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Aspirin primary prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629844/aspirin-suppresses-components-of-lymphangiogenesis-and-lymphatic-vessel-remodeling-by-inhibiting-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-vcam-1-pathway-in-human-lymphatic-endothelial-cells
#1
Orawin Prangsaengtong, Phatcharida Jantaree, Kriengsak Lirdprapamongkol, Lukana Ngiwsara, Jisnuson Svasti, Keiichi Koizumi
Lymphangiogenesis is the process of new vessel formation from pre-existing lymphatic vessels. The process mainly involves cell adhesion, migration, and tubule formation of lymphatic endothelial cells. Tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis is an important factor contributing to promotion of tumor growth and cancer metastasis via the lymphatic system. Finding the non-toxic agents that can prevent or inhibit lymphangiogenesis may lead to blocking of lymphatic metastasis. Recently, aspirin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), has been reported to inhibit in vivo lymphangiogenesis in tumor and incision wound models, but the mechanisms of actions of aspirin on anti-lymphangiogenesis have been less explored...
April 1, 2018: Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617381/prevention-of-colonic-neoplasia-with-polyethylene-glycol-a-short-term-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blinded-trial
#2
Ramesh K Wali, Laura Bianchi, Sonia Kupfer, Mart De La Cruz, Borko Jovanovic, Christopher Weber, Michael J Goldberg, L M Rodriguez, Raymond Bergan, David Rubin, Mary Beth Tull, Ellen Richmond, Beth Parker, Seema Khan, Hemant K Roy
Chemoprevention represents an attractive modality against colorectal cancer (CRC) although widespread clinical implementation of promising agents (e.g. aspirin/NSAIDS) have been stymied by both suboptimal efficacy and concerns over toxicity. This highlights the need for better agents. Several groups, including our own, have reported that the over-the-counter laxative polyethylene glycol (PEG) has remarkable efficacy in rodent models of colon carcinogenesis. In this study, we undertook the first randomized human trial to address the role of PEG in prevention of human colonic neoplasia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616131/chemoprevention-with-phosphatidylcholine-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#3
Lenard M Lichtenberger, Tri Phan, Dexing Fang, Elizabeth J Dial
The chemopreventive activity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), particularly aspirin, has been well demonstrated in preclinical and clinical studies. However, the primary side effect from this class of drug is gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, which has limited the widespread use of NSAIDs for the prevention of cancer. The development of GI-safer NSAIDs, which are associated with phosphatidylcholine (PC) may provide a solution to this therapeutic problem. In the present study, the efficacy of two NSAIDs, aspirin and indomethacin, were compared using murine colon cancer cell line MC-26...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614147/clinical-inquiries-what-are-the-benefits-and-risks-of-daily-low-dose-aspirin-for-primary-prevention-of-cv-events
#4
Justin Mutter, Rebecca Grandy, Stephen Hulkower, Sue Stigleman
One nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) will be avoided for every 126 to 138 adults who take daily aspirin for 10 years (strength of recommendation [SOR]: A, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of multiple randomized controlled trials [RCTs]). Taking low-dose aspirin for primary prevention shows no clear mortality benefit. A benefit for primary prevention of stroke is less certain. Although no evidence establishes increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke from daily low-dose aspirin, one gastrointestinal hemorrhage will occur for every 72 to 357 adults who take aspirin for longer than 10 years (SOR: A, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of multiple RCTs and cohort studies)...
April 2018: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605975/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-long-term-proton-pump-inhibitor-use
#5
REVIEW
Yoshikazu Kinoshita, Norihisa Ishimura, Shunji Ishihara
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) potently inhibit gastric acid secretion and are widely used for treatment of acid-related diseases including gastroesophageal reflux disease and secondary prevention of aspirin/NSAID-induced ulcers. Although clinically important adverse effects of PPIs can occur, just as with other drugs, those are not frequently observed during or after administration. Thus, PPIs are regarded as relatively safe and considered to be clinically beneficial. Recently, PPIs have become frequently administered to patients with functional gastrointestinal diseases or primary prevention of drug-related gastroduodenal damage, even though their beneficial effects for those conditions have not been fully confirmed...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570760/the-role-of-aspirin-and-unfractionated-heparin-combination-therapy-immediately-after-total-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty
#6
Ali H Sobh, Denise M Koueiter, Anthony Mells, Matthew P Siljander, Mark S Karadsheh
Aspirin and unfractionated heparin (UH) are accepted options for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). The use of aspirin in addition to UH in preventing VTE after TJA has yet to be studied. The primary objective of this study was to determine VTE rates in patients receiving aspirin monotherapy and those receiving aspirin and UH combination therapy immediately following TJA. A TJA database from a single hospital system was retrospectively reviewed to identify all patients who underwent primary hip or knee arthroplasty from 2013 to 2016...
