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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779813/negative-role-of-malnutrition-in-cell-mediated-immune-response-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-pcp-in-a-severely-malnourished-hiv-negative-patient-with-anorexia-nervosa
#1
Mouna Hanachi, Vanessa Bohem, Pauline Bemer, Nadja Kayser, Pierre de Truchis, Jean-Claude Melchior
It is generally acknowledged that malnutrition is a propensity factor for secondary infections in different clinical situations (malnutrition-associated infections in hospitalized patients and malnourished children in developing countries). However, it is not clear how malnutrition might facilitate the development of opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients without a definite etiology (disease or treatment) of impaired cell-mediated immune response. We report here on a case of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in an HIV-negative patient suffering from anorexia nervosa with extreme malnutrition, which had a favorable outcome despite the severity of her respiratory failure...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743079/hiv-1-tat-expression-and-sulphamethoxazole-hydroxylamine-mediated-oxidative-stress-alter-the-disulfide-proteome-in-jurkat-t-cells
#2
Kemi Adeyanju, John R Bend, Michael J Rieder, Gregory A Dekaban
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a significant problem for HIV patients, with the risk of developing ADRs increasing as the infection progresses to AIDS. However, the pathophysiology underlying ADRs remains unknown. Sulphamethoxazole (SMX) via its active metabolite SMX-hydroxlyamine, when used prophylactically for pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-positive individuals, is responsible for a high incidence of ADRs. We previously demonstrated that the HIV infection and, more specifically, that the HIV-1 Tat protein can exacerbate SMX-HA-mediated ADRs...
May 9, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733782/idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-what-primary-care-physicians-need-to-know
#3
REVIEW
Leslie B Tolle, Brian D Southern, Daniel A Culver, Jeffrey C Horowitz
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a specific type of fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown cause. It is usually chronic and progressive, tends to affect mainly adults over age 60, has a predilection for men, and is often fatal. The condition is still underappreciated by pulmonologists and primary care physicians. This article attempts to close that information gap by reviewing the natural course of IPF and presenting an algorithmic approach to diagnosis and treatment based on evidence-based international guidelines...
May 2018: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718746/japan-college-of-rheumatology-guideline-for-the-use-of-methotrexate-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#4
Hideto Kameda, Takao Fujii, Ayako Nakajima, Ryuji Koike, Akira Sagawa, Katsuaki Kanbe, Tetsuya Tomita, Masayoshi Harigai, Yasuo Suzuki
Methotrexate (MTX), the anchor drug in the current treatment strategy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), was first approved for treatment of RA in Japan in 1999 at the recommended dose of 6-8 mg/week; it was approved as first-line drug with the maximum dose of 16 mg/week in February 2011. However, more than half of Japanese patients with RA are unable to tolerate a dose of 16 mg/week of MTX. Moreover, some serious adverse events during the treatment with MTX, such as pneumocystis pneumonia and lymphoproliferative disorders, have been observed much more frequently in Japan than in other countries...
May 2, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705221/early-corticosteroids-for-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-adults-without-hiv-are-not-associated-with-better-outcome
#5
Patrick M Wieruszewski, Jason N Barreto, Erin Frazee, Craig E Daniels, Pritish K Tosh, Ross A Dierkhising, Kristin C Mara, Andrew H Limper
BACKGROUND: Evidence supporting adjunctive corticosteroids during the treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) in adults without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is minimal and controversial. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included PcP-positive, hospitalized patients without HIV admitted to Mayo Clinic from 2006 to 2016. Change from baseline in the respiratory component of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (SOFAresp ) at day 5 was compared between early (within 48 hours) steroid recipients and non-recipients utilizing multivariable logistic regression and in a propensity-matched analysis...
April 26, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704387/the-crucial-role-of-molecular-testing-to-facilitate-the-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-during-pregnancy
#6
C H Ding, H Yusoff, N A S Muttaqillah, Y L Tang, T L Tan, P Periyasamy, A Y L Ban
Pneumocystis pneumonia is an important human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated opportunistic infection, and especially so in pregnant HIV-positive patients. We report a case of a 40-year-old woman in her first trimester of pregnancy who initially presented with acute gastroenteritis symptoms but due to a history of high-risk behaviour and the observation of oral thrush, she was worked up for HIV infection. Her retroviral status was positive and her CD4+ T cell count was only 8 cells/µL. She was also worked up for pneumocystis pneumonia due to the presence of mild resting tachypnoea and a notable drop in oxygen saturation (from 100% to 88%) following brief ambulation...
