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Temperature dependent sex determination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545092/are-thermal-barriers-higher-in-deep-sea-turtle-nests
#1
Pilar Santidrián Tomillo, Luis Fonseca, Frank V Paladino, James R Spotila, Daniel Oro
Thermal tolerances are affected by the range of temperatures that species encounter in their habitat. Daniel Janzen hypothesized in his "Why mountain passes are higher in the tropics" that temperature gradients were effective barriers to animal movements where climatic uniformity was high. Sea turtles bury their eggs providing some thermal stability that varies with depth. We assessed the relationship between thermal uniformity and thermal tolerance in nests of three species of sea turtles. We considered that barriers were "high" when small thermal changes had comparatively large effects and "low" when the effects were small...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533820/medip-seq-and-ncpg-analyses-illuminate-sexually-dimorphic-methylation-of-gonadal-development-genes-with-high-historic-methylation-in-turtle-hatchlings-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#2
Srihari Radhakrishnan, Robert Literman, Beatriz Mizoguchi, Nicole Valenzuela
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation alters gene expression but not DNA sequence and mediates some cases of phenotypic plasticity. Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) epitomizes phenotypic plasticity where environmental temperature drives embryonic sexual fate, as occurs commonly in turtles. Importantly, the temperature-specific transcription of two genes underlying gonadal differentiation is known to be induced by differential methylation in TSD fish, turtle and alligator. Yet, how extensive is the link between DNA methylation and TSD remains unclear...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506988/dmrt1-induces-the-male-pathway-in-a-turtle-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#3
Chutian Ge, Jian Ye, Haiyan Zhang, Yi Zhang, Wei Sun, Yapeng Sang, Blanche Capel, Guoying Qian
The molecular mechanism underlying temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) has been a long-standing mystery; in particular, the thermo-sensitive genetic triggers for gonadal sex differentiation are largely unknown. Here, we characterized a conserved DM domain gene, Dmrt1, in the red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta (T. scripta), which exhibits TSD. We found that Dmrt1 has a temperature-dependent, sexually dimorphic expression pattern, preceding gonadal sex differentiation, and is capable of responding rapidly to temperature shifts and aromatase inhibitor treatment...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498935/the-association-of-changes-in-dna-methylation-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination-in-cucumber
#4
Yun-Song Lai, Xiaohui Zhang, Wei Zhang, Di Shen, Haiping Wang, Yudong Xia, Yang Qiu, Jiangping Song, Chenchen Wang, Xixiang Li
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is characterized by its diverse and flexible sexual types. Here, we evaluated the effect of low temperature (LT) exposure on cucumber femaleness under short-day conditions. Shoot apices were subjected to whole-genome bisulfate sequencing (WGBS), mRNA-seq, and sRNA-seq. The results showed that temperature had a substantial and global impact on transposable element (TE)-related small RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) mechanisms, resulting in large amounts of CHH-type cytosine demethylation...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484749/constant-temperature-artificial-incubation-of-spawned-eggs-in-natural-nests-from-the-chinese-freshwater-soft-shelled-turtle-tryonyx-sinensis-strauch-1862
#5
Young Nam Oh, Sung Han Kim
On June 14, 2008 (the first experiment) and July 24, 2008 (the second experiment), the shores of the Boseong River and the sandy beaches, Seokgok-myun, Moksadong-myun, Gokseong-gun in Jeollanam Province were investigated and a total of 29 soft-shelled turtle (Tryonyx sinensis) eggs in the natural spawning nest eggs were collected (13 eggs were collected in the first experiment and 16 eggs in the second experiment). The temperatures in the natural spawning nests were 25.9-36.9±0.5℃, the depth of the eggs was 5...
March 2017: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480017/the-evolution-of-different-maternal-investment-strategies-in-two-closely-related-desert-vertebrates
#6
Joshua R Ennen, Jeffrey E Lovich, Roy C Averill-Murray, Charles B Yackulic, Mickey Agha, Caleb Loughran, Laura Tennant, Barry Sinervo
We compared egg size phenotypes and tested several predictions from the optimal egg size (OES) and bet-hedging theories in two North American desert-dwelling sister tortoise taxa, Gopherus agassizii and G. morafkai, that inhabit different climate spaces: relatively unpredictable and more predictable climate spaces, respectively. Observed patterns in both species differed from the predictions of OES in several ways. Mean egg size increased with maternal body size in both species. Mean egg size was inversely related to clutch order in G...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445889/genetic-polymorphisms-in-aromatase-cyp19a1-are-not-associated-with-gonadal-phenotypes-in-red-eared-slider-turtle-hatchlings-developed-at-a-pivotal-temperature
#7
Yuiko Matsumoto, David Crews
Embryonic gonad sex in many reptilian species is determined by the incubation temperature of the egg, a differentiation process known as temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Incubation at the pivotal temperature (PvT) results in approximately an equal number of offspring of both sexes. We investigated the potential contribution of genetic variations that drives the gonadal differentiation into testes or ovaries under this temperature in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta). Four male and 4 female hatchlings of eggs that had been incubated at the PvT were examined for polymorphisms at an approximately 23-kb region of the aromatase (cyp19a1) gene...
