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trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100282/optimal-regimens-of-sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim-for-chemoprophylaxis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-patients-with-systemic-rheumatic-diseases-results-from-a-non-blinded-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Masako Utsunomiya, Hiroaki Dobashi, Toshio Odani, Kazuyoshi Saito, Naoto Yokogawa, Kenji Nagasaka, Kenchi Takenaka, Makoto Soejima, Takahiko Sugihara, Hiroyuki Hagiyama, Shinya Hirata, Kazuo Matsui, Yoshinori Nonomura, Masahiro Kondo, Fumihito Suzuki, Makoto Tomita, Mari Kihara, Waka Yokoyama, Fumio Hirano, Hayato Yamazaki, Ryoko Sakai, Toshihiro Nanki, Ryuji Koike, Hitoshi Kohsaka, Nobuyuki Miyasaka, Masayoshi Harigai
BACKGROUND: Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX/TMP) is a standard drug for the prophylaxis of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PJP) in immunosuppressed patients with systemic rheumatic diseases, but is sometimes discontinued due to adverse events (AEs). The objective of this non-blinded, randomized, 52-week non-inferiority trial was to quest an effective chemoprophylaxis regimen for PJP with a low drug discontinuation rate. Results at week 24 were reported. METHODS: Adult patients with systemic rheumatic diseases who started prednisolone ≥0...
January 18, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100153/long-term-survival-after-coverage-with-prevertebral-fascia-for-abdominal-aortic-stump-closure
#2
Takehiro Inoue, Masato Imura, Toshio Kaneda, Toshihiko Saga
Abdominal aortic graft-enteric fistula is an uncommon but grave complication. Acceptable early results of its management have been reported in recent years, but aortic stump disruption remains a dreaded problem in the remote period. This report describes a case of a 71-year-old male with graft-enteric fistula following after a distant abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The patient underwent 1-stage operation with extra-anatomic bypass preceding the complete removal of the infected aortic graft and intestinal repair...
January 2017: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092603/gut-microbiota-isolated-from-the-european-pond-turtle-emys-orbicularis-and-its-antimicrobial-resistance
#3
M Ruzauskas, S Misyte, L Vaskeviciute, Z Mikniene, R Siugzdiniene, I Klimiene, A Pikuniene, J Kucinskiene
The aim of the study was to isolate cultivable gut microbiota from European pond turtles kept at the Lithuanian Zoo and to determine antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. The study subjects included 8 elderly turtles living at the Lithuanian Zoo for about 50 years as well as their offspring - 24 young individuals (1-2 years old) that were hatched at the same zoo. Animals were not exposed by treatment with antimicrobials during the last 3 years. Gut samples were taken from the cloaca and inoculated onto universal media...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090041/clinical-characteristics-of-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-bacteremia-a-regional-report-and-a-review-of-a-japanese-case-series
#4
Hirotaka Ebara, Hideharu Hagiya, Yuto Haruki, Eisei Kondo, Fumio Otsuka
Objective Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging nosocomial pathogen that causes fatal infections in critically ill or immunocompromised patients. S. maltophilia bacteremia (SMB) is a rare condition, and its clinical characteristics in Japanese settings are not well known. Methods The medical charts of patients with SMB were retrospectively reviewed at two medical facilities (Okayama University Hospital and Tsuyama Chuo Hospital) for seven years. The data were analyzed along with those previously reported from other Japanese facilities...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089530/algae-mediated-removal-of-selected-pharmaceutical-and-personal-care-products-ppcps-from-lake-mead-water
#5
Xuelian Bai, Kumud Acharya
The persistence and fate of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in the Lake Mead ecosystem are particularly important considering the potential ecological risks and human health impacts. This study evaluated the removal of five common PPCPs (i.e., trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, and triclosan) from Lake Mead water mediated by the green alga Nannochloris sp. The results from the incubation studies showed that trimethoprim and carbamazepine were highly resistant to uptake in the algal cultural medium and were measured at approximately 90%-100% of the applied dose after 14days of incubation...