April 2018: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695056/burden-of-serious-fungal-infections-in-argentina
#7
Fernando O Riera, Juan P Caeiro, David W Denning
The number of fungal infections at any given time in Argentina is not known. Here we estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Argentina for the first time. Specific population statistics were searched from multiple sources, local literature was identified, and estimates made. Some additional data were sourced from the Ministry of Health, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) program, and national haematology and transplant societies. Argentina has a population of 43.8 million, with 25% of this total being children under 15 years...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666967/health-maintenance-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
REVIEW
Fazia A Mir, Sunanda V Kane
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not receiving preventative care services at the same rate as the general population. IBD patients are at increased risk for infections, osteoporosis, and certain malignancies secondary to their disease and as they are on immunosuppressive therapy. They are a younger population and often times consider their gastroenterologist as their primary care physician. In this review, we discuss up-to-date evidence pertaining to vaccine-preventable illnesses in the immunosuppressed IBD patient, screening for bone health, cervical cancer, skin malignancies, psychological wellbeing, and smoking cessation...
April 17, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664819/risk-factors-for-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-a-prophylactic-indication-of-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
#9
Kazutoshi Yukawa, Yasutsugu Nagamoto, Hirofumi Watanabe, Masamoto Funaki, Mitsuhiro Iwahashi, Jiro Yamana, Rie Sasaki, Seizo Yamana
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Immunosuppressant medications (ISPs) increase the occurrence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The prophylactic administration of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) for PCP is effective but has serious adverse effects and so should be selectively used for patients at high risk. The aims of this study were to clarify the risk factors for PCP in RA patients and to establish the indications for administering TMP/SMX...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663992/-systemic-review-the-accuracy-of-lactic-dehydrogenase-in-the-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#10
Chuntao Deng, Yimin Li, Yi Li
OBJECTIVE: To study the accuracy of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). METHODS: The data of this systemic review was retrieved from the PubMed, China Biology Medicine disc, Wanfang, Weipu and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases from establishment till to October 31st, 2017. Case-control studies about the diagnosis of PCP were enrolled. Enrolled studies were required that patients in case group ware PCP and patients in control group were lung diseases other than PCP...
April 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610164/-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-during-sirolimus-therapy-for-kaposiform-hemangioendothelioma
#11
Thomas B Russell, Emily K Rinker, Claire S Dillingham, Laurence B Givner, Thomas W McLean
Sirolimus is an effective therapy for children with kaposiform hemangioendothelioma with or without the Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon. We report the case of a child with kaposiform hemangioendothelioma and the Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon who developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) while on sirolimus and a prednisolone taper, after lack of adequate response to prednisolone, propranolol, and vincristine. He had a prompt positive clinical and laboratory response to sirolimus, but 4 weeks after starting it, at the age of 4 months, he developed PCP...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607273/recurrent-pneumocystis-pneumonia-with-uncommon-radiographic-presentation
#12
Ayushi Dixit, Rayhan Shariff, Sherleen Gandham, Ravi Bhavsar, Jazila Mantis, Victoria Vapnyar
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is a common opportunistic infection of the pulmonary parenchyma seen in the immunocompromised host. The clinical presentation and radiographic findings are varied, with the latter ranging from normal to bilateral ground-glass opacities with cyst formation. We present a case of a 46-year-old woman with a history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with multiple treated prior episodes of PCP, who was found to have an impressive presentation on high-resolution chest computed tomography (HRCT)...
