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Temperature dependent sex determination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391565/origin-and-transition-of-sex-determination-mechanisms-in-a-gynogenetic-hexaploid-fish
#1
Xi-Yin Li, Xiao-Li Liu, Yao-Jun Zhu, Jun Zhang, Miao Ding, Ming-Tao Wang, Zhong-Wei Wang, Zhi Li, Xiao-Juan Zhang, Li Zhou, Jian-Fang Gui
Most vertebrates reproduce sexually, and plastic sex determination mechanisms including genotypic sex determination (GSD) and environmental sex determination (ESD) have been extensively revealed. However, why sex determination mechanisms evolve diversely and how they correlate with diverse reproduction strategies remain largely unclear. Here, we utilize the superiority of a hexaploid gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) that is able to reproduce by unisexual gynogenesis and contains a rare but diverse proportion of males to investigate these puzzles...
February 2, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370223/breeding-sex-ratio-and-population-size-of-loggerhead-turtles-from-southwestern-florida
#2
Jacob A Lasala, Colin R Hughes, Jeanette Wyneken
Species that display temperature-dependent sex determination are at risk as a result of increasing global temperatures. For marine turtles, high incubation temperatures can skew sex ratios towards females. There are concerns that temperature increases may result in highly female-biased offspring sex ratios, which would drive a future sex ratio skew. Studying the sex ratios of adults in the ocean is logistically very difficult because individuals are widely distributed and males are inaccessible because they remain in the ocean...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362421/sporadic-nesting-reveals-long-distance-colonisation-in-the-philopatric-loggerhead-sea-turtle-caretta-caretta
#3
Carlos Carreras, Marta Pascual, Jesús Tomás, Adolfo Marco, Sandra Hochsheid, Juan José Castillo, Patricia Gozalbes, Mariluz Parga, Susanna Piovano, Luis Cardona
The colonisation of new suitable habitats is crucial for species survival at evolutionary scale under changing environmental conditions. However, colonisation potential may be limited by philopatry that facilitates exploiting successful habitats across generations. We examine the mechanisms of long distance dispersal of the philopatric loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) by analysing 40 sporadic nesting events in the western Mediterranean. The analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA and 7 microsatellites of 121 samples from 18 of these nesting events revealed that these nests were colonising events associated with juveniles from distant populations feeding in nearby foraging grounds...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356364/the-effect-of-hormone-manipulations-on-sex-ratios-varies-with-environmental-conditions-in-a-turtle-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#4
Daniel A Warner, Timothy S Mitchell, Brooke L Bodensteiner, Fredric J Janzen
Exogenous application of steroids and related substances to eggs affects offspring sex ratios in species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Laboratory studies demonstrate that this effect is most pronounced near the constant temperature that produces 1:1 sex ratios (i.e., pivotal temperature). However, the impact of such chemicals on sex determination under natural nest temperatures (which fluctuate daily) is unknown, but could provide insight into the relative contributions of these two factors under natural conditions...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316410/environmental-warming-and-feminization-of-one-of-the-largest-sea-turtle-populations-in-the-world
#5
Michael P Jensen, Camryn D Allen, Tomoharu Eguchi, Ian P Bell, Erin L LaCasella, William A Hilton, Christine A M Hof, Peter H Dutton
Climate change affects species and ecosystems around the globe [1]. The impacts of rising temperature are particularly pertinent in species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), where the sex of an individual is determined by incubation temperature during embryonic development [2]. In sea turtles, the proportion of female hatchlings increases with the incubation temperature. With average global temperature predicted to increase 2.6°C by 2100 [3], many sea turtle populations are in danger of high egg mortality and female-only offspring production...
January 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311550/short-heatwaves-during-fluctuating-incubation-regimes-produce-females-under-temperature-dependent-sex-determination-with-implications-for-sex-ratios-in-nature
#6
A W Carter, B M Sadd, T D Tuberville, R T Paitz, R M Bowden
Patterns of temperature fluctuations in nature affect numerous biological processes, yet, empirical studies often utilize constant temperature treatments. This can limit our understanding of how thermally sensitive species respond to ecologically relevant temperatures. Research on turtles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) provides good examples of this, since nest temperatures from many populations rarely exceed those necessary to produce females under constant laboratory conditions. We hypothesized that exposure to brief periods of warm temperatures (i...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225770/sex-determination-mode-does-not-affect-body-or-genital-development-of-the-central-bearded-dragon-pogona-vitticeps
#7
Sarah L Whiteley, Clare E Holleley, Wendy A Ruscoe, Meghan Castelli, Darryl L Whitehead, Juan Lei, Arthur Georges, Vera Weisbecker
Background: The development of male- or female-specific phenotypes in squamates is typically controlled by either temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) or chromosome-based genetic sex determination (GSD). However, while sex determination is a major switch in individual phenotypic development, it is unknownhow evolutionary transitions between GSD and TSD might impact on the evolution of squamate phenotypes, particularly the fast-evolving and diverse genitalia. Here, we take the unique opportunity of studying the impact of both sex determination mechanisms on the embryological development of the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208362/feminizing-effects-of-exposure-to-corexit-enhanced-water-accommodated-fraction-of-crude-oil-in-vitro-on-sex-determination-in-alligator-mississippiensis
#8
Cameron E Williams, Nicole A McNabb, Arnold Brunell, Russell H Lowers, Yoshinao Katsu, Demetri D Spyropoulos, Satomi Kohno
Deepwater Horizon spilled over 200 million gallons of oil into the waters of the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. In an effort to contain the spill, chemical dispersants were applied to minimize the amount of oil reaching coastal shorelines. However, the biological impacts of chemically-dispersed oil are not well characterized, and there is a particular lack of knowledge concerning sublethal long-term effects of exposure. This study examined potential estrogenic effects of CWAF, Corexit 9500-enhanced water-accommodated fraction of oil, by examining its effect on estrogen receptors and sex determination in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis...