January 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088585/nocardiosis-in-south-of-france-during-the-last-ten-years
#6
Delphine Haussaire, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Karamoko Djiguiba, Valerie Moal, Tristan Legris, Rajsingh Purgus, Jeremy Bismuth, Xavier Elharrar, Martine Reynaud-Gaubert, Henri Vacher-Coponat
BACKGROUND: Nocardiosis is a rare disease with polymorphic presentations. Epidemiology and clinical presentation could change with the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. METHODS: Medical records and microbiologic data for patients affected by nocardiosis and treated in the university hospital of Marseille between 2004 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: We analyzed 34 patients infected by Nocardia spp during this period...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087318/etiologies-of-community-onset-urinary-tract%C3%A2-infections-requiring-hospitalization-and%C3%A2-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-of%C3%A2-causative-microorganisms
#7
Chih-Chien Chiu, Tzu-Chao Lin, Rui-Xin Wu, Ya-Sung Yang, Po-Jen Hsiao, Yi Lee, Jung-Chung Lin, Feng-Yee Chang
BACKGROUND: Community-onset urinary tract infections (CoUTIs) are the most common bacterial infections, and a decline in antibiotic susceptibility causes many clinical challenges. Adequate empiric antibiotic treatment can decrease unnecessary hospital stays and complications, while reducing the antimicrobial resistance progression. METHODS: From October 2014 to April 2015, we retrospectively enrolled patients who were at least 18 years old and required hospitalization for CoUTIs...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087317/acute-otitis-media-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-st320-clone-epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics
#8
Hsin Chi, Nan-Chang Chiu, Fu-Yuan Huang, Chyong-Hsin Hsu, Kuo-Sheng Lee, Li-Min Huang, Yu-Chia Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A ST320, a highly multiresistant and virulent clone, has emerged as a common pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM) in children. METHODS: Patients aged 0-18 years with AOM who presented at Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan were prospectively enrolled between December 1, 2009, and November 30, 2012. For each patient, a specimen of middle-ear fluid was obtained and cultured. S. pneumoniae isolates were tested by serotyping, antibiotic-resistance profiling, and multilocus sequence typing...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081148/characterization-of-multi-drug-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-isolated-from-cephalic-recording-chambers-in-research-macaques-macaca-spp
#9
Stephanie E Woods, Mia T Lieberman, Francois Lebreton, Elise Trowel, César de la Fuente-Núñez, Joanne Dzink-Fox, Michael S Gilmore, James G Fox
Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077589/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-prophylaxis-during-live-malaria-sporozoite-immunization-induces-long-lived-homologous-and-heterologous-protective-immunity-against-sporozoite-challenge
#10
Charlotte V Hobbs, Charles Anderson, Jillian Neal, Tejram Sahu, Solomon Conteh, Tatiana Voza, Jean Langhorne, William Borkowsky, Patrick E Duffy
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is widely used in malaria-endemic areas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and HIV-uninfected, HIV-exposed children as opportunistic infection prophylaxis. Despite the known effects that TMP-SMX has in reducing clinical malaria, its impact on development of malaria-specific immunity in these children remains poorly understood. Using rodent malaria models, we previously showed that TMP-SMX, at prophylactic doses, can arrest liver stage development of malaria parasites and speculated that TMP-SMX prophylaxis during repeated malaria exposures would induce protective long-lived sterile immunity targeting pre-erythrocytic stage parasites in mice...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074607/the-use-of-intravenous-pentamidine-for-the-prophylaxis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-pediatric-patients
#11
Matthijs D Kruizinga, Dorine Bresters, Frans J Smiers, Arjan C Lankester, Robbert G M Bredius
Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia was common in the immunocompromised host before the widespread use of prophylaxis. When trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is not tolerated, prophylaxis with intravenous pentamidine (IVP) may be initiated. We performed a retrospective analysis of all pediatric patients who received IVP regarding efficacy, safety, and reason for initiation. Of 106 patients included in our analysis, one patient tested positive for Pneumocystis DNA. Adverse events were reported in 18% of IVP courses, and main reason for initiation was cytopenia (59%)...
January 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074055/effects-of-two-6-quinolinyl-chalcones-on-the-integrity-of-plasma-membrane-of-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis
#12
Nívea P de Sá, Patrícia S Cisalpino, Luciana C Tavares, Leandro Espíndola, Beatriz M Borelli, Paulo Js Barbeira, Gabriele de Matos Cardoso Perdigão, Elaine M Souza-Fagundes, Carlos A Rosa, Moacir G Pizzolatti, Susana Johann
Paracoccidioidomycosis is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America, yet few therapeutic options exist. Our aim was to search for new compounds with high efficacy, low toxicity, shorter treatment time and affordable cost. We studied two synthetic 6-quinolinyl chalcones, 3b and 3e, to determine their effects on VERO cells, antifungal activity, survival curve, interaction with other drugs and phenotypic effects against several isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. In this study, we verified that the compounds were not toxic, exhibited superior in vitro activity compared with that shown by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and after 5 days of treatment, decreased the fungal cell viability by approximately 70%...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069470/minimal-inhibitory-concentration-distributions-for-mycobacterium-avium-complex-towards-evidence-based-susceptibility-breakpoints
#13
Thomas Schön, Erja Chryssanthou
