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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330709/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-iclaprim-a-diaminopyrimidine-compound-and-potential-therapeutic-alternative-against-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#1
E M Aliouat, E Dei-Cas, N Gantois, M Pottier, C Pinçon, S Hawser, A Lier, D B Huang
Pneumocystis pneumonia is a serious complication that may affect immunosuppressed patients. The absence of reliable and safe therapeutic alternatives to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) justifies the search for more effective and less toxic agents. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo anti-Pneumocystis jirovecii activity of iclaprim, a diaminopyrimidine compound that exerts its antimicrobial activity through the inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), as does TMP, was evaluated alone or in combination with SMX...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319770/factors-associated-with-hospital-mortality-in-renal-transplant-patients-admitted-to-the-intensive-care-unit-with-acute-respiratory-failure
#2
Rafael Mendes da Silva, Flavio Geraldo Rezende de Freitas, Antonio Tonete Bafi, Hélio Tedesco Silva Junior, Bartira de Aguiar Roza
INTRODUCTION: The lungs are often involved in a variety of complications after kidney transplantation. Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is one of the most serious manifestations of pulmonary involvement. OBJECTIVE: To describe the main causes of ARF in kidney transplant patients who require intensive care and identify the factors associated with mortality. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated adult patients with ARF admitted to the intensive care unit of a center with high volume of transplants from August 2013 to August 2015...
October 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258242/successful-treatment-of-pulmonary-and-cerebral-toxoplasmosis-associated-with-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-an-hiv-patient
#3
Marie-Françoise Rey, Charles Mary, Diane Sanguinetti, Stéphane Ranque, Christophe Bartoli, Coralie L'Ollivier
In both the post and pre combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, Pneumocystis jirovecii and Toxoplasma gondii remain common opportunistic infectious agents. The common manifestations are pneumonia for P. jirovecii and brain abscess for T. gondii. Nevertheless, co-infection remains rare, and pulmonary toxoplasmosis is scarce, or may be underestimated because of its similarity with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. We reported an uncommon case of an AIDS patient (6 CD4 + T cells/mm³) with both pulmonary and cerebral toxoplasmosis associated with pneumocystis pneumonia...
December 18, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234922/pharmacokinetically-targeted-dosed-everolimus-maintenance-therapy-in-lymphoma-patients
#4
L K Schoch, A Asiama, M Zahurak, S Shanbhag, J Hurtt, K Sawyer, L J Swinnen, N Wagner-Johnston, R J Jones, R F Ambinder, Douglas E Gladstone
BACKGROUND: Everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, is active in refractory lymphomas. However, toxicity with flat dosing limits its usage. Speculatively, pharmacokinetically-targeted dosing could improve tolerability. Therefore, we studied serum-trough dosing with rituximab as maintenance after high-dose cyclophosphamide (HDC) consolidation in lymphoma patients. PATIENTS/METHODS: After HDC, everolimus was dosed to serum trough levels (goal 3-15 ng/mL), with quarterly rituximab infusions for 1 year while maintaining < grade II non-hematologic and < grade III hematologic toxicities...
December 13, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228377/genotyping-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-in-colonized-patients-with-various-pulmonary-diseases
#5
Magdalena Sokulska, Marta Kicia, Maria Wesolowska, Pawel Piesiak, Aneta Kowal, Maria Luísa Lobo, Zaneta Kopacz, Andrzej B Hendrich, Olga Matos
Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic fungus causing Pneumocystis pneumonia primarily in immunosuppressed patients. However, immunocompetent individuals may become colonized and, as asymptomatic carriers, serve as reservoirs of the pathogen. Moreover, these asymptomatic carriers are at higher risk of developing pneumonia if favorable conditions occur. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of P. jirovecii in patients with various pulmonary diseases and to characterize the genetic diversity of organisms circulating in the studied population...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221274/predictors-of-high-flow-nasal-cannula-failure-in-immunocompromised-patients-with-acute-respiratory-failure-due-to-non-hiv-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#6
Won-Young Kim, Heungsup Sung, Sang-Bum Hong, Chae-Man Lim, Younsuck Koh, Jin Won Huh
Background: To evaluate the predictors of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) failure in pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Methods: Fifty-two non-HIV-related PCP subjects were divided into a HFNC success group (44%) and a HFNC failure group (who required mechanical ventilation (MV) despite HFNC application) (56%). The clinical characteristics and physiologic effects were retrospectively reviewed and compared between the groups...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211898/bilateral-upper-lobe-pneumocystis-pneumonia-during-aerosolized-pentamidine-prophylaxis
#7
Yoshiyuki Ohara, Takanori Asakura, Soichiro Ueda, Yoshitake Yamada, Makoto Ishii, Tomoko Betsuyaku
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202739/the-lung-microbiome-in-patients-with-pneumocystosis
#8
J Kehrmann, B Veckollari, D Schmidt, O Schildgen, V Schildgen, N Wagner, M Zeschnigk, L Klein-Hitpass, O Witzke, J Buer, J Steinmann
BACKROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic fungal infection that is associated with a high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. In this study, we analysed the microbiome of the lower respiratory tract from critically ill intensive care unit patients with and without pneumocystosis. METHODS: Broncho-alveolar fluids from 65 intubated and mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients (34 PCP+ and 31 PCP- patients) were collected...