March 23, 2018: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552984/edoxaban-plus-aspirin-vs-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-in-endovascular-treatment-of-patients-with-peripheral-artery-disease-results-of-the-epad-trial
#7
Frans Moll, Iris Baumgartner, Michael Jaff, Chuke Nwachuku, Marco Tangelder, Gary Ansel, George Adams, Thomas Zeller, John Rundback, Michael Grosso, Min Lin, Michele F Mercur, Erich Minar
PURPOSE: To report a randomized study that investigated the safety (risk of major bleeds) and potential efficacy of edoxaban, an oral anticoagulant that targets the major components of arterial thrombi, to prevent loss of patency following endovascular treatment (EVT). METHODS: Between February 2012 and June 2014, 203 patients who underwent femoropopliteal EVT were randomized to receive aspirin plus edoxaban or aspirin plus clopidogrel for 3 months in the Edoxaban in Peripheral Arterial Disease (ePAD) study ( ClinicalTrials...
April 2018: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544699/6-month-versus-12-month-or-longer-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-smart-date-a-randomised-open-label-non-inferiority-trial
#8
Joo-Yong Hahn, Young Bin Song, Ju-Hyeon Oh, Deok-Kyu Cho, Jin Bae Lee, Joon-Hyung Doh, Sang-Hyun Kim, Jin-Ok Jeong, Jang-Ho Bae, Byung-Ok Kim, Jang Hyun Cho, Il-Woo Suh, Doo-Il Kim, Hoon-Ki Park, Jong-Seon Park, Woong Gil Choi, Wang Soo Lee, Jihoon Kim, Ki Hong Choi, Taek Kyu Park, Joo Myung Lee, Jeong Hoon Yang, Jin-Ho Choi, Seung-Hyuk Choi, Hyeon-Cheol Gwon
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) of aspirin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor for at least 12 months after implantation of drug-eluting stents (DES) in patients with acute coronary syndrome. However, available data about the optimal duration of DAPT in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention are scant. We aimed to investigate whether a 6-month duration of DAPT would be non-inferior to the conventional 12-month or longer duration of DAPT in this population...
March 31, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540234/stroke-minimization-through-additive-anti-atherosclerotic-agents-in-routine-treatment-smaart-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Fred Stephen Sarfo, Osei Sarfo-Kantanka, Sheila Adamu, Vida Obese, Jennifer Voeks, Raelle Tagge, Vipin Sethi, Bruce Ovbiagele
BACKGROUND: There is an unprecedented rise in the prevalence of stroke in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Secondary prevention guidelines recommend that antihypertensive, statin and antiplatelet therapy be initiated promptly after ischemic stroke and adhered to in a persistent fashion to achieve optimal vascular-risk reduction. However, these goals are seldom realized in routine clinical care settings in SSA due to logistical challenges. We seek to assess whether a polypill containing fixed doses of three antihypertensive agents, a statin and antiplatelet therapy taken once daily per os for 12 months among recent stroke survivors would result in carotid intimal thickness regression compared with usual care (UC)...
March 14, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529673/mobile-compression-reduces-bleeding-related-readmissions-and-wound-complications-after-tha-and-tka
#10
Diren Arsoy, Nicholas J Giori, Steven T Woolson
BACKGROUND: The use of chemoprophylaxis to prevent thromboembolic disease after primary THA and TKA can be associated with postoperative bleeding complications. Mechanical prophylaxis has been studied as an alternative to chemoprophylaxis with greater safety in patients undergoing THA, but no data have been published comparing the safety of chemoprophylaxis versus mechanical methods for patients undergoing TKA. The risk of readmission resulting from bleeding and venous thromboembolism (VTE) has also not been determined for patients undergoing THA or TKA when treated with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) alone compared with mechanical prophylaxis plus aspirin (ASA)...
