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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425200/high-dose-calcineurin-inhibitor-free-everolimus-as-a-maintenance-regimen-for-heart-transplantation-may-be-a-risk-factor-for%C3%A2-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#1
Yu-Ning Hu, Nan-Yao Lee, Jun-Neng Roan, Chi-Hsin Hsu, Chwan-Yao Luo
BACKGROUND: Everolimus reduces the incidence of cardiac-allograft vasculopathy (CAV) and is less renally toxic than are calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). We evaluated the safety of CNI-free everolimus for post-heart transplant (HTx) patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 36 consecutive patients who had undergone an HTx between January 2006 and December 2013 in National Cheng Kung University Hospital. All patients initially had been treated with the standard tacrolimus regimen...
April 20, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413102/-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-healthy-carrier-individuals-in-primary-care-in-barcelona-area
#2
Carles Llor, Albert Boada, Mariona Pons-Vigués, Elisabet Grenzner, Rosa Juvé, Jesús Almeda
INTRODUCTION: The information available on antibiotic resistance patterns are generally based on specimens from hospitalised individuals. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibiotic resistance rate of nasal carriage strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy individuals, in accordance with age and gender, attended in Primary Care Centres (PCC). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Seven PCC in the Barcelona area...
April 13, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401321/circulating-genotypes-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-and-its-clinical-correlation-in-patients-from-a-single-tertiary-center-in-india
#3
Y Singh, B R Mirdha, R Guleria, S Khalil, A Panda, R Chaudhry, A Mohan, S K Kabra, L Kumar, S K Agarwal
The present study was carried out with the objectives of genotyping Pneumocystis jirovecii at three distinct loci, to identify the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and to study its clinical implications in patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). Analysis of genetic diversity in P. jirovecii from immunocompromised patients was carried out by genotyping at three distinct loci encoding mitochondrial large subunit rRNA (mtLSU rRNA), cytochrome b (CYB), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays followed by direct DNA sequencing...
April 11, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399687/low-prevalence-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-hospitalized-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-review-of-a-clinical-data-warehouse
#4
T M Kapoor, P Mahadeshwar, S Nguyen, J Li, S Kapoor, J Bathon, J Giles, A Askanase
Objective In the era of powerful immunosuppression, opportunistic infections are an increasing concern in systemic lupus erythematosus. One of the best-studied opportunistic infections is Pneumocystis pneumonia; however, the prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia in systemic lupus erythematosus is not clearly defined. This study evaluates the prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia in hospitalized systemic lupus erythematosus patients, with a focus on validating the Pneumocystis pneumonia and systemic lupus erythematosus diagnoses with clinical information...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389165/cytomegalovirus-retinitis-followed-by-immune-recovery-uveitis-in-an-elderly-patient-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-undergoing-administration-of-methotrexate-and-tofacitinib-combination-therapy
#5
Kunio Yanagisawa, Yoshiyuki Ogawa, Mayumi Hosogai, Daisuke Todokoro, Takeki Mitsui, Akihiko Yokohama, Shoji Kishi, Hiroshi Handa
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is an opportunistic ocular infection most commonly observed in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We present a rare case of CMV retinitis that developed in a non-HIV patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Over the preceding 5 months, a family doctor had been treating the 78-year-old male patient with a combination therapy of methotrexate (MTX) and tofacitinib (TOF). CMV retinitis occurred when the patient's CD4+ T cells were low (196 cells/μl), and preceded the onset of Pneumocystis pneumonia...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378239/usefulness-of-1-3-beta-d-glucan-detection-in-non-hiv-immunocompromised-mechanical-ventilated-critically-ill-patients-with-ards-and-suspected-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia
#6
Tobias Lahmer, Clarissa Prazeres da Costa, Jürgen Held, Sebastian Rasch, Ursula Ehmer, Roland M Schmid, Wolfgang Huber
INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a major cause of disease in immunocompromised individuals. Diagnosis is typically obtained by microscopy and/or PCR. For ambiguous PCR results, we evaluated the new biomarker 1,3-Beta-D-Glucan (BDG). METHODS: BDG serum levels were assessed and correlated to PCR results in immunosuppressed patients with ARDS. RESULTS: 11 (22%) out of 50 patients had suspected PCP. APACHE II (26 vs. 24; p < 0...
April 4, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361121/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-data-behind-current-recommendations-for-corticosteroids-in-non-hiv-related-pcp-knowing-when-you-are-on-shaky-foundations
#7
Patil Injean, Samantha J Eells, Hoover Wu, Imani McElroy, Aric L Gregson, James A McKinnell
BACKGROUND: Randomized trials show a mortality benefit to adjunctive corticosteroids for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (HIV-PCP). Guidelines for non-HIV PCP (NH-PCP) recommend adjunctive corticosteroids based on expert opinion. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis characterizing adjunctive corticosteroids for NH-PCP. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE from 1966 through 2015. Data on clinical outcomes from NH-PCP were extracted with a standardized instrument...