December 4, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191821/follicular-bronchiolitis-in-an-hiv-infected-individual-on-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-with-low-cd4-cell-count-but-sustained-viral-suppression
#9
Line D Rasmussen, Court Pedersen, Helle D Madsen, Christian B Laursen
A 36-year-old Danish man, living in Asia, was diagnosed with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and HIV in 2013 (CD4+ count: 6 cells/µL; viral load: 518 000 copies/mL). He initiated combination antiretroviral therapy. Later that year, he was also diagnosed with granulomatosis with polyangiitis and was treated with prednisolone. Despite complete viral suppression and increasing CD4+ count (162 cells/µL), he was readmitted with PCP in April 2015. Subsequently, he returned to Denmark (CD4+ count: 80 cells/µL, viral suppression)...
November 29, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190812/diagnostic-performance-of-the-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-assay-in-patients-with-pneumocystis-jirovecii-compared-with-those-with-candidiasis-aspergillosis-mucormycosis-and-tuberculosis-and-healthy-volunteers
#10
Hyo-Ju Son, Heungsup Sung, Se Yoon Park, Taeeun Kim, Hyun Jeong Lee, Sun-Mi Kim, Yong Pil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) relies on microscopic visualization of P. jirovecii, or detection of Pneumocystis DNA in respiratory specimens, which involves invasive procedures such as bronchoalveolar lavage. The (1-3)-β-D-glucan (BG) assay has been proposed as a less invasive and less expensive diagnostic test to rule out PCP. We therefore compared blood levels of BG in patients with PCP with those of patients with candidemia, chronic disseminated candidiasis (CDC), invasive aspergillosis, mucormycosis, and tuberculosis and those of healthy volunteers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181029/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-infections-requiring-hospitalization-including-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-japanese-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#11
Atsushi Hashimoto, Shiori Suto, Kouichiro Horie, Hidefumi Fukuda, Shinichi Nogi, Kanako Iwata, Hirotaka Tsuno, Hideki Ogihara, Misato Kawakami, Akiko Komiya, Hiroshi Furukawa, Toshihiro Matsui, Shigeto Tohma
Objective: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be complicated by different infections, but risk factors for these are not fully elucidated. Here, we assessed the incidence of and risk factors for infections requiring hospitalization (IRH) including pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in patients with RA. Methods: We retrospectively surveyed all RA patients treated at our hospital from 2009 to 2013, for whom data were available on demographic features, medications, comorbidities, and severity of RA...
2017: International Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142521/fatal-infections-in-older-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-on-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-therapy
#12
Way-Seah Lee, Najib Azmi, Ruey-Terng Ng, Sik-Yong Ong, Sasheela Sri La Ponnampalavanar, Sanjiv Mahadeva, Ida Hilmi
Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) is highly effective in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, it is associated with an increased risk of infections, particularly in older adults. We reviewed 349 patients with IBD, who were observed over a 12-month period, 74 of whom had received anti-TNF therapy (71 patients were aged <60 years and 3 were aged ≥60 years). All the 3 older patients developed serious infectious complications after receiving anti-TNFs, although all of them were also on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy...
October 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138020/moyamoya-syndrome-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-congenital-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection-resulting-in-intracranial-hemorrhage
#13
Junko Yamanaka, Ikuma Nozaki, Mizue Tanaka, Hideko Uryuu, Noriko Sato, Takeji Matsushita, Hiroyuki Shichino
In the era of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection affected children can expect a better prognosis, the importance of careful follow up of pediatric HIV-1 cases for neurological complications has been growing. We present a case of hemorrhagic Moyamoya syndrome in a child with congenital HIV-1 infection. A 10-year-old girl was referred to our hospital for the treatment of Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia (PCP: Pneumocystis pneumonia). Her HIV-1 control was poor and Moyamoya syndrome was found during the opportunistic infection screening at admission...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135400/-the-comparison-of-microscopy-and-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-methods-for-the-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-evaluation-of-clinical-parameters
#14
Seray Töz, Cumhur Gündüz, Aslı Tetik, Meltem Taşbakan, Hüsnü Pullukçu, Feza Bacakoğlu, Mehmet Sezai Taşbakan, Figen Gülen, Ayşegül Ünver, Nevin Turgay
Introduction: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) causes serious infections, especially in patients with immunosuppressive diseases. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the results of samples obtained from PCP suspected patients using two different methods together with clinical data. Materials and Methods: Microscopy and real time polymerase chain reaction (real time PCR) methods were performed with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples sended to Ege University Medical Faculty Direct Parasitology Diagnostic Laboratory between March 2009 and June 2010...