February 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525076/characterization-of-patients-with-embolic-strokes-of-undetermined-source-in-the-navigate-esus-randomized-trial
#11
Scott E Kasner, Pablo Lavados, Mukul Sharma, Yongjun Wang, Yilong Wang, Antoni Dávalos, Nikolay Shamalov, Luis Cunha, Arne Lindgren, Robert Mikulik, Antonio Arauz, Wilfried Lang, Anna Czlonkowska, Jens Eckstein, Rubens Gagliardi, Pierre Amarenco, Sebastián F Ameriso, Turgut Tatlisumak, Roland Veltkamp, Graeme J Hankey, Danilo S Toni, Daniel Bereczki, Shinichiro Uchiyama, George Ntaios, Byung-Woo Yoon, Raf Brouns, M M DeVries Basson, Matthias Endres, Keith Muir, Natan Bornstein, Serefnur Ozturk, Martin O'Donnell, Hardi Mundl, Calin Pater, Jeffrey Weitz, W Frank Peacock, Balakumar Swaminathan, Bodo Kirsch, Scott D Berkowitz, Gary Peters, Guillaume Pare, Ellison Themeles, Ashkan Shoamanesh, Stuart J Connolly, Robert G Hart
BACKGROUND: The New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial vs. ASA to Prevent Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (NAVIGATE-ESUS) trial is a randomized phase-III trial comparing rivaroxaban versus aspirin in patients with recent ESUS. AIMS: We aimed to describe the baseline characteristics of this large ESUS cohort to explore relationships among key subgroups. METHODS: We enrolled 7213 patients at 459 sites in 31 countries...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523501/impact-of-medication-adherence-on-mortality-and-cardiovascular-morbidity-protocol-for-a-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Maria Giner-Soriano, Gerard Sotorra Figuerola, Jordi Cortés, Helena Pera Pujadas, Ana Garcia-Sangenis, Rosa Morros
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels, such as coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral artery disease. CVD is the leading threat to global health, whether measured by mortality, morbidity, or economic cost. Long-term administration of aspirin, statins, beta-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers improves survival in patients with stablished coronary heart disease...
March 9, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522561/socioeconomic-inequality-in-medication-persistence-in-primary-and-secondary-prevention-of-coronary-heart-disease-a-population-wide-electronic-cohort-study
#13
William King, Arron Lacey, James White, Daniel Farewell, Frank Dunstan, David Fone
BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in England fell by 36% between 2000 and 2007 and it is estimated that approximately 50% of the fall was due to improved treatment uptake. Marked socio-economic inequalities in CHD mortality in the United Kingdom (UK) remain, with higher age-adjusted rates in more deprived groups. Inequalities in the persistence of medication for primary and secondary prevention of CHD may contribute to the observed social gradient and we investigated this possibility in the population of Wales (UK)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519806/cancer-and-platelet-crosstalk-opportunities-and-challenges-for-aspirin-and-other-anti-platelet-agents
#14
Xiaohong Ruby Xu, George M Yousef, Heyu Ni
Platelets have long been recognized as key players in hemostasis and thrombosis; however, growing evidence suggests that they are also significantly involved in cancer, the second leading cause of mortality worldwide. Preclinical and clinical studies showed that tumorigenesis and metastasis can be promoted by platelets through a wide variety of crosstalk between platelets and cancer cells. For example, cancer changes platelet behavior by directly inducing tumor-platelet aggregates, triggering platelet granule and extracellular vesicle release, altering platelet phenotype and platelet RNA profiles, and enhancing thrombopoiesis...
March 8, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512148/eicosanoids-in-platelets-and-the-effect-of-their-modulation-by-aspirin-in-the-cardiovascular-system-and-beyond
#15
REVIEW
Marilena Crescente, Laura Menke, Melissa V Chan, Paul C Armstrong, Timothy D Warner
Platelets are important players in thrombosis and haemostasis with their function being modulated by mediators in the blood and the vascular wall. Among these, eicosanoids can both stimulate or inhibit platelet reactivity. Platelet cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 generated thromboxane (TX) A2 is the primary prostanoid that stimulates platelet aggregation; its action is counter-balanced by prostaglandin (PG)I2 (prostacyclin), a product of vascular COX. PGD2 , PGE2 , 12- hydroxyeicosatraenoic acid (HETE) or 15-HETE, are other prostanoid modulators of platelet activity, but some also play a role in carcinogenesis...
