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Cancer and THR

Kyungho Kim, Jing Li, Andrew Barazia, Alan Tseng, Seock-Won Youn, Giovanni Abbadessa, Yi Yu, Brian Schwartz, Robert K Andrews, Victor R Gordeuk, Jaehyung Cho
Previous studies identified the Ser/Thr protein kinase, AKT, as a therapeutic target for thromboinflammatory diseases. Here we report that specific inhibition of AKT with ARQ 092, an orally-available AKT inhibitor currently in Phase Ib clinical trials as an anti-cancer drug, attenuates the adhesive function of neutrophils and platelets from sickle cell disease patients in vitro and cell-cell interactions in a mouse model of sickle cell disease. Studies using neutrophils and platelets isolated from sickle cell disease patients revealed that treatment with 50-500 nM ARQ 092 significantly blocks αMβ2 integrin function in neutrophils and reduces P-selectin exposure and glycoprotein Ib/IX/V-mediated agglutination in platelets...
October 6, 2016: Haematologica
Kangmin Zhuang, Juchang Zhang, Man Xiong, Xianfei Wang, Xiaobei Luo, Lu Han, Yan Meng, Yali Zhang, Wenting Liao, Side Liu
Abnormal expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) has been found in several human cancers, whereas the role of CDK5 in the malignant development of colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been well characterized. Here we investigated the role of CDK5 in CRC and found that its expression was much higher in CRC tissues than that in normal tissues with a higher expression level of CDK5 closely correlating to advanced American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, poor differentiation, increased tumor size and poor prognosis of CRC...
October 13, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Leiming Li, Yan Li, Jiansong Zhao, Shuli Fan, Liguo Wang, Xu Li
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone tumor, but molecular mechanisms of the disease have not been well understood, and treatment of metastatic OS remains a challenge. Rapid ribosomal RNA synthesis in cancer is transcribed by RNA polymerase I, which results in unbridled cell growth. The recent discovery of CX-5461, a selective RNA polymerase I inhibitor, exerted its inhibitory effect of ribosomal RNA synthesis and antiproliferative potency. Here, we demonstrate that CX-5461 induces G2 arrest in the cell cycle and expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 II isoform in OS cell lines...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
M Zou, A Bhatia, H Dong, P Jayaprakash, J Guo, D Sahu, Y Hou, F Tsen, C Tong, K O'Brien, A J Situ, T Schmidt, M Chen, Q Ying, T S Ulmer, D T Woodley, W Li
Both intracellular and extracellular heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) family proteins (α and β) have been shown to support tumour progression. The tumour-supporting activity of the intracellular Hsp90 is attributed to their N-terminal ATPase-driven chaperone function. What molecular entity determines the extracellular function of secreted Hsp90 and the distinction between Hsp90α and Hsp90β was unclear. Here we demonstrate that CRISPR/Case9 knocking out Hsp90α nullifies tumour cells' ability to migrate, invade and metastasize without affecting the cell survival and growth...
October 10, 2016: Oncogene
Zhongwei Li, Pingfu Hou, Dongmei Fan, Meichen Dong, Musong Ma, Hongyuan Li, Ruosi Yao, Yuxin Li, Guannan Wang, Pengyu Geng, Adhanom Mihretab, Dongxu Liu, Yu Zhang, Baiqu Huang, Jun Lu
EZH2 (the Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2), as a key epigenetic regulator and EMT inducer, participates in a variety of cancer metastasis. EZH2 stability is regulated by several types of post-translational modifications (PTMs).The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) have been implicated to have critical roles in multiple carcinogenesis through a wide range of mechanisms, including modulating the stability of proteins. To date, whether the stability of EZH2 protein is regulated by lncRNAs remains unexplored. Here we report the discovery of ANCR modulating the stability of EZH2, and hence in the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells...
October 7, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Yi-Shu Wang, Jianfeng Chen, Fengmei Cui, Huibo Wang, Shuai Wang, Wei Hang, Qinghua Zeng, Cheng-Shi Quan, Ying-Xian Zhai, Jian-Wei Wang, Xiang-Feng Shen, Yong-Ping Jian, Rui-Xun Zhao, Kaitlin D Werle, Rutao Cui, Jiyong Liang, Yu-Lin Li, Zhi-Xiang Xu
Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) functions as a tumor suppressor encoded by STK11, a gene that mutated in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and in sporadic cancers. Previous studies showed that LKB1 participates in IR- and ROS-induced DNA damage response (DDR). However, the impact of LKB1 mutations on targeted cancer therapy remains unknown. Herein, we demonstrated that LKB1 formed DNA damage-induced nuclear foci and co-localized with ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM), γ-H2AX, and breast cancer susceptibility 1 (BRCA1)...