January 29, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604970/central-nervous-system-infection-with-toxoplasma-gondii
#13
Christina M Marra
Central nervous system infection by Toxoplasma gondii, or Toxoplasma encephalitis, is the most common cause of brain mass lesions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. It usually presents as one or more brain abscesses, but it can also cause a diffuse encephalitis or ventriculitis. Individuals who are Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G-seropositive, who have peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell concentrations below 200/μL, are not on antiretroviral therapy, and are not taking trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to prevent Pneumocystis pneumonia, are at particular risk for Toxoplasma encephalitis...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601494/the-burden-of-serious-fungal-infections-in-cameroon
#14
Christine E Mandengue, David W Denning
Fungal infections are frequent in Cameroon, and invasive fungal infections are sometimes detected, usually in HIV-infected patients. For these reasons, we have estimated the burden of fungal infections. Using published literature and population estimates for the at-risk group, we used deterministic modelling to derive national incidence and prevalence estimates for the most serious fungal diseases. HIV infection is common and an estimated 120,000 have CD4 counts <200 × 10⁶/mL and commonly present with opportunistic infection...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578865/evaluating-physician-attitudes-and-practices-regarding-herpes-zoster-vaccination
#15
Edmund Tsui, Colleen Gillespie, Michael Perskin, Sondra Zabar, Mengfei Wu, Elisabeth J Cohen
PURPOSE: To investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns of primary care physicians regarding administration of the herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine at NYU Langone Health (NYULH). METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was distributed from January to March 2017 to all physicians in the Division of General Internal Medicine and Clinical Innovation at NYULH across 5 different practice settings. RESULTS: The response rate was 26% (138 of 530)...
March 23, 2018: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577303/ct-findings-in-pneumocystis-carinii-pneumonia-in-five-dogs
#16
F Schiborra, C J Scudder, R M Littler, C R Lamb, J F McConnell, T W Maddox
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is a rare disease in dogs. It is primarily reported in cavalier King Charles spaniels and miniature dachshunds with suspected underlying immunodeficiency. This case series reports the findings in five dogs (four cavalier King Charles spaniels and one Bedlington terrier) with confirmed P. carinii pneumonia. Thoracic (CT) revealed ground glass opacity of the pulmonary parenchyma with a diffuse or multifocal distribution. The severity of this pattern was variable. Less consistent imaging findings included parenchymal bands, bronchial dilation and signs consistent with pulmonary hypertension...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575160/association-of-serious-infections-with-pemphigus-and-pemphigoid-analysis-of-the-nationwide-inpatient-sample
#17
Ziyou Ren, Shanthi Narla, Derek Y Hsu, Jonathan I Silverberg
BACKGROUND: Pemphigus and pemphigoid are blistering disorders associated with barrier disruption, immune dysregulation and use of immunosuppressing systemic therapy, which may predispose toward serious infections. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether pemphigus and pemphigoid are associated with increased likelihood of serious infections, and the impact of such infections on mortality and cost of care. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2002-2012 National Inpatient Sample, including a representative 20% sample of all hospitalizations in the US (total n=72,108,077 adults)...
March 25, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575136/diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-a-2-year-old-king-charles-cavalier-spaniel-using-the-polymerase-chain-reaction
#18
Ayeley A K Okine, Seth Chapman, Roger A Hostutler, Robert Livingston
A 2-year-old, female spayed, King Charles Cavalier Spaniel was presented for evaluation of dyspnea, inappetence, and lethargy. Thoracic radiographs revealed a moderate diffuse interstitial lung pattern affecting the perihilar and caudodorsal lung fields, and an echocardiogram revealed severe pulmonary hypertension. A bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed, and cytology revealed mixed inflammation with cysts and trophozoites consistent with Pneumocystis. Pneumocystis infection was later confirmed with PCR...
March 2018: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553006/pneumocystis-jirovecii-exhalation-in-the-course-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-treatment
#19
Laurence Pougnet, Anne Grall, Marie-Christine Moal, Richard Pougnet, Yohann Le Govic, Steven Négri, Gilles Nevez, Solène Le Gal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536101/health-care-spending-in-the-united-states-and-other-high-income-countries
#20
Irene Papanicolas, Liana R Woskie, Ashish K Jha
Importance: Health care spending in the United States is a major concern and is higher than in other high-income countries, but there is little evidence that efforts to reform US health care delivery have had a meaningful influence on controlling health care spending and costs. Objective: To compare potential drivers of spending, such as structural capacity and utilization, in the United States with those of 10 of the highest-income countries (United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, Australia, Japan, Sweden, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Denmark) to gain insight into what the United States can learn from these nations...
March 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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