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Stephanie Blair, Mark J Lake, Rui Ding, Thorsten Sterzing
Different modes of perturbations have been used to understand how individuals negotiate irregular surfaces, with a general notion that increased locomotion variability induces a positive training stimulus. Individuals tend to walk slower when initially exposed to such locomotion tasks, potentially influencing the magnitude and variability of biomechanical parameters. This study investigated theeffects of gait speed on lower extremity biomechanics when walking on an irregular (IS) and regular surface (RS). Twenty physically active males walked on a RS and IS at three different speeds (4 km/h, 5 km/h, 6 km/h)...
April 10, 2018: Human Movement Science
Chloé Vigliotti, Cédric Bicep, Eric Bapteste, Philippe Lopez, Eduardo Corel
Understanding how an animal organism and its gut microbes form an integrated biological organization, known as a holobiont, is becoming a central issue in biological studies. Such an organization inevitably involves a complex web of transmission processes that occur on different scales in time and space, across microbes and hosts. Network-based models are introduced in this chapter to tackle aspects of this complexity and to better take into account vertical and horizontal dimensions of transmission. Two types of network-based models are presented, sequence similarity networks and bipartite graphs...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Shyrle Berrio, Lope H Barrero
OBJECTIVE: Manual flower cutting imposes large biomechanical demands on workers' upper extremities. Solutions are required to reduce these demands. This study investigated the effect of time elapsed since the last pruner maintenance on the biomechanical demands of the upper extremities during flower-cutting operations. METHODS: Sixteen experienced workers were recruited. All workers performed flower cutting 1, 15, and 30 days after standard pruner maintenance, including cleaning, adjustment, and sharpening...
2018: Journal of Agromedicine
Jacob T Carlson, James C Yuen, Matthew R Smeds
Animal bites are fairly rare events but can cause devastating traumatic injuries to the victim. In addition to the soft tissue, vascular, and orthopedic trauma inflicted by these occurrences, bite injuries also have the potential to introduce an inoculum of microbes, which may progress to an infection if not treated properly and expeditiously. We present the case of a healthy male who sustained multiple bite wounds from a domestic zebra to his left upper extremity. This attack caused severe damage, including devascularization of the arm at the brachial artery, disruption of the distal biceps and brachialis, stripping of the forearm nerves, and shearing of the overlying soft tissue...
June 2017: Trauma Case Reports
Sang-Yeol Lee, Su-Kyoung Lee, Su-Hong Ahn
[Purpose] This study aims to determine the effects of various wheelchair handle grip directions on the muscle activities of the upper body of an assistant during movement on ascending and descending ramps. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 17 young and healthy participants whose mean age, height, and weight was 23.0 ± 2.7 years, 175.5 ± 4.7 cm, and 70.0 ± 14.2 kg, respectively; all subjects voluntarily consented to participate. Three grip directions were tested: general grip, medial grip, and neutral grip...
December 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Christopher L Camp, Joshua S Dines, Jelle P van der List, Stan Conte, Justin Conway, David W Altchek, Struan H Coleman, Andrew D Pearle
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiologic reports have demonstrated rising injury rates in Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB). Although several studies have recently been published on specific injuries, the majority of injuries have not yet been formally studied. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to (1) generate a summative analysis of all injuries that occur in MLB and MiLB, (2) identify the 50 most common injuries, and (3) generate focused reports and fact sheets on the characteristics of each of those diagnoses...
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Giuseppe Milano
Biceps autograft can be a viable option for biological augmentation of massive rotator cuff repair, albeit results of this procedure might depend on the surgical technique. In the present qualitative systematic review, 8 case series were analyzed, in which biceps autograft was used as a scaffold or tissue bridge. Indeed, leaving the proximal portion intact and fixing it onto the greater tuberosity can simulate a superior capsule reconstruction, with potentially high biologic and mechanical advantages.
