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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350131/antimicrobial-resistance-in-stenotrophomonas-spp
#1
Yang Wang, Tao He, Zhangqi Shen, Congming Wu
Bacteria of the genus Stenotrophomonas are found throughout the environment, in close association with soil, sewage, and plants. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, the first member of this genus, is the predominant species, observed in soil, water, plants, animals, and humans. It is also an opportunistic pathogen associated with the increased number of infections in both humans and animals in recent years. In this article, we summarize all Stenotrophomonas species (mainly S. maltophilia) isolated from animals and food products of animal origin and further distinguish all isolates based on antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance phenotypes...
January 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347965/characterization-of-highly-virulent-multidrug-resistant-vibrio-cholerae-isolated-from-a-large-cholera-outbreak-in-ghana
#2
Patrick Kwame Feglo, Miriam Sewurah
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the virulent factors of Vibrio cholerae which caused an unprecedented large cholera outbreak in Ghana in 2014 and progressed into 2015, affected 28,975 people with 243 deaths. RESULTS: The V. cholerae isolates were identified to be the classical V. cholerae 01 biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa, responsible for the large cholera outbreak in Ghana. These El Tor strains bear CtxAB and Tcp virulent genes, making the strains highly virulent...
January 18, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346850/trends-in-the-minimum-inhibitory-concentrations-of-erythromycin-clarithromycin-azithromycin-ciprofloxacin-and-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-for-strains-of-bordetella-pertussis-isolated-in-the-czech-republic-in-1967-2015
#3
Vladislav Jakubů, Jana Zavadilová, Kateřina Fabiánová, Urbášková Pavla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343421/frequency-of-small-colony-variants-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#4
Nuntra Suwantarat, Mayer Rubin, Latetia Bryan, Tsigereda Tekle, Michael P Boyle, Karen C Carroll, Mark T Jennings
BACKGROUND: Small-colony variants (SCVs) are a distinct phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus, known for their role in chronic, difficult to treat infections, including cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. The goal of this study was to characterize SCV MRSA infection in an adult and pediatric CF population and to identify antibiotic susceptibility patterns unique to SCV MRSA. METHODS: We recovered methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from respiratory culture samples from CF patients at the Johns Hopkins Hospital during a 6month study period...
December 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340711/microbial-degradation-of-triclosan-by-a-novel-strain-of-dyella-sp
#5
Shizong Wang, Yanan Yin, Jianlong Wang
A novel strain capable of degrading triclosan was isolated from the acclimated activated sludge and identified to be Dyella sp. WW1 based on 16S rDNA analysis. The effect of initial concentration of triclosan (0.2, 1, 5, and 10 mg/L), temperature (15, 25, and 35 °C), pH (5, 7, and 9), and additional carbon source on the degradation of triclosan was investigated in a mineral medium. The results showed that Dyella sp. WW1 can use triclosan as sole carbon source and degrade it when initial triclosan concentration was in the range of 0...
January 16, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340327/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-reduces-rates-of-melioidosis-in-high-risk-hemodialysis-patients
#6
Sandawana William Majoni, Jaquelyne T Hughes, Bianca Heron, Bart J Currie
Introduction: Melioidosis causes sepsis and death in the Top End of Northern Australia during the monsoonal wet season. Dialysis-dependent adults suffer higher melioidosis rates compared to low rates among renal transplant patients who routinely receive trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis. Methods: We performed a prospective interventional study to determine the efficacy and safety of daily trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis in hemodialysis patients during the wet season, from 1 November 2014 to 30 April 2015...
January 2018: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339389/in-vitro-antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern-of-non-diphtheriae-corynebacterium-in-ontario-2011-2016
#7
Alefiya Neemuchwala, Deidre Soares, Vithusha Ravirajan, Alex Marchand-Austin, Julianne V Kus, Samir N Patel
Non-diphtheriae Corynebacterium-associated disease has been increasingly observed and often presents a conundrum to the treating physician. Analysis of antibiotic susceptibility test data for 1,970 clinical Corynebacterium isolates received between 2011 and 2016 revealed that empiric drug treatment options are limited to vancomycin and linezolid. Corynebacterium striatum was the most frequently observed species during this study period along with C. amycolatum and C. pseudodiphtheriticum/propinquum. Low levels of susceptibility to penicillin (14...