September 29, 2016: Oncotarget
Danian Dai, Bo Chen, Bin Wang, Hailin Tang, Xing Li, Zhiping Zhao, Xuan Li, Xiaoming Xie, Weidong Wei
PURPOSE: Previous studies have reported that the triacylglycerol (TG) level and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are connected with breast cancer. However, the prognostic utility of the TG level and the TG/HDL-C ratio (THR) as conventional biomarkers in patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has not been elucidated. In this research, we investigate and compare the predictive value of the pretreatment serum TG level and THR in TNBC patients. METHODS: We evaluated 221 patients with TNBC who had pretreatment conventional blood biochemical examinations and calculated the THR...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Pardhasaradhi Mathi, Ganesh Kumar Veeramachaneni, K Kranthi Raj, Venkateswara Rao Talluri, Venkata Raman Bokka, Mahendran Botlagunta
Sophora interrupta Bedd, (Fabaceae) is used in Indian folk medicine to treat cancer. Angiogenesis is one of the crucial characteristics of cancer metastasis and is regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study, we examined the antiangiogenic properties of the root ethyl acetate extract of Sophora interrupta by various methods. In vitro antioxidant activity (100-600 μg/ml) of S. interrupta ethyl acetate (SEA) extract was evaluated by DPPH and ABTS, anti-inflammatory activity (50, 100 and 150 μg/ml) by estimating nitric oxide (NO) levels, anti-angiogenic activity (200 and 500 μg/ml) was validated by chorio allantoic membrane (CAM) assay and in silico molecular dynamic (MD) simulations analyses (25 ns) were performed to identify the anti-angiogenic compounds extracted from root extract...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
C Fu, H Zhao, Y Wang, H Cai, Y Xiao, Y Zeng, H Chen
Glycosylation is one of the major posttranslational modifications of proteins. N-glycosylation (Asn-linked) and O-glycosylation (Ser/Thr-linked) are the two main forms. Abnormal O-glycosylation is frequently observed on the surface of tumor cells, and is associated with an adverse outcome and poor prognosis in patients with cancer. O-glycans (Tn, sTn, and T antigen) can be synthesized in the Golgi apparatus with the aid of several glycosyltransferases (such as T-synthase and ST6GalNAc-I) in a suitable environment...
September 28, 2016: HLA
Carlos A Tairum, Melina Cardoso Santos, Carlos A Breyer, R Ryan Geyer, Cecilia J Nieves, Stephanie Portillo-Ledesma, Gerardo Ferrer-Sueta, José Carlos Toledo, Marcos H Toyama, Ohara Augusto, Luis E S Netto, Marcos A de Oliveira
Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxins (2-Cys Prxs) reduce hydroperoxides with extraordinary rates due to an active site composed of a catalytic triad, containing a peroxidatic cysteine (CP), an Arg, and a Thr (or Ser). 2-Cys Prx are involved in processes such as cancer; neurodegeneration and host-pathogen interactions. During catalysis, 2-Cys Prxs switch between decamers and dimers. Analysis of 2-Cys Prx structures in the fully folded (but not locally unfolded) form revealed a highly conserved, non-conventional hydrogen bond (CH-π) between the catalytic triad Thr of a dimer with an aromatic residue of an adjacent dimer...
2016: Scientific Reports
Omid Haji-Ghassemi, Michel Gilbert, Jenifer Spence, Melissa J Schur, Matthew J Parker, Meredith L Jenkins, John E Burke, Henk van Faassen, N Martin Young, Stephen V Evans
Aberrant glycosylation and the overexpression of specific carbohydrate epitopes is a hallmark of many cancers, and tumor-associated oligo-saccharides are actively investigated as targets for immunotherapy and diagnostics. Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) is a legume lectin that recognizes terminal N-acetylgalactosaminides with high affinity. WFA preferentially binds the disaccharide LacdiNAc (β-D-GalNAc-[1→4]-D-GlcNAc), which is associated with tumor malignancy in leukemia, prostate, pancreatic, ovarian, and liver cancers, and has shown promise in cancer glycobiomarker detection...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
L Hu, X Li, Q Liu, J Xu, H Ge, Z Wang, H Wang, Z Wang, C Shi, X Xu, J Huang, Z Lin, R O Pieper, C Weng
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain cancer in adults. However, the molecular events underlying carcinogenesis and their interplay remain elusive. Here, we report that the stability of Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2S (UBE2S) is regulated by the PTEN/Akt pathway and that its degradation depends on the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Mechanistically, Akt1 physically interacted with and phosphorylated UBE2S at Thr 152, enhancing its stability by inhibiting proteasomal degradation...
September 5, 2016: Oncogene
Zhaohui Xue, Haichao Wen, Cen Wang, Lijuan Zhai, Aiqing Cheng, Xiaohong Kou
It was previously found that CPe-III-S, synthesized according to the chickpea peptide CPe-III (RQSHFANAQP), exhibited an antiproliferative effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiproliferative mechanism of CPe-III-S. CPe-III-S was treated by pepsin and trypsin in a simulated gastrointestinal digestion environment as well as in an animal experiment. With HPLC-ESI-MS analysis, three peptide fragments of Ser-His, His-Phe, and Ala-Asn-Ala-Gln were identified. Ser-His was the only common product from both in vitro and in vivo environments...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Nooshin Mirkheshti, Sulgi Park, Shoulei Jiang, Jodie Cropper, Sherry L Werner, Chung S Song, Bandana Chatterjee
Androgen receptor (AR) and PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 are major survival signals that drive prostate cancer to a lethal disease. Reciprocal activation of these oncogenic pathways from negative cross talks contributes to low/limited success of pathway-selective inhibitors in curbing prostate cancer progression. We report that the antibiotic salinomycin, a cancer stem cell blocker, is a dual-acting AR and mTORC1 inhibitor, inhibiting PTEN-deficient castration-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer in culture and xenograft tumors...