OBJECTIVE: Patients with clinical infections caused by the Mycobacterium avium-complex (MAC) are treated for at least one year following sputum conversion with a regimen suffering from suboptimal cure rates. The correlation between clinical outcome and drug susceptibility testing breakpoints other than for the macrolides is regarded to be poor. A systematic evaluation of clinical breakpoints against MAC has not been performed so far and thus our aim was to initiate this process by establishing minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056219/antimicrobial-resistant-escherichia-coli-and-enterococcus-spp-isolated-from-miranda-donkey-equus-asinus-an-old-problem-from-a-new-source-with-a-different-approach
#14
Isabel Carvalho, Rosa Del Campo, Margarida Sousa, Nuno Silva, João Carrola, Catarina Marinho, Tiago Santos, Silvia Carvalho, Miguel Nóvoa, Miguel Quaresma, José Eduardo Pereira, Marta Cobo, Gilberto Igrejas, Patricia Poeta
The Miranda Donkey (Equus asinus) is an endangered asinine from Miranda do Douro region, located in North East of Portugal. We study the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and virulence genes in Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from these animals. In March 2014, a total of 66 faecal samples were recovered from independent animals. Antibiotic resistance was determined by the disk diffusion method. Carriage of genes codifying for antibiotic resistant and virulent factors was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043762/the-comeback-of-trimethoprim-in-france
#15
REVIEW
F Caron, V Wehrle, M Etienne
Already used in various countries, trimethoprim (TMP) was withdrawn from the French market in 1990, but should be soon available again. This article reviews the experience of TMP use around the world and its current use in Europe. Label use and guidelines only recommend the use of TMP for the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI). Compared with co-trimoxazole (Co-T), a combination of TMP and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), TMP has (a) a similar resistance rate among Escherichia coli strains (estimated between 10 and 20% in uncomplicated cystitis), (b) a similar clinical efficacy for cystitis prevention and treatment, (c) a lower toxicity (as severe toxicity adverse effects of Co-T come from its sulfonamide component), (d) limited data for the treatment of pyelonephritis and male UTIs, and (e) an important impact on the microbiota...
December 30, 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043603/individualized-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-using-therapeutic-drug-monitoring
#16
Mathieu S Bolhuis, Onno W Akkerman, Marieke G G Sturkenboom, Wiel C M de Lange, Tjip S van der Werf, Jan-Willem C Alffenaar
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Globally, approximately 50% of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) experience treatment failure. MDR-TB treatment is hindered by adverse events, toxicity of the second-line anti-TB drugs, logistics and costs, especially in low-income countries, and problems with medication adherence. Pharmacokinetic variability is also attributed as one of the reasons contributing to treatment failure. In our reference Tuberculosis Center Beatrixoord (University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands), we strive to individualize treatment of all MDR-TB patients based on drug-susceptibility testing using minimal inhibitory concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042660/determination-of-minimum-biofilm-eradication-concentrations-of-orbifloxacin-for-canine-bacterial-uropathogens-over-different-treatment-periods
#17
Takae Shimizu, Kazuki Harada
Biofilm formation can cause refractory urinary tract infections (UTIs) in dogs; however, minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBECs) of veterinary drugs against canine uropathogens remain to be investigated. In this study, we determined the MBECs of orbifloxacin (OBFX), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMS), and amoxicillin/clavulanate (ACV) over different time periods for treatment of canine uropathogenic Escherichia coli (n = 10). We also determined the MBECs of OBFX for other bacterial uropathogens, including Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (n = 5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 5), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=5), and Proteus mirabilis (n=5)...
January 2, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035717/the-role-of-cd4-cell-count-as-discriminatory-measure-to-guide-chemoprophylaxis-against-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-negative-immunocompromised-patients-a-systematic-review
#18
Peter E Messiaen, Senne Cuyx, Tom Dejagere, Jeroen C Van der Hilst
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) has increased in immunocompromised patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Chemoprophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is highly effective in preventing PJP in both HIV-positive and -seronegative patients. In HIV-positive patients, the risk of PJP is strongly correlated with decreased CD4 cell count. The role of CD4 cell count in the pathogenesis of PJP in non-HIV immunocompromised patients is less well studied...
December 30, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032486/current-situation-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-genetic-differences-in-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-complex-isolates-by-multilocus-variable-number-of-tandem-repeat-analysis
#19
Ji Young Rhee, Jae Hoon Song, Kwan Soo Ko
BACKGROUND: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is one of several opportunistic pathogens of growing significance. Several studies on the molecular epidemiology of S. maltophilia have shown clinical isolates to be genetically diverse. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 121 clinical isolates tentatively identified as S. malophilia from seven tertiary-care hospitals in Korea from 2007 to 2011 were included. Species and groups were identified using partial gyrB gene sequences and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using a broth microdilution method...
December 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027334/weight-gain-and-obesity-in-infants-and-young-children-exposed-to-prolonged-antibiotic-prophylaxis
#20
M Bruce Edmonson, Jens C Eickhoff
Importance: An association between antibiotic use and excessive weight gain or obesity in healthy infants and young children has been reported, but evidence is inconsistent and based on observational studies of growth in relation to incidental antibiotic exposures. Objective: To evaluate whether prolonged antibiotic exposure is associated with weight gain in children participating in a clinical trial of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection...
December 27, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
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