April 27, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438967/immune-induced-fever-is-dependent-on-local-but-not-generalized-prostaglandin-e2-synthesis-in-the-brain
#8
Anna Eskilsson, Takashi Matsuwaki, Kiseko Shionoya, Elahe Mirrasekhian, Joanna Zajdel, Markus Schwaninger, David Engblom, Anders Blomqvist
Fever occurs upon binding of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to EP3 receptors in the median preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, but the origin of the pyrogenic PGE2 has not been clearly determined. Here, using mice of both sexes, we examined the role of local versus generalized PGE2 production in the brain for the febrile response. In wild-type mice and in mice with genetic deletion of the prostaglandin synthesizing enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 in the brain endothelium, generated with an inducible CreER(T2) under the Slco1c1 promoter, PGE2 levels in the CSF were only weakly related to the magnitude of the febrile response, whereas the PGE2 synthesizing capacity in the hypothalamus, as reflected in the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA, showed strong correlation with the immune-induced fever...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430968/sex-chromosome-dependent-differential-viability-of-human-spermatozoa-during-prolonged-incubation
#9
Young-Ah You, Woo-Sung Kwon, Md Saidur Rahman, Yoo-Jin Park, Young-Ju Kim, Myung-Geol Pang
STUDY QUESTION: Are there significant differences in the ability of X chromosome-bearing (X) spermatozoa and Y chromosome-bearing (Y) spermatozoa to survive incubation under stressful conditions? SUMMARY ANSWER: Y spermatozoa are more vulnerable to stress than their X counterparts depending on culture period and temperature, and show higher expression of apoptotic proteins. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The primary sex ratio is determined by there being an equal number of spermatozoa carrying X and Y chromosomes...
June 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399454/detection-of-a-synthetic-sex-steroid-in-the-american-crocodile-crocodylus-acutus-evidence-for-a-novel-environmental-androgen
#10
Christopher M Murray, Mark Merchant, Michael Easter, Sergio Padilla, Davinia B Garrigós, Mahmood Sasa Marin, Craig Guyer
Endocrine-disrupting contaminants (EDC's) are well known to alter sexual differentiation among vertebrates via estrogenic effects during development, particularly in organisms characterized by temperature-dependent sex determination. However, substances producing androgenic effects typically lack potency when tested in laboratory settings and are virtually unstudied in field settings. Here, we assay levels of a synthetic androgen, 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), in a heavily male-biased population of American crocodiles in the Tempisque River Basin of Costa Rica based on the recent hypothesis that this chemical is an EDC in developing crocodilian embryos...
April 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321493/the-costs-of-locomotor-activity-maximum-body-temperatures-and-the-use-of-torpor-during-the-active-season-in-edible-dormice
#11
Claudia Bieber, Jessica S Cornils, Franz Hoelzl, Sylvain Giroud, Thomas Ruf
Measuring T b during the active season can provide information about the timing of reproduction and the use of short bouts of torpor and may be used as a proxy for the locomotor activity of animals (i.e., maximum T b). This kind of information is especially important to understand life-history strategies and energetic costs and demands in hibernating mammals. We investigated T b throughout the active season in edible dormice (Glis glis), since they (i) have an expensive arboreal life-style, (ii) are known to show short bouts of torpor, and (iii) are adapted to pulsed resources (mast of beech trees)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296881/transcriptomic-responses-to-environmental-temperature-by-turtles-with-temperature-dependent-and-genotypic-sex-determination-assessed-by-rnaseq-inform-the-genetic-architecture-of-embryonic-gonadal-development
#12
Srihari Radhakrishnan, Robert Literman, Jennifer Neuwald, Andrew Severin, Nicole Valenzuela
Vertebrate sexual fate is decided primarily by the individual's genotype (GSD), by the environmental temperature during development (TSD), or both. Turtles exhibit TSD and GSD, making them ideal to study the evolution of sex determination. Here we analyze temperature-specific gonadal transcriptomes (RNA-sequencing validated by qPCR) of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta TSD) before and during the thermosensitive period, and at equivalent stages in soft-shell turtles (Apalone spinifera-GSD), to test whether TSD's and GSD's transcriptional circuitry is identical but deployed differently between mechanisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296279/an-immunohistochemical-approach-to-identify-the-sex-of-young-marine-turtles
#13
Boris M Tezak, Kathleen Guthrie, Jeanette Wyneken
Marine turtles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). During critical periods of embryonic development, the nest's thermal environment directs whether an embryo will develop as a male or female. At warmer sand temperatures nests tend to produce female-biased sex ratios. The rapid increase of global temperature highlights the need for a clear assessment of its effects on sea turtle sex ratios. However, estimating hatchling sex ratios at rookeries remains imprecise due to the lack of sexual dimorphism in young marine turtles...