April 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Eric Seth Millstein
We have long been accustomed to treat proximal biceps tendon ruptures with reassurance unless the patient cannot accept the resulting "Popeye" deformity. A recent study hypothesizes that these patients deserve a magnetic resonance imaging scan to identify associated rotator cuff pathology, specifically supraspinatus and subscapularis tendon tears. The authors of this study ask an important question and provide a compelling, if incomplete, answer.
April 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Yung-Sheng Chen, Wai-Lin Lai, Chein-Wen Hou, Che-Hsiu Chen, Yi-Wen Chiu, Pedro Bezzera
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that implementation of the FIFA11+ can immediately increase exercise performance. However, the elapsed time of post-warm up (WU) effect of the FIFA 11+ is unclear. METHODS: Twenty-two male university football players were randomly assigned into the FIFA 11+ (n =10) or control group (conventional dynamic WU exercise, n = 11). The participants performed static, drop jump, and maximal voluntary muscle contraction (MVC) tests before and after the WU protocol in four different occasions with 0, 10, 20 or 30 min resting interval...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Timothy J Mead, Daniel R McCulloch, Jason C Ho, Yaoyao Du, Sheila M Adams, David E Birk, Suneel S Apte
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a significant clinical problem with incompletely resolved mechanisms. Here, the secreted metalloproteinases ADAMTS7 and ADAMTS12 are shown to comprise a unique proteoglycan class that protects against a tendency toward HO in mouse hindlimb tendons, menisci, and ligaments. Adamts7 and Adamts12 mRNAs were sparsely expressed in murine forelimbs but strongly coexpressed in hindlimb tendons, skeletal muscle, ligaments, and meniscal fibrocartilage. Adamts7-/- Adamts12-/- mice, but not corresponding single-gene mutants, which demonstrated compensatory upregulation of the intact homolog mRNA, developed progressive HO in these tissues after 4 months of age...
April 5, 2018: JCI Insight
Michael J Moses, Amoz Z Dai, Dylan T Lowe, Alice Chu, Themistocles S Protopsaltis
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: The use of nerve transfers to restore nerve function following traumatic avulsion injuries has been described, though there is still a paucity in the literature documenting technique and long-term outcomes for these procedures. The double Oberlin nerve transfer involves transferring fascicles from the median and ulnar nerves to the musculocutaneous nerve to restore elbow flexion in patients with a C5-C6 avulsion injury. The purpose of this case report is to present our indications and technique for a double Oberlin transfer in addition to exhibiting video footage at follow-up time points documenting the incremental improvement in elbow flexion following the injury...
April 2, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Fanny Barlaam, Carole Fortin, Marianne Vaugoyeau, Christina Schmitz, Christine Assaiante
Anticipatory postural Adjustments (APAs) cancel the destabilizing effects of movement on posture. Across development, the maturation of APAs is characterized by an accurate adjustment of the timing parameters of electromyographic (EMG) response. The study aimed at investigating the maturation of cortical oscillations involved in the improvement of APAs efficiency. Thirty-six healthy participants (8-16 years) performed the bimanual load-lifting task in which subjects are instructed to lift a load, placed on the left forearm, with the right hand...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Jeffrey P Jaramillo, M Elise Johanson, B Jenny Kiratli
OBJECTIVE: Video gaming as a therapeutic tool has largely been studied within the stroke population with some benefits reported in upper limb motor performance, balance, coordination, and cardiovascular status. To date, muscle activation of upper limb muscles in persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) has not been studied during video game play. In this paper, we provide descriptive and comparative data for muscle activation and strength during gaming for players with tetraplegia and paraplegia, as well as, compare these results with data from traditional arm exercises (ie, biceps curl and shoulder press) with light weights which are commonly prescribed for a home program...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Mark van de Ruit, Michael J Grey
