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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223177/pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-patients-with-inflammatory-or-autoimmune-diseases-usefulness-of-lymphocyte-subtyping
#1
Yi Li, Marc Ghannoum, Chuntao Deng, Yanxia Gao, Huadong Zhu, Xuezhong Yu, Valery Lavergne
OBJECTIVES: No consensus currently exists on indications for Pneumocystis jirovecii prophylaxis in patients with inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. The main objective was to identify biomarkers associated with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) in this population. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out at Beijing Union Medical College Hospital (2003-2014). All patients with an inflammatory or autoimmune diseases presenting with acute onset of fever and respiratory symptoms were included...
February 18, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220322/serious-fungal-infections-in-the-philippines
#2
M C R Batac, D Denning
The Philippines is a low middle-income, tropical country in Southeast Asia. Infectious diseases remain the main causes of morbidity, including tuberculosis. AIDS/HIV prevalence is still low at <1%, but is rapidly increasing. Fungal disease surveillance has not been done, and its burden has never been estimated. This becomes more important as the population of immunocompromised patients increases, drawn from patients with AIDS, TB, malignancies, and autoimmune diseases requiring chronic steroid use. Using the methodology of the LIFE program ( www...
February 21, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213689/serious-fungal-infections-in-egypt
#3
S M Zaki, D W Denning
We aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Egypt, currently unknown, based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports with clearcut denominators. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. The population of Egypt in 2011 was ∼82,500,000; 31% children, and 8% women >60 years of age...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188493/serious-fungal-infections-in-chile
#4
E Alvarez Duarte, D W Denning
The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Chile are unknown. Here, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases from data obtained from clinical reports, WHO reports, Chilean census, OECD reports and comprehensive literature search available on PubMed and SciELO, among other scientific resources. Due the lack of official data about fungal diseases, frequencies were calculated based on the specific populations at risk. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 3108/100,000...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188492/serious-fungal-infections-in-portugal
#5
R Sabino, C Verissímo, J Brandão, C Martins, D Alves, C Pais, D W Denning
There is a lack of knowledge on the epidemiology of fungal infections worldwide because there are no reporting obligations. The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of fungal disease in Portugal as part of a global fungal burden project. Most published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Portugal were identified. Where no data existed, specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations were used in order to estimate national incidence or prevalence, depending on the condition...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188491/serious-fungal-infections-in-peru
#6
B Bustamante, D W Denning, P E Campos
Epidemiological data about mycotic diseases are limited in Peru and estimation of the fungal burden has not been previously attempted. Data were obtained from the Peruvian National Institute of Statistics and Informatics, UNAIDS and from the Ministry of Health's publications. We also searched the bibliography for Peruvian data on mycotic diseases, asthma, COPD, cancer and transplants. Incidence or prevalence for each fungal disease were estimated in specific populations at risk. The Peruvian population for 2015 was 31,151,543...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174184/multiple-myeloma-presenting-with-bilateral-ankle-pain-microangiopathy-and-complicated-by-streptococcal-meningitis-and-pneumocystis-carinii-pneumonia
#7
Louise Dunphy, Neeraj Singh, Elizabeth Keating
Multiple myeloma is characterised by the neoplastic proliferation of a single clone of plasma cells producing a monoclonal immunoglobulin. This clone of plasma cells proliferates in the bone marrow, resulting in extensive skeletal destruction with osteolytic lesions, osteopenia and pathological fractures. Additional disease-related complications include hypercalcaemia, renal insufficiency, anaemia and infection. We present the case of a 64-year-old woman presenting with rapid onset, painful distal symmetrical lower limb weakness and an acute kidney injury...