August 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Chia-Wen Ho, Chi-Yu Lin, Yi-Wei Liaw, Hsiao-Ling Chiang, Yu-Tang Chin, Rui-Lan Huang, Hung-Cheng Lai, Yaw-Wen Hsu, Po-Jan Kuo, Chiao-En Chen, Hung-Yan Lin, Jacqueline Whang-Peng, Shin Nieh, Earl Fu, Leroy F Liu, Jaulang Hwang
Tn antigen (GalNAc-α-O-Ser/Thr), a mucin-type O-linked glycan, is a well-established cell surface marker for tumors and its elevated levels have been correlated with cancer progression and prognosis. There are also reports that Tn is elevated in inflammatory tissues. However, the molecular mechanism for its elevated levels in cancer and inflammation is unclear. In the current studies, we have explored the possibility that cytokines may be one of the common regulatory molecules for elevated Tn levels in both cancer and inflammation...
August 17, 2016: Oncotarget
Haiyan Yan, Kaishun Hu, Wenjing Wu, Yu Li, Huan Tian, Zhonghua Chu, H Phillip Koeffler, Dong Yin
Dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 2 (DYRK2) is a member of dual-specificity kinase family, which could phosphorylate both Ser/Thr and Tyr substrates. The role of DYRK2 in human cancer remains controversial. For example, overexpression of DYRK2 predicts a better survival in human non-small cell lung cancer. In contrast, amplification of DYRK2 gene occurs in esophageal/lung adenocarcinoma, implying the role of DYRK2 as a potential oncogene. However, its clinical role in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been explored...
2016: PloS One
Yuki Kawasaki, Ayaka Sakimura, Chul Min Park, Rika Tomaru, Tomohiro Tanaka, Tatsuhiko Ozawa, Yue Zhou, Kaori Narita, Hiroyuki Kishi, Atsushi Muraguchi, Hiroaki Sakurai
Tyrosine kinase activity of the asymmetric EGFR homodimer is negatively regulated via ERK-mediated phosphorylation of Thr-669 in the juxtamembrane domain. In the present study, we investigated in human breast cancer cells whether a similar mechanism plays a role in the feedback regulation of the ErbB2/ErbB3 heterodimer, the most potent ErbB receptor dimer. Constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of ErbB2 and ErbB3 was significantly decreased in phorbol ester- and growth factor-treated BT-474 and MDA-MB-453 cells...
2016: Scientific Reports
Karolina Tecza, Jolanta Pamula-Pilat, Joanna Lanuszewska, Ewa Grzybowska
Clinical resistance to chemotherapy is one of the major problems in breast cancer treatment. In this study we analyzed possible impact of 22 polymorphic variants on the treatment response in 324 breast cancer patients. Selected genes were involved in FAC chemotherapy drugs transport (ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCG2, SLC22A16), metabolism (CYP1B1, CYP2C19, GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1, TYMS, MTHFR, DPYD), drug-induced damage repair (ERCC1, ERCC2, XRCC1) and involved in regulation of DNA damage response and cell cycle control (ATM, TP53)...
August 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Chad R Borges, Douglas S Rehder
Disagreement exists regarding the O-glycan structure attached to human vitamin D binding protein (DBP). Previously reported evidence indicated that the O-glycan of the Gc1S allele product is the linear core 1 NeuNAc-Gal-GalNAc-Thr trisaccharide. Here, glycan structural evidence is provided from glycan linkage analysis and over 30 serial glycosidase-digestion experiments which were followed by analysis of the intact protein by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Results demonstrate that the O-glycan from the Gc1F protein is the same linear trisaccharide found on the Gc1S protein and that the hexose residue is galactose...
September 15, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Jun Sang Bae, Sang Jae Noh, Kyoung Min Kim, Kyu Yun Jang, Ho Sung Park, Myoung Ja Chung, Byung-Hyun Park, Woo Sung Moon
Phosphorylation of proteins on serine/threonine residues that precede proline (pSer/Thr-Pro) is specifically catalyzed by the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase PIN1. PIN1-mediated prolyl-isomerization induces cell cycle arrest and growth inhibition through the regulation of target proteins, including TP53. We examined whether PIN1 acts in a different manner according to TP53 gene status in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the expression of PIN1 and TP53 proteins in 119 HCC tissue samples. We also analyzed PIN1 expression in combination with TP53 gene mutation and its correlation with the clinical outcome...
October 2016: Oncology Reports
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