Motor learning has been linked with increases in corticospinal excitability (CSE). However, the robustness of this link is unclear. In this study, changes in CSE associated with learning a visuomotor tracking task were mapped using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TMS maps were obtained before and after training with the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) of the dominant and nondominant hand, and for a distal (FDI) and proximal (biceps brachii) muscle. Tracking performance improved following 20 min of visuomotor training, while map area was unaffected...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Yali Liu, Yuezhen Hong, Linhong Ji
Patients with hemiplegia usually have weak muscle selectivity and usually perform strength at a secondary joint (secondary strength) during performing a strength at one joint (primary strength). The abnormal strength pattern between shoulder and elbow joint has been analyzed by the maximum value while the performing process with strength changing from 0 to maximum then to 0 was a dynamic process. The objective of this study was to develop a method to dynamically analyze the strength changing process. Ten patients were asked to perform four group asks (maximum and 50% maximum voluntary strength in shoulder abduction, shoulder adduction, elbow flexion, and elbow extension)...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Rohit Garg, Safak Uygur, Joanna Cwykiel, Maria Siemionow
BACKGROUND:  Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) is a novel approach to postamputation neuroma pain; however, this has not been explicitly studied. The purpose of this study was to develop a TMR model in hind limb amputated rats. METHODS:  Ten hind limbs from 5 Sprague Dawley cadaver rats were used. Sciatic nerve, main branches of the sciatic nerve (common peroneal, tibial, sural), motor branches from the sciatic nerve to the biceps femoris and cauda femoris, gluteal nerve and its motor branches to the semimembranosus, and biceps femoris and femoral nerve were dissected to look for consistent nerve anatomy that can be used for TMR in the rat hind limb amputation model...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Ke-Vin Chang, Wei-Ting Wu, Kuo-Chin Huang, Wei Han Jan, Der-Sheng Han
BACKGROUND: Dynapenia is prevalent in people with reduced skeletal muscle mass, i.e. sarcopenia, but a certain population develops muscle strength loss despite having normal skeletal muscle volume. To date, studies investigating muscle quality and quantity in groups with dynapenia but not sarcopenia are limited. METHODS: Echogenicity and thickness of the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, rectus femoris, and medial gastrocnemius muscles were measured using high-resolution ultrasonography in 140 community-dwelling elderly adults...
March 28, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Neal Ashton
Background: There is relatively little literature on elbow disease in the horse. The only published reports on soft tissue conditions describe collateral ligament and biceps brachii injuries. Case presentation: A three-year old Thoroughbred gelding presented with a history of acute onset right forelimb lameness of less than one week duration, one month after commencing training in a National Hunt racing yard. Physical examination and peri-neural anaesthesia failed to localise the lesion...
2018: Irish Veterinary Journal
Chang-Yong Ko, Hyuk-Jae Choi, Jeicheong Ryu, Gyoosuk Kim
Measuring the muscle properties of patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) is important to better understand their biomechanical features. In this study, we sought to evaluate the between-day reliability of MyotonPRO, a handheld device that can measure muscle mechanical properties, and assess whether it is reliable to measure muscle properties over time in patients with SCI. Thirteen men with complete SCIs (age 53.9 ± 6.3 years, height 171.0 ± 5.2 cm, weight 66.1 ± 5.8 kg), and injury levels ranging from L1 to T12, were enrolled...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Carlos Eduardo Franciozi, Leonardo José Bernardes Albertoni, Guilherme Conforto Gracitelli, Fernando Cury Rezende, Luiz Felipe Ambra, Fábio Pacheco Ferreira, Marcelo Seiji Kubota, Sheila Jean McNeil Ingham, Marcus Vinícius Malheiros Luzo, Moisés Cohen, Rene Jorge Abdalla
Anatomic posterolateral corner reconstruction reproduces 3 main structures: the lateral collateral ligament, the popliteofibular ligament, and the popliteus tendon. The LaPrade technique reproduces all 3 main stabilizers. However, it requires a long graft, limiting its indication to clinical settings in which allograft tissue is available. We propose a surgical procedure that is a modification of the LaPrade technique using the same tunnel placement, hamstring autografts, and biceps augmentation when necessary...
February 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
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