December 2, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200993/brain-sexual-differentiation-and-requirement-of-sry-why-or-why-not
#9
REVIEW
Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Brain sexual differentiation is orchestrated by precise coordination of sex steroid hormones. In some species, programming of select male brain regions is dependent upon aromatization of testosterone to estrogen. In mammals, these hormones surge during the organizational and activational periods that occur during perinatal development and adulthood, respectively. In various fish and reptiles, incubation temperature during a critical embryonic period results in male or female sexual differentiation, but this can be overridden in males by early exposure to estrogenic chemicals...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197555/temperature-vs-estrogen-induced-sex-determination-in-caiman-latirostris-embryos-both-females-but-with-different-expression-patterns-of-key-molecules-involved-in-ovarian-development
#10
Canesini Guillermina, Stoker Cora, H Galoppo Germán, L Durando Milena, V Tschopp María, H Luque Enrique, M Muñoz-de-Toro Mónica, G Ramos Jorge
Caiman latirostris is a species with temperature dependent sex determination (TSD), which implies that the incubation temperature of the eggs is the main factor that determines the sex during a thermo-sensitive period (TSP). However, estrogens play a critical role in this process. The administration of 17β-estradiol (E2) previous to TSP overrides the effects of male incubation temperature, producing phenotypic females. This effect has been defined as sex reversal or estrogen-induced sex determination (E2SD)...
November 29, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194953/reptile-embryos-are-not-capable-of-behavioral-thermoregulation-in-the-egg
#11
Gerardo A Cordero, Rory S Telemeco, Eric J Gangloff
Reptile embryos have recently been observed moving within the egg in response to temperature, raising the exciting possibility that embryos might behaviorally thermoregulate analogous to adults. However, the conjecture that reptile embryos have ample opportunity and capacity to adaptively control their body temperature warrants further discussion. Using turtles as a model, we discuss the spatiotemporal constraints to movement in reptile embryos. We demonstrate that, as embryos grow, the internal egg space rapidly diminishes such that the temporal window for appreciable displacement is confined to stages that feature incomplete neuromuscular differentiation...
December 1, 2017: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194826/disentangling-sex-allocation-in-a-viviparous-reptile-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination-a-multifactorial-approach
#12
Jodie Gruber, George D Cunningham, Geoffrey M While, Erik Wapstra
Females are predicted to alter sex allocation when ecological, physiological and behavioural variables have different consequences on the fitness of male and female offspring. Traditionally, tests of sex allocation have examined single causative factors, often ignoring possible interactions between multiple factors. Here we used a multi-factorial approach to examine sex allocation in the viviparous skink, Niveoscincus ocellatus. We integrated a 16-year observational field study with a manipulative laboratory experiment to explore whether the effects of the maternal thermal environment interact with the resources available to females for reproduction to affect sex allocation decisions...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194040/effect-of-preanalytical-and-analytical-variables-on-the-clinical-utility-of-mean-platelet-volume
#13
Mauro Buttarello, Giacomo Mezzapelle, Mario Plebani
BACKGROUND: The study endpoint was to analyze the effect of preanalytical (time, temperature, anticoagulant) and analytical (imprecision, correlation between volume and platelet concentration) variables on mean platelet volume (MPV). A further aim was to calculate in an adult population the reference intervals using the Sysmex XE-5000 analyzer. A critical evaluation was also made of the clinical utility of these parameters. METHODS: Analyses of the above values were performed in duplicate in 170 healthy adults of both sexes: (1) within 30 min from collection, and (2) after 4 h...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192334/putative-independent-evolutionary-reversals-from-genotypic-to-temperature-dependent-sex-determination-are-associated-with-accelerated-evolution-of-sex-determining-genes-in-turtles
#14
Robert Literman, Alexandria Burrett, Basanta Bista, Nicole Valenzuela
The evolutionary lability of sex-determining mechanisms across the tree of life is well recognized, yet the extent of molecular changes that accompany these repeated transitions remain obscure. Most turtles retain the ancestral temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) from which multiple transitions to genotypic sex determination (GSD) occurred independently, and two contrasting hypotheses posit the existence or absence of reversals back to TSD. Here we examined the molecular evolution of the coding regions of a set of gene regulators involved in gonadal development in turtles and several other vertebrates...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037408/epigenetic-control-of-cyp19a1a-expression-is-critical-for-high-temperature-induced-nile-tilapia-masculinization