March 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358900/detection-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-in-oral-wash-from-immunosuppressed-patients-as-a-diagnostic-tool
#8
Cecilie Juul Hviid, Marianne Lund, Allan Sørensen, Svend Ellermann-Eriksen, Bente Jespersen, Mette Yde Dam, Jens Frederik Dahlerup, Thomas Benfield, Sanne Jespersen, Lars Jørgen Østergaard, Alex Lund Laursen
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii (PJ) pneumonia ordinarily requires invasive procedures that could be avoided by PCR methodologies, if these could be designed with adequate cut-off values for confounding background carriage. METHODS: We designed a novel quantitative real-time PCR assay to detect the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene of PJ in oral washes. To benchmark levels of PJ carriage versus infection, we tested asymptomatic immunosuppressed patients including Danish (n = 88) and West African HIV-infected (n = 142) patients, renal transplant recipients (n = 51), rheumatologic patients (n = 102), patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (n = 98), and healthy blood donors (controls, n = 50)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355738/-research-on-risk-factors-of-short-term-outcome-in-aids-patients-with-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#9
A X Li, C Y Huang, H W Zhang, T Zhang, H Wu, W Wang
Objective: To investigate the prognostic risk factors of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), and to establish risk models for predicting early outcome. Methods: The clinical data of 418 AIDS patients with PCP admitted to Department of Infectious Diseases, Beijing You'an Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2008 to May 2016 were retrospectively analyzed.The patients were divided into death group and survival group according to clinical outcome during hospitalization...
March 21, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340117/an-evaluation-of-the-performance-of-the-dynamiker%C3%A2-fungus-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-assay-to-assist-in-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-invasive-candidiasis-and-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#10
P Lewis White, Jessica S Price, Raquel B Posso, Rosemary A Barnes
Invasive fungal disease (IFD) can be caused by a range of pathogens. Conventional diagnosis has the capacity to detect most causes of IFD, but poor performance limits impact. The introduction of non-culture diagnostics, including the detection of (1-3)-β-D-Glucan (BDG), has shown promising performance for the detection of IFD in variety of clinical settings. Recently, the Dynamiker® Fungus (1-3)-β-D-Glucan assay (D-BDG) was released as an IFD diagnostic test. This article describes an evaluation of the D-BDG assay for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA), invasive candidiasis (IC) and Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) across several high-risk patient cohorts and provides comparative data with the Associates of Cape Cod Fungitell® and BioRad Platelia™ Aspergillus Ag (GM) assays...
March 3, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339756/molecular-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-dogs
#11
Patrizia Danesi, Silvia Ravagnan, Lynelle R Johnson, Tommaso Furlanello, Adelaide Milani, Patricia Martin, Susan Boyd, Matthew Best, Bradley Galgut, Peter Irwin, Paul J Canfield, Mark B Krockenberger, Catriona Halliday, Wieland Meyer, Richard Malik
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening fungal disease that can occur in dogs. The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary genetic characterisation of Pneumocystis carinii f.sp.'canis' (P. canis) in dogs and thereby develop a reliable molecular protocol to definitively diagnose canine PCP. We investigated P. canis in a variety of lung specimens from dogs with confirmed or strongly suspected PCP (Group 1, n = 16), dogs with non-PCP lower respiratory tract problems (Group 2, n = 65) and dogs not suspected of having PCP or other lower respiratory diseases (Group 3, n = 11)...
February 23, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339533/pneumocystis-pneumonia-versus-rituximab-induced-interstitial-lung-disease-in-lymphoma-patients-receiving-rituximab-containing-chemotherapy
#12
Se Yoon Park, Mi Young Kim, Won Jin Choi, Dok Hyun Yoon, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Cheolwon Suh, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
It is difficult to differentiate Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) from rituximab-induced interstitial lung disease (RILD) in lymphoma patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates who are receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy. Using a clinical scoring system, we aim to differentiate PCP from RILD who are receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy. We reviewed the medical records of lymphoma patients who had received rituximab-containing chemotherapy between 2012 and 2015 in a tertiary hospital. Among 613 lymphoma patients receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy, 97 (16%) had diffuse pulmonary infiltrates...