March 7, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505771/aspirin-for-evidence-based-preeclampsia-prevention-trial-effect-of-aspirin-on-length-of-stay-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#16
David Wright, Daniel L Rolnik, Argyro Syngelaki, Catalina de Paco Matallana, Mirian Machuca, Mercedes de Alvarado, Sofia Mastrodima, Min Yi Tan, Siobhan Shearing, Nicola Persico, Jacques C Jani, Walter Plasencia, George Papaioannou, Francisca S Molina, Liona C Poon, Kypros H Nicolaides
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a major pregnancy complication with adverse short- and long-term implications for both the mother and baby. Screening for preeclampsia at 11-13 weeks' gestation by a combination of maternal demographic characteristics and medical history with measurements of biomarkers can identify about 75% of women that develop preterm-preeclampsia with delivery at <37 weeks' gestation and 90% of those with early-preeclampsia at <32 weeks, at a screen positive rate of 10%...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482717/a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-2-trial-of-adjunctive-aspirin-for-tuberculous-meningitis-in-hiv-uninfected-adults
#17
Nguyen Th Mai, Nicholas Dobbs, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Romain A Colas, Le Tp Thao, Nguyen Tt Thuong, Ho Dt Nghia, Nguyen Hh Hanh, Nguyen T Hang, A Dorothee Heemskerk, Jeremy N Day, Lucy Ly, Do DA Thu, Laura Merson, Evelyne Kestelyn, Marcel Wolbers, Ronald Geskus, David Summers, Nguyen Vv Chau, Jesmond Dalli, Guy E Thwaites
Adjunctive dexamethasone reduces mortality from tuberculous meningitis (TBM) but not disability, which is associated with brain infarction. We hypothesised that aspirin prevents TBM-related brain infarction through its anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, and pro-resolution properties. We conducted a randomised controlled trial in HIV-uninfected adults with TBM of daily aspirin 81 mg or 1000 mg, or placebo, added to the first 60 days of anti-tuberculosis drugs and dexamethasone (NCT02237365). The primary safety endpoint was gastro-intestinal or cerebral bleeding by 60 days; the primary efficacy endpoint was new brain infarction confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging or death by 60 days...
February 27, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471572/-cardiovascular-medication-in-elderly-patients
#18
Robert H G Schwinger
Elderly people show increased probability to develop atherosclerotic diseases; in consequence heart failure - most often following coronary heart disease - as well as atrial fibrillation is more common. Following guidelines may lead to polypharmacy, i. e. use of more than 5 drugs daily. Thus, drug interactions as well as side effects become more likely; especially in elderly patients reduced kidney function has to be taken into account. Only drugs which have shown to prolong life or to reduce symptoms in controlled clinical trials should be used...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466201/-antiaggregants-in-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-diseases-and-prevention-of-atherothrombosis-in-patients-with-stable-ischemic-heart-disease-aspects-of-efficacy-and-safety
#19
N B Perepech, I E Mikhaylova
This review is devoted to the use of antiaggregants. We consider here pathogenesis of intraarterial thrombosis, mechanism of action of antiaggregants, and recommendations on the use of drugs of this class for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and prevention of atherothrombotic complications of stable ischemic heart disease. Information on mechanisms of development and causes of resistance to antiaggregants is also presented. Finally we discuss the problem of safety of therapy with antiaggregants, methods of lowering the risk of bleeding, and prevention of aspirin induced gastropathy...
February 2018: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466159/aspirin-or-rivaroxaban-for-vte-prophylaxis-after-hip-or-knee-arthroplasty
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
David R Anderson, Michael Dunbar, John Murnaghan, Susan R Kahn, Peter Gross, Michael Forsythe, Stephane Pelet, William Fisher, Etienne Belzile, Sean Dolan, Mark Crowther, Eric Bohm, Steven J MacDonald, Wade Gofton, Paul Kim, David Zukor, Susan Pleasance, Pantelis Andreou, Steve Doucette, Chris Theriault, Abongnwen Abianui, Marc Carrier, Michael J Kovacs, Marc A Rodger, Doug Coyle, Philip S Wells, Pascal-Andre Vendittoli
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials and meta-analyses have suggested that aspirin may be effective for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (proximal deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) after total hip or total knee arthroplasty, but comparisons with direct oral anticoagulants are lacking for prophylaxis beyond hospital discharge. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial involving patients who were undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty...
February 22, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
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