#15
Yi Ya Wang, Li Xue Sun, Jia Jie Zhu, Yan Zhao, Hui Wang, Hong Jun Liu, Xiang Shan Ji
In fish species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) or genotypic sex determination plus temperature effects (GSD + TE), temperature can either affect sex differentiation or determine the sex. However, it is unknown if epigenetic control of cyp19a1a expression is critical for high temperature induced masculinization in the freshwater fish Nile tilapia. We analyzed the cyp19a1a DNA methylation levels in three age groups and found that they were lower in females than in males. At 8 months of age, males had DNA methylation levels of the cyp19a1a promoter that were almost twice as high as those of females...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036698/chromosomal-context-affects-the-molecular-evolution-of-sex-linked-genes-and-their-autosomal-counterparts-in-turtles-and-other-vertebrates
#16
Srihari Radhakrishnan, Nicole Valenzuela, Melissa Wilson Sayres
Sex chromosomes evolve differently from autosomes because natural selection acts distinctly on them given their reduced recombination and smaller population size. Various studies of sex-linked genes compared with different autosomal genes within species support these predictions. Here, we take a novel alternative approach by comparing the rate of evolution between subsets of genes that are sex-linked in selected reptiles/vertebrates and the same genes located in autosomes in other amniotes. We report for the first time the faster evolution of Z-linked genes in a turtle (the Chinese softshell turtle Pelodiscus sinensis) relative to autosomal orthologs in other taxa, including turtles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD)...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992907/scaling-relationships-among-heart-rate-electrocardiography-parameters-and-body-weight
#17
Amanda Sarita Cruz Aleixo, Angélica Alfonso, Eunice Oba, Fabiana Ferreira de Souza, Raíssa Karolliny Salgueiro Cruz, Maurício Gianfrancesco Fillippi, Simone Biagio Chiacchio, Miriam Tsunemi, Maria Lucia Gomes Lourenço
Although heart rate (HR) is one of the most important clinical parameters determined via physical examinations, little information is available on the normal HR in dogs, which may be related to the high variability of body weight (BW) in this species. HR is determined by the discharge rate of the sinus node, which is dependent on the autonomic nervous system and the release of catecholamines. The allometric relationship between BW and HR in different species has been described as inversely proportional; however, this relationship has been refuted...
June 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959033/temperature-dependent-sex-reversal-by-a-transformer-2-gene-edited-mutation-in-the-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii
#18
Jianwei Li, Alfred M Handler
Female to male sex reversal was achieved in an emerging agricultural insect pest, Drosophila suzukii, by creating a temperature-sensitive point mutation in the sex-determination gene, transformer-2 (tra-2), using CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) homology-directed repair gene-editing. Ds-tra-2 (ts2) mutants developed as normal fertile XX and XY adults at permissive temperatures below 20 °C, but at higher restrictive temperatures (26 to 29 °C) chromosomal XX females developed as sterile intersexuals with a predominant male phenotype, while XY males developed with normal morphology, but were sterile...
September 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859684/sex-differences-in-thermal-detection-and-thermal-pain-threshold-and-the-thermal-grill-illusion-a-psychophysical-study-in-young-volunteers
#19
Beate Averbeck, Lena Seitz, Florian P Kolb, Dieter F Kutz
BACKGROUND: Sex-related differences in human thermal and pain sensitivity are the subject of controversial discussion. The goal of this study in a large number of subjects was to investigate sex differences in thermal and thermal pain perception and the thermal grill illusion (TGI) as a phenomenon reflecting crosstalk between the thermoreceptive and nociceptive systems. The thermal grill illusion is a sensation of strong, but not necessarily painful, heat often preceded by transient cold upon skin contact with spatially interlaced innocuous warm and cool stimuli...
September 1, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764866/experimental-assessment-of-the-effects-of-moisture-on-loggerhead-sea-turtle-hatchling-sex-ratios
#20
Alexandra Lolavar, Jeanette Wyneken
Many reptiles have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Sex determination in marine turtles is described by a cool-male, warm-female pattern. Nest sand temperature strongly influences sea turtle embryo development and sex differentiation. Yet, variation in hatchling sex ratios is explained only partially by nest temperature and can be predicted only at the warmest and coolest temperatures. Hence, other factors during development influence sex determination. Rainfall is a common environmental variable that may impact development and sex determination...
August 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
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