March 13, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267461/quantitative-pteridine-fluorescence-analysis-a-possible-age-grading-technique-for-the-adult-stages-of-the-blow-fly-calliphora-vicina-diptera-calliphoridae
#14
Victoria Bernhardt, Laura Hannig, Ronja Kinast, Marcel A Verhoff, Florian Rothweiler, Richard Zehner, Jens Amendt
Age estimation of adult flies could extend the possible window of time for calculating the minimal postmortem interval (PMImin) by means of entomological methods. Currently, this is done by estimating the time required by necrophagous Diptera to reach certain juvenile developmental landmarks, and the method only works until the end of metamorphosis and emergence of the adult fly. Particularly at indoor crime scenes, being able to estimate the age of trapped adult flies would be an important tool with which to extend the calculable PMI beyond the developmental period...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243861/potential-contributions-of-heat-shock-proteins-and-related-genes-in-sexual-differentiation-in-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco
#15
Yan He, Jie Fang, Liyao Xue, Junjie Wu, Farman Ullah Dawar, Jie Mei
Sex determination and differentiation in ectotherms are very complicated affairs and usually affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Because of their temperature-sensitive expression, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are good candidates for temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Similar to most thermosensitive fish species, the male to female ratio increases with temperature in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). Yellow catfish is also a type of sexual size dimorphic fish, and the male individuals grow much faster than females of the same age...
February 28, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179520/population-viability-at-extreme-sex-ratio-skews-produced-by-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#16
Graeme C Hays, Antonios D Mazaris, Gail Schofield, Jacques-Olivier Laloë
For species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) there is the fear that rising temperatures may lead to single-sex populations and population extinction. We show that for sea turtles, a major group exhibiting TSD, these concerns are currently unfounded but may become important under extreme climate warming scenarios. We show how highly female-biased sex ratios in developing eggs translate into much more balanced operational sex ratios so that adult male numbers in populations around the world are unlikely to be limiting...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137821/improved-genome-assembly-of-american-alligator-genome-reveals-conserved-architecture-of-estrogen-signaling
#17
Edward S Rice, Satomi Kohno, John St John, Son Pham, Jonathan Howard, Liana F Lareau, Brendan L O'Connell, Glenn Hickey, Joel Armstrong, Alden Deran, Ian Fiddes, Roy N Platt, Cathy Gresham, Fiona McCarthy, Colin Kern, David Haan, Tan Phan, Carl Schmidt, Jeremy R Sanford, David A Ray, Benedict Paten, Louis J Guillette, Richard E Green
The American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, like all crocodilians, has temperature-dependent sex determination, in which the sex of an embryo is determined by the incubation temperature of the egg during a critical period of development. The lack of genetic differences between male and female alligators leaves open the question of how the genes responsible for sex determination and differentiation are regulated. Insight into this question comes from the fact that exposing an embryo incubated at male-producing temperature to estrogen causes it to develop ovaries...
May 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051938/temperature-effects-on-development-and-phenotype-in-a-free-living-population-of-western-pond-turtles-emys-marmorata
#18
Nicole E Christie, Nicholas R Geist
Changes in temperature regimes are occurring globally due to climate change as well as habitat alterations. Temperatures are expected to continue to rise in the future, along with a greater degree of climatic instability. Such changes could have potentially serious consequences for oviparous ectotherms, especially those with temperature-dependent sex determination. To investigate the effects of temperature on a range of developmental phenomena in a population of western pond turtles (Emys marmorata), we placed temperature sensors on top of each layer of eggs within nests and recorded temperatures hourly through the first 2-3 mo of incubation...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982504/climate-change-and-nesting-behaviour-in-vertebrates-a-review-of-the-ecological-threats-and-potential-for-adaptive-responses
#19
Mark C Mainwaring, Iain Barber, Denis C Deeming, David A Pike, Elizabeth A Roznik, Ian R Hartley
Nest building is a taxonomically widespread and diverse trait that allows animals to alter local environments to create optimal conditions for offspring development. However, there is growing evidence that climate change is adversely affecting nest-building in animals directly, for example via sea-level rises that flood nests, reduced availability of building materials, and suboptimal sex allocation in species exhibiting temperature-dependent sex determination. Climate change is also affecting nesting species indirectly, via range shifts into suboptimal nesting areas, reduced quality of nest-building environments, and changes in interactions with nest predators and parasites...
December 16, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912005/climate-change-increases-the-production-of-female-hatchlings-at-a-northern-sea-turtle-rookery
#20
J L Reneker, S J Kamel
The most recent climate change projections show a global increase in temperatures, along with major adjustments to precipitation, throughout the 21st century. Species exhibiting temperature-dependent sex determination are highly susceptible to such changes since the incubation environment influences critical offspring characteristics such as survival and sex ratio. Here we show that the mean incubation duration of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests from a high-density nesting beach on Bald Head Island, North Carolina, USA has decreased significantly over the past 25 yr...
December 2016: Ecology
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