Brooks
Adaptation to temperature changes is vital to reduce adverse effects on individuals, and some may present phenotypic changes, which might be accompanied with physiological costs in fitness traits. The objective of this study was to determine whether the two strains of the herbivore Eccritotarsus catarinensis, a biological control agent against water hyacinth in South Africa, differ in their responses to temperature according to their geographical origin. We experimentally quantified the responses of the two strains, at three constant temperatures: 20°C, 25°C and 30°C, using laboratory cultures that originated from Brazil and Peru, where climates differ...
August 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503716/regional-warming-and-the-thermal-regimes-of-american-crocodile-nests-in-the-tempisque-basin-costa-rica
#11
Christopher M Murray, Michael Easter, Sergio Padilla, Mahmood Sasa Marin, Craig Guyer
Spatial variation in global climate change makes population-specific responses to this enigmatic threat pertinent on a regional scale. Organisms with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) potentially possess a unique physiological susceptibility that threatens population viability if rapid environmental effects on sex ratios render populations non-viable. A heavily male-biased sex ratio for hatchling American crocodiles of the Tempisque Basin, Costa Rica requires assessment of how nest temperature affects sex determination at this site, how females might compensate for these effects when creating nests, and how current patterns of climate change might alter future sex ratios and survival in hatchling cohorts...
August 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476434/effects-of-developmental-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-and-ethinyl-estradiol-on-spatial-navigational-learning-and-memory-in-painted-turtles-chrysemys-picta
#12
Lindsey K Manshack, Caroline M Conard, Sarah A Johnson, Jorden M Alex, Sara J Bryan, Sharon L Deem, Dawn K Holliday, Mark R Ellersieck, Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Developmental exposure of turtles and other reptiles to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA) and ethinyl estradiol (EE2, estrogen present in birth control pills), can induce partial to full gonadal sex-reversal in males. No prior studies have considered whether in ovo exposure to EDCs disrupts normal brain sexual differentiation. Yet, rodent model studies indicate early exposure to these chemicals disturbs sexually selected behavioral traits, including spatial navigational learning and memory...
September 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437707/weather-dependent-microhabitat-use-by-tetrix-tenuicornis-orthoptera-tetrigidae
#13
David Musiolek, Petr Kočárek
For ectothermic animals, selection of a suitable microhabitat is affected by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors. Also important is the trade-off between those microhabitats with optimal microclimatic conditions and food availability vs. those with the lowest level of competition and lowest risk of predation. Central European species of groundhoppers (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae) live in locations with small-scale mosaics of patches formed by bare ground, moss cushions and vascular plants (grasses and forbs)...
August 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431992/evolutionary-dynamics-of-anolis-sex-chromosomes-revealed-by-sequencing-of-flow-sorting-derived-microchromosome-specific-dna
#14
Ilya G Kichigin, Massimo Giovannotti, Alex I Makunin, Bee L Ng, Marsel R Kabilov, Alexey E Tupikin, Vincenzo Caputo Barucchi, Andrea Splendiani, Paolo Ruggeri, Willem Rens, Patricia C M O'Brien, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Alexander S Graphodatsky, Vladimir A Trifonov
Squamate reptiles show a striking diversity in modes of sex determination, including both genetic (XY or ZW) and temperature-dependent sex determination systems. The genomes of only a handful of species have been sequenced, analyzed and assembled including the genome of Anolis carolinensis. Despite a high genome coverage, only macrochromosomes of A. carolinensis were assembled whereas the content of most microchromosomes remained unclear. Most of the Anolis species have homomorphic XY sex chromosome system...
October 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401264/methyltestosterone-alters-sex-determination-in-the-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis
#15
Christopher M Murray, Michael Easter, Mark Merchant, Justin L Rheubert, Kelly A Wilson, Amos Cooper, Mary Mendonça, Thane Wibbels, Mahmood Sasa Marin, Craig Guyer
Effects of xenobiotics can be organizational, permanently affecting anatomy during embryonic development, and/or activational, influencing transitory actions during adulthood. The organizational influence of endocrine-disrupting contaminants (EDC's) produces a wide variety of reproductive abnormalities among vertebrates that exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Typically, such influences result in subsequent activational malfunction, some of which are beneficial in aquaculture. For example, 17-αmethyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic androgen, is utilized in tilapia farming to bias sex ratio towards males because they are more profitable...