October 7, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316430/comparison-of-three-cost-effective-staining-methods-for-detection-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#13
Mohamad Mohsen Homayouni, Ali Rostami, Hamed Gholizadeh, Amir Sayed Ali Mehbod, Maryam Ebrahimi, Saeed Mehravar
Pneumocystis pneumonia due to Pneumocystis jirovecii infection is an emerging health problem not only for HIV-infected patients but also for other immunocompromised patients in many countries. We compared Gomori methenamine silver (GMS), Toluidine Blue O (TBO) and Giemsa staining methods using standard procedures. The sensitivity and specificity of GMS were 100 %. The sensitivity and specificity of TBO were 96 and 100 %, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of Giemsa stain were 84 and 90 %, respectively...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303545/low-prevalence-of-dhfr-and-dhps-mutations-in-pneumocystis-jirovecii-strains-obtained-from-a-german-cohort
#14
Isabelle Suárez, Lisa Roderus, Edeltraud van Gumpel, Norma Jung, Clara Lehmann, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Pia Hartmann, Georg Plum, Jan Rybniker
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic and potentially life-threatening infection of immunocompromised individuals. A combination of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is widely used for prophylaxis and treatment of PCP. Polymorphisms in the drug targets, the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) or the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are presumably a reason for treatment failure. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the prevalence of DHPS and DHFR mutations in Pneumocystis jirovecii isolates obtained from HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected PCP patients...
March 16, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302661/severe-co-trimoxazole-induced-hypoglycaemia-in-a-patient-with-microscopic-polyangiitis
#15
Thomas Edward Conley, Atif Mohiuddin, Noshaba Naz
A 69-year-old man presented to the emergency department with lower respiratory tract infection and febrile neutropaenia. He was recently discharged following a 50-day hospital stay with newly diagnosed microscopic polyangiitis, complicated by pulmonary haemorrhage and severe renal dysfunction requiring renal replacement therapy, plasma exchange and immunosuppression (cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone). High risk of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) led to an escalation in treatment from prophylactic to therapeutic oral co-trimoxazole, alongside broad-spectrum antibiotics...
March 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301552/radiological-characteristics-of-pulmonary-cryptococcosis-in-hiv-infected-patients
#16
Zhiliang Hu, Jun Chen, Juan Wang, Qingfang Xiong, Yandan Zhong, Yongfeng Yang, Chuanjun Xu, Hongxia Wei
BACKGROUND: Current understanding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated pulmonary cryptococcosis (PC) is largely based on studies performed about 2 decades ago which reported that the most common findings on chest radiograph were diffuse interstitial infiltrates. Few studies are available regarding the computed tomography (CT) findings. The aim of this study was to characterize chest CT features of HIV-associated PC. METHODS: HIV patients with cryptococccal infection and pulmonary abnormalities on Chest CT between September 2010 and May 2016 in the Second Affiliated Hospital of the Southeast University were retrospectively analyzed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298521/the-interaction-of-pneumocystis-with-the-c-type-lectin-receptor-mincle-exerts-a-significant-role-in-host-defense-against-infection
#17
Theodore J Kottom, Deanne M Hebrink, Paige E Jenson, Vijayalakshmi Nandakumar, Marcel Wüthrich, Huafeng Wang, Bruce Klein, Sho Yamasaki, Bernd Lepenies, Andrew H Limper
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality within immunocompromised patients. In this study, we examined the potential role of macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) for host defense against Pneumocystis Binding assays implementing soluble Mincle carbohydrate recognition domain fusion proteins demonstrated binding to intact Pneumocystis carinii as well as to organism homogenates, and they purified major surface glycoprotein/glycoprotein A derived from the organism. Additional experiments showed that rats with PCP expressed increased Mincle mRNA levels...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287010/diagnosis-and-management-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-infection
#18
P Lewis White, Matthijs Backx, Rosemary A Barnes
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a ubiquitous fungus, which causes pneumonia in humans. Diagnosis was hampered by the inability to culture the organism, and based on microscopic examination of respiratory samples or clinical presentation. New assays can assist in the diagnosis and even aid with the emergence of resistant infections. Areas covered: This manuscript will provide background information on Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP). Diagnosis, from radiological to non-microbiological (e.g. Lactate dehydrogenase) and microbiological investigations (Microscopy, PCR, β-D-Glucan) will be discussed...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280256/late-onset-cerebral-toxoplasmosis-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
Ahmed M Khalaf, Mahmoud A Hashim, Mohammed Alsharabati, Kenneth Fallon, Joel K Cure, Peter Pappas, Shin Mineishi, Ayman Saad
BACKGROUND Toxoplasmosis is an uncommon but potentially fatal complication following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Post-transplant toxoplasmosis is often a reactivation of prior infection and typically occurs within the first 6 months of transplant. Herein, we report that cerebral toxoplasmosis may occur 22 months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. CASE REPORT We describe a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis that occurred 22 months after an allogeneic HCT while the patient was on aerosolized pentamidine for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277413/community-primary-care-provider-preferences-for-emergency-department-follow-up-recommendations-a-regional-study
#20
Marissa A Hendrickson, Eta Obeya, Andrew R Wey, Philippe R Gaillard
BACKGROUND: Children who present to emergency departments (EDs) for care are frequently advised to follow up with their primary care providers (PCPs) after discharge; little is known about whether PCPs agree that follow-up advised by EDs is appropriate for their patients. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine PCP preferences for follow-up recommendations given to their pediatric patients at the time of ED visits and to compare these preferences to reported emergency medicine provider (EMP) practice...
March 9, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
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