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333818/community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-hospitalization-and-case-fatality-risk-in-10-pediatric-facilities-in-argentina
#8
Ángela Gentile, Julia Bakir, Gabriela Ensinck, Aldo Cancellara, Enrique V Casanueva, Verónica Firpo, Martín Caruso, María F Lución, Alejandro Santillán Iturres, Fabiana Molina, Héctor J Abate, Andrea Gajo Gane, Santiago López Papucci
INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are prevalent both in Argentina and worldwide, and they may have a severe clinical course. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the hospitalization rate and case fatality risk factors of CA-MRSA infection. METHODS: Cross-sectional, analytical study. All patients < 15 years old with community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) infections admitted to 10 pediatric facilities between January 2012 and December 2014 were included...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330709/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-iclaprim-a-diaminopyrimidine-compound-and-potential-therapeutic-alternative-against-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#9
E M Aliouat, E Dei-Cas, N Gantois, M Pottier, C Pinçon, S Hawser, A Lier, D B Huang
Pneumocystis pneumonia is a serious complication that may affect immunosuppressed patients. The absence of reliable and safe therapeutic alternatives to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) justifies the search for more effective and less toxic agents. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo anti-Pneumocystis jirovecii activity of iclaprim, a diaminopyrimidine compound that exerts its antimicrobial activity through the inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), as does TMP, was evaluated alone or in combination with SMX...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327292/alterations-of-growth-rate-and-gene-expression-levels-of-upec-by-antibiotics-at-sub-mic
#10
Defne Gümüş, Fatma Kalaycı-Yüksek, Emre Yörük, Gülşen Uz, Eşref Çelik, Cansu Arslan, Elif Merve Aydın, Cem Canlı, Mine Anğ-Küçüker
The host is the main environment for bacteria, and they also expose to many antibiotics during the treatment of infectious diseases in host body. In this study, it was aimed to investigate possible changes in growth rate and expression levels of three virulence genes (foc/foc, cnf1, and usp) in a uropathogenic E. coli standard strain within the presence of ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The UPEC C7 strain was grown on tryptic soy broth-TSB (control), TSB + ciprofloxacin, TSB + nitrofurantoin, and TSB + trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for determination of both growth rate and gene expression level...
January 11, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324733/antibiotics-dispensed-to-privately-insured-pregnant-women-with-urinary-tract-infections-united-states-2014
#11
Elizabeth C Ailes, April D Summers, Emmy L Tran, Suzanne M Gilboa, Kathryn E Arnold, Dana Meaney-Delman, Jennita Reefhuis
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur in about 8% of pregnant women, and untreated UTIs can have serious consequences, including pyelonephritis, preterm labor, low birth weight, and sepsis (1). Pregnant women are typically screened for UTIs during early pregnancy, and those with bacteriuria are treated with antibiotics (1,2). Antibiotic stewardship is critical to improving patient safety and to combating antibiotic resistance. Because of the potential risk for birth defects, including anencephaly, heart defects, and orofacial clefts, associated with use of sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin during pregnancy (3), a 2011 committee opinion from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommended that sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin may be prescribed in the first trimester of pregnancy only when other antimicrobial therapies are deemed clinically inappropriate (4)...
January 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323530/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-raw-milk-and-raw-milk-cheese-in-egypt
#12
Rabee A Ombarak, Atsushi Hinenoya, Abdel-Rahman M Elbagory, Shinji Yamasaki
The goal of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance and characterize the implicated genes in 222 isolates of Escherichia coli from 187 samples of raw milk and the two most popular cheeses in Egypt. E. coli isolates were tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials by a disk diffusion method. Among the 222 E. coli isolates, 66 (29.7%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and half of these resistant isolates showed a multidrug resistance phenotype (resistance to at least three different drug classes)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321415/cerebral-toxoplasmosis-diagnosed-by-nested-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-a-patient-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#13
Jun Matsuura, Akihiro Fujii, Ikuko Mizuta, Kazumi Norose, Toshiki Mizuno
A 65-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) visited our hospital because of right facial sensory hypoesthesia. Cerebral toxoplasmosis was suspected on brain magnetic resonance imaging. We discontinued methotrexate for RA and started a sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (ST) mixture. Although ST treatment was interrupted because of adverse reactions, her prognosis was favorable. The Toxoplasma 18S rDNA gene was detected by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Detecting the Toxoplasma 18S rDNA gene by nested-PCR is useful for the diagnosis and safer than a brain biopsy...