February 7, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169011/investigation-of-outbreaks-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-two-scottish-renal-units
#8
T Inkster, S Dodd, R Gunson, L Imrie, E Spalding, S Packer, C Deighan, C Daly, J Coia, T Imtiaz, C McGuffie, R Wilson, A M Bal
Pneumocystis jirovecii is recognized as an opportunistic pathogen. In recent years, human-to-human transmission of P. jirovecii has been demonstrated. However, outbreaks of P. jirovecii infections are not well defined because the epidemiological setting that facilitates transmission is not fully understood. This article describes two outbreaks of P. jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in renal transplant patients in the West of Scotland. In total, 25 patients in two geographically contiguous locations were affected...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161745/serious-fungal-infections-in-canada
#9
S F Dufresne, D C Cole, D W Denning, D C Sheppard
There are currently no nationwide epidemiological data on fungal infections in Canada. We estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases using literature review and modeling, as per a methodology previously described by the LIFE program ( http://www.LIFE-worldwide.org ). Among the population of Canada (35.5 million in 2014), it was estimated that approximately 1.8% are affected by a serious fungal infection. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, severe asthma with fungal sensitization, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis are the most frequent infections, with population prevalences of 498,688 (1403/100,000), 73,344 (206/100,000), and 61,854 (174/100,000) cases, respectively...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161744/burden-of-serious-fungal-infections-in-bangladesh
#10
H C Gugnani, D W Denning, R Rahim, A Sadat, M Belal, M S Mahbub
In Bangladesh there are several published papers on superficial mycoses. Deep mycoses are also recognized as an important emerging problem. Here, we estimate the annual incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh. Demographic data were obtained from world population reports and the data on TB and HIV extracted from the online publications on tuberculosis in Bangladesh and Asia Pacific research statistical data information resources AIDS Data HUB. All the published papers on fungal infections in Bangladesh were identified through extensive search of literature...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161743/serious-fungal-infections-in-korea
#11
K Huh, Y E Ha, D W Denning, K R Peck
Information on the incidence and prevalence of fungal infections is of critical value in public health policy. However, nationwide epidemiological data on fungal infections are scarce, due to a lack of surveillance and funding. The objective of this study was to estimate the disease burden of fungal infections in the Republic of Korea. An actuarial approach using a deterministic model was used for the estimation. Data on the number of populations at risk and the frequencies of fungal infections in those populations were obtained from national statistics reports and epidemiology papers...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161742/serious-fungal-infections-in-thailand
#12
M Chayakulkeeree, D W Denning
The burden of serious fungal infection in Thailand is increasing but data regarding its incidence and prevalence are lacking. In this study we aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal diseases in Thailand based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases. Data derived from The Bureau of Epidemiology, Department of Disease Control, Thai Ministry of Public Health, World Health Organisation, international and local reports, and some unreported data were used. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161740/serious-fungal-infections-in-ecuador
#13
J Zurita, D W Denning, A Paz-Y-Miño, M B Solís, L M Arias
There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149493/prevalence-of-colonization-and-mitochondrial-large-subunit-rrna-mutation-of-pneumocystis-jiroveci-among-iranian-children
#14
Parisa Badiee, Ali Rezapour, Amin Abbasian, Hamid Reza Foroutan, Hadis Jafarian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pneumocystis jiroveci is an important causative agent of Pneumocystis pneumonia. During childhood, exposure to Pneumocystis occurs and antibody was built in early childhood. The aim of this study was to describe the molecular epidemiology of P. jiroveci in children without any respiratory syndrome and survey the distribution of different mitochondrial large subunit, ribosomal ribonucleic acid (mtLSU- rRNA) genotypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mini-bronchoalveolar lavage (mini-BAL) fluids from pediatric patients with no history of lung disorders were obtained during a 14-month period...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134084/pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia-in-rheumatic-disease-a-20-year-single-centre-experience
#15
Christopher A Mecoli, Deanna Saylor, Allan C Gelber, Lisa Christopher-Stine
OBJECTIVES: Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) is an opportunistic infection with high mortality among patients with underlying rheumatologic conditions. Given the paucity of prospective data to guide treatment, clinical guidelines to initiate PJP prophylaxis are based on expert opinion and identify patients on ≥20 mg daily prednisone for ≥4 weeks duration for treatment. Herein we describe the PJP experience in rheumatic disease over a 20-year period at a single academic medical centre to investigate this 20 mg threshold and risk associated with lymphocyte counts, co-existing lung disease and immunosuppressive medications...