September 15, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365415/sex-determination-in-bluegill-sunfish-lepomis-macrochirus-effect-of-temperature-on-sex-ratio-of-four-geographic-strains
#16
Zhi-Gang Shen, Han-Ping Wang, Hong Yao, Paul O'Bryant, Dean Rapp, Kun-Qian Zhu
There is increasing evidence that temperature effects on sex ratio in fish species are ubiquitous. Temperature effects on sex ratio could be influenced by parent, strain, and population, whether in fish species with temperature-dependent sex determination or genetic sex determination plus temperature effects. In the present study, effects of genotype-temperature interactions on sex determination in bluegill sunfish were further investigated, based on our previous results, using four geographic strains: Hebron, Jones, Hocking, and Missouri...
June 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363786/the-maternal-legacy-female-identity-predicts-offspring-sex-ratio-in-the-loggerhead-sea-turtle
#17
Jaymie L Reneker, Stephanie J Kamel
In organisms with temperature-dependent sex determination, the incubation environment plays a key role in determining offspring sex ratios. Given that global temperatures have warmed approximately 0.6 °C in the last century, it is necessary to consider how organisms will adjust to climate change. To better understand the degree to which mothers influence the sex ratios of their offspring, we use 24 years of nesting data for individual female loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) observed on Bald Head Island, North Carolina...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354510/effects-of-self-superparasitism-and-temperature-on-biological-traits-of-two-neotropical-trichogramma-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae-species
#18
C S B DaSilva, Renata Morelli, J R P Parra
It is common for a female trichogrammatid to lay more than one egg per host, a phenomenon known as self-superparasitism, which exposes her offspring to intraspecific, intrinsic competition (IIC) with its own siblings. Information about how often self-superparasitism occurs and how IIC interacts with abiotic factors is rare, especially regarding the Neotropical Trichogramma species. Here we determined the frequency of self-superparasitism in Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Ta) and T. pretiosum Riley (Tp), and the effects of IIC and temperature on the sex ratio, egg-to-adulthood period, and survivorship of both species' offspring...
August 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342379/dimorphic-dna-methylation-during-temperature-dependent-sex-determination-in-the-sea-turtle-lepidochelys-olivacea
#19
Daniela Venegas, Alejandro Marmolejo-Valencia, Christian Valdes-Quezada, Tzipe Govenzensky, Félix Recillas-Targa, Horacio Merchant-Larios
Sex determination in vertebrates depends on the expression of a conserved network of genes. Sea turtles such as Lepidochelys olivacea have temperature-dependent sex determination. The present work analyses some of the epigenetic processes involved in this. We describe sexual dimorphism in global DNA methylation patterns between ovaries and testes of L. olivacea and show that the differences may arise from a combination of DNA methylation and demethylation events that occur during sex determination. Irrespective of incubation temperature, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine was abundant in the bipotential gonad; however, following sex determination, this modification was no longer found in pre-Sertoli cells in the testes...
September 15, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296304/the-ecology-and-evolution-of-temperature-dependent-reaction-norms-for-sex-determination-in-reptiles-a-mechanistic-conceptual-model
#20
Nadav Pezaro, J Sean Doody, Michael B Thompson
Sex-determining mechanisms are broadly categorised as being based on either genetic or environmental factors. Vertebrate sex determination exhibits remarkable diversity but displays distinct phylogenetic patterns. While all eutherian mammals possess XY male heterogamety and female heterogamety (ZW) is ubiquitous in birds, poikilothermic vertebrates (fish, amphibians and reptiles) exhibit multiple genetic sex-determination (GSD) systems as well as environmental sex determination (ESD). Temperature is the factor controlling ESD in reptiles and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) in reptiles has become a focal point in the study of this phenomenon...
June 14, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
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