September 2017: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132070/sixteen-year-history-of-rituximab-therapy-for-1085-pemphigus-vulgaris-patients-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Soheil Tavakolpour, HamidReza Mahmoudi, Kamran Balighi, Robabeh Abedini, Maryam Daneshpazhooh
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare autoimmune disease due to the production of pathogenic autoantibodies directed against desmoglein 1 and 3, usually affecting both skin and mucous membranes. Recently, rituximab, a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody which targets the CD20 molecules have been regarded as a promising treatment for PV. In this study, a systematic review was conducted to conclude on how and which PV patients could benefit from rituximab infusion. Search in PubMed results in 114 relevant studies, which met the criteria...
November 10, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093385/a-case-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-secondary-to-idiopathic-cd4-t-lymphocytopenia-a-comparison-of-aids-and-non-aids-patients
#16
Kazuki Sone, Hideki Muramatsu, Makoto Nakao, Yusuke Kagawa, Ryota Kurokawa, Hidefumi Sato, Akio Niimi
A 67-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of dry cough. Chest computed tomography showed diffuse infiltrates and ground-glass opacities in the bilateral lung fields. Transbronchial lung biopsy specimens showed alveoli filled with yeast-like fungi. With a diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), he was given oral sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, to which he responded well. However, seven months later, PCP relapsed. Analyses revealed a low bronchoalveolar lavage fluid CD4/CD8 ratio of 0.04 and CD4+ lymphocytopenia (250/μL)...
November 1, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092853/prophylactic-effect-of-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-for-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-patients-with-rheumatic-diseases-exposed-to-prolonged-high-dose-glucocorticoids
#17
Jun Won Park, Jeffrey R Curtis, Jinyoung Moon, Yeong Wook Song, Suhnggwon Kim, Eun Bong Lee
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy and safety of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) as primary prophylaxis for pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in patients with rheumatic diseases receiving high-dose steroids. METHODS: The study included 1522 treatment episodes with prolonged (≥4 weeks) high-dose (≥30 mg/day prednisone) steroids in 1092 patients over a 12-year period. Of these, 262 treatment episodes involved TMP-SMX (prophylaxis group) while other episodes involved no prophylaxis (control group)...
November 1, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069759/diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-with-serum-cell-free-dna-in-non-hiv-infected-immunocompromised-patients
#18
Dong Wang, Yang Hu, Ting Li, Heng-Mo Rong, Zhao-Hui Tong
Conventional respiratory tract specimens, such as bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and induced sputum for diagnosing Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised patients are difficult to obtain. Besides, bronchoscopy is an invasive procedure that carries the risk of causing rapidly progressive respiratory insufficiency. By contrast, serum cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is easy to obtain and has been proven useful in diagnosing cancer, pregnancy associated complications, parasite infection and sepsis...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066657/case-of-undiagnosed-pneumocystis-pneumonia-pcp
#19
Verda Arshad, Nousheen Iqbal, Haider Ali Saleem, Muhammad Irfan
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic fungal infection that is usually seen in immunocompromised patients, especially those with HIV, malignancies, organ transplants and on drug therapies like chemotherapy and steroids. PCP has subacute presentation in patients with AIDS which if left untreated gets worse and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Here we present a case of PCP went undiagnosed, partially due to the patient being unaware of his HIV positive status and partially because no organism could be found under the microscope...
October 24, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065393/electronic-structure-vibrational-assignments-and-simulation-studies-with-a-t-rich-dna-duplex-of-an-aromatic-bis-amidine-derivative
#20
Umesh Yadava, Sanjai Kumar Yadav, Ramesh Kumar Yadav
In this paper, computational investigations have been carried out on an aromatic bis-amidine which is considered to be crucial due to its peculiar properties including anti-Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia(PCP), anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. The raw structure of an aromatic bis-amidine namely; 2,5-bis[4-(N-cyclohexyl-amidino)phenyl]furan was retrieved, optimized and geometrical parameters were computed. The computational results have been compared with those of reported experimental values. In order to check its binding capability, we pave the way a step further by the interaction of the molecule with DNA duplex, 5'(CGCGAATTCGCG)3', which consisted of A/T base pairs in its central region...
December 2017: DNA Repair
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