January 11, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319523/temperature-ph-and-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-are-potent-inhibitors-of-biofilm-formation-by-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-clinical-isolates
#14
Marjan Biočanin, Haowa Madi, Zorica Vasiljević, Milan Kojić, Branko Jovčić, Jelena Lozo
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, an opportunistic pathogen usually connected with healthcare-associated infections, is an environmental bacterium. Intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics, with different virulence determinants in the last decade classified this bacterium in the group of global multiple drug resistant (MDR) organism. S. maltophilia clinical isolates, were collected from tertiary care pediatric hospital in Belgrade, Serbia to investigate influence of different factors on biofilm formation, kinetics of biofilm formation for strong biofilm producers and effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) on formed biofilm...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318993/a-case-of-severe-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-co-infected-with-hiv-improved-with-exchange-transfusion
#15
Ayşe Sağmak Tartar, Ayhan Akbulut, Ömür Gökmen Sevindik, Hatice Handan Akbulut, Kutbeddin Demirdağ
In our country, within years, despite a dramatic drop in the number of patients with malaria, a dramatic increase in the number of patients with import malaria is noteworthy. A 32-year-old male patient presented with fever, shivering, malaise, and loss of appetite. He had travelled to West Africa. Laboratory findings were as follows: hemoglobin: 8.8 g/dL and anti-HIV: positive. Microscopic examinations of thin blood smears and thick blood preparations revealed widespread trophozoites. The presence of double-dotted ring forms and banana-shaped gametocytes resulted in Plasmodium falciparum malaria being diagnosed...
December 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311456/-a-survey-of-the-adverse-effects-and-influence-of-concomitant-drugs-for-methotrexate-intrathecal-administration
#16
Masanobu Uchiyama, Miho Ueno, Yasushi Takamatsu, Koichi Matsuo, Osamu Imakyure, Hidetoshi Kamimura
 In general, the intraventricular administration of cytotoxic antitumor drugs provides a high drug concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid with a reduced risk of systemic adverse reactions. Methotrexate (MTX) high-dose therapy requires close monitoring when performed in combination with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (ST) therapy and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration for excretion delay and toxicity enhancement. While the frequency of systemic side effects is thought to be low with intrathecal administration, such effects do rarely but occasionally occur...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307014/stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-bacteremia-and-pneumonia-at-a-tertiary-care-oncology-center-a-review-of-16%C3%A2-years
#17
Consuelo Velázquez-Acosta, Sugehily Zarco-Márquez, Mari Carmen Jiménez-Andrade, Patricia Volkow-Fernández, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and antimicrobial patterns of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bloodstream infections (BSI) and pneumonia episodes in patients with cancer. METHODS: Patients with S. maltophilia BSI or pneumonia admitted from 1 Jan. 2000 to 31 Dec. 2016 were identified at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología (INCan), a tertiary-care oncology hospital in Mexico City. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 171 isolates identified...
January 7, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306055/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-treatment-increases-the-pig-a-mutant-frequency-in-peripheral-blood-from-severely-malnourished-rats
#18
M Monserrat Pacheco-Martínez, Elsa Cervantes-Ríos, María Del Carmen García-Rodríguez, Rocío Ortiz-Muñiz
Severe malnutrition is a complex condition that increases susceptibility to infections. Thus, drugs are extensively used in malnutrition cases. In the present study, we assessed the mutagenic effects of combined trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) treatment in undernourished (UN) and well-nourished (WN) rats. Six-week-old UN and WN Han-Wistar rats were treated with TMP-SMX at a daily dose of 10 mg/kg/d TMP and 50 mg/kg/d SMX for 5 or 10 days. Blood was collected from the tail vein one day before (day -1) and 15, 30, and 45 days after TMP-SMX administration...
December 30, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305548/epidemiology-clinical-characteristics-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-profiles-of-human-clinical-isolates-of-staphylococcus-intermedius-group
#19
Melanie L Yarbrough, William Lainhart, C A Burnham
The veterinary pathogens in Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) are increasingly recognized as causes of human infection. Shared features between SIG and Staphylococcus aureus may result in misidentification of SIG in human clinical cultures. This study examined the clinical and microbiological characteristics of isolates recovered at a tertiary care academic medical center. From 2013 to 2015, 81 SIG isolates were recovered from 62 patients. Patients were commonly ≥ 50 years old, diabetic, or immunocompromised...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305250/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-urinary-tract-infections-across-age-groups
#20
REVIEW
Christine M Chu, Jerry L Lowder
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common outpatient infections, but predicting the probability of UTI through symptoms and test results can be complex. The most diagnostic symptoms of UTI include change in frequency, dysuria, urgency, and presence or absence of vaginal discharge, but UTIs may present differently in older women. Dipstick urinalysis is popular for its availability and usefulness, but results must be interpreted in context of the patient's pretest probability based on symptoms and characteristics...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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