January 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115507/overcoming-hurdles-to-vaccine-development-against-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#16
Beth A Garvy
Development of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a common problem among immunosuppressed individuals. There are windows of opportunity in which vaccination would be beneficial, but to date, no vaccines have made it to clinical trials. Significant hurdles to vaccine development include a host range specificity making it difficult to translate from animal models to humans. Discovery of cross-reactive epitopes are critical to moving vaccine candidates from pre-clinical animal studies to clinical trials.
January 23, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115045/-life-threatening-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-a-previously-healthy-pregnant-woman
#17
Sara Trier-Mørch, Nicki Broholm Holst Sørensen, Martin Rostgaard-Knudsen, Helle Larsen, Anne Nødgaard Sørensen
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is one of the most common infections in patients with HIV. Pneumocystis jirovecii rarely gives rise to symptoms in immunocompetent individuals. PCP has been reported in individuals with immunosuppression. We report a case of life-threatening PCP in an otherwise healthy pregnant woman. Pregnant patients should be considered to be relatively immunosuppressed, and more opportunistic infections should be included in differential diagnosis considerations.
January 16, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103460/-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-107-hiv-infected-patients-admitted-to-the-department-of-infectious-diseases-at-santa-maria-hospital-lisbon-2002-2013
#18
Vilma Grilo, Aida Pereira
INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia remains one of the most common opportunistic illnesses in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. It is currently the most reported AIDS-defining infection in Portugal. The aims of this study were to analyze the features of a human immunodeficiency virus /Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia coinfected population, to compare it with the current literature, and to evaluate comparatively subpopulations of patients based on the previous knowledge of the human immunodeficiency virus infection, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia diagnostic method and discharge results...
October 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100282/optimal-regimens-of-sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim-for-chemoprophylaxis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-patients-with-systemic-rheumatic-diseases-results-from-a-non-blinded-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Masako Utsunomiya, Hiroaki Dobashi, Toshio Odani, Kazuyoshi Saito, Naoto Yokogawa, Kenji Nagasaka, Kenchi Takenaka, Makoto Soejima, Takahiko Sugihara, Hiroyuki Hagiyama, Shinya Hirata, Kazuo Matsui, Yoshinori Nonomura, Masahiro Kondo, Fumihito Suzuki, Makoto Tomita, Mari Kihara, Waka Yokoyama, Fumio Hirano, Hayato Yamazaki, Ryoko Sakai, Toshihiro Nanki, Ryuji Koike, Hitoshi Kohsaka, Nobuyuki Miyasaka, Masayoshi Harigai
BACKGROUND: Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX/TMP) is a standard drug for the prophylaxis of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PJP) in immunosuppressed patients with systemic rheumatic diseases, but is sometimes discontinued due to adverse events (AEs). The objective of this non-blinded, randomized, 52-week non-inferiority trial was to quest an effective chemoprophylaxis regimen for PJP with a low drug discontinuation rate. Results at week 24 were reported. METHODS: Adult patients with systemic rheumatic diseases who started prednisolone ≥0...
January 18, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088990/prevention-and-management-of-glucocorticoid-induced-side-effects-a-comprehensive-review-infectious-complications-and-vaccination-recommendations
#20
REVIEW
Avrom Caplan, Nicole Fett, Misha Rosenbach, Victoria P Werth, Robert G Micheletti
Part 3 of this 4-part continuing medical education series reviews several important infectious complications of corticosteroid use, including a focus on pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis, tuberculosis, viral hepatitis, and other infections, followed by a discussion of vaccination recommendations in immunosuppressed patients.
February 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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