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Limits of Stability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350499/determining-selection-across-heterogeneous-landscapes-a-perturbation-based-method-and-its-application-to-modeling-evolution-in-space
#1
Jonas Wickman, Sebastian Diehl, Bernd Blasius, Christopher A Klausmeier, Alexey B Ryabov, Åke Brännström
Spatial structure can decisively influence the way evolutionary processes unfold. To date, several methods have been used to study evolution in spatial systems, including population genetics, quantitative genetics, moment-closure approximations, and individual-based models. Here we extend the study of spatial evolutionary dynamics to eco-evolutionary models based on reaction-diffusion equations and adaptive dynamics. Specifically, we derive expressions for the strength of directional and stabilizing/disruptive selection that apply both in continuous space and to metacommunities with symmetrical dispersal between patches...
April 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346882/determination-of-prodrug-treosulfan-and-its-biologically-active-monoepoxide-in-rat-plasma-liver-lungs-kidneys-muscle-and-brain-by-hplc-esi-ms-ms-method
#2
Michał Romański, Anna Kasprzyk, Artur Teżyk, Agnieszka Widerowska, Czesław Żaba, Franciszek Główka
A prodrug treosulfan (TREO) is currently investigated in clinical trials for conditioning prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bioanalysis of TREO and its active derivatives, monoepoxide (S,S-EBDM) and diepoxide, in plasma and urine underlay the pharmacokinetic studies of these compounds but cannot explain an organ pharmacological action or toxicity. Recently, distribution of TREO and S,S-EBDM into brain, cerebrospinal fluid, and aqueous humor of the eye has been investigated in animal models and the obtained results presented clinical relevance...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346840/fabrication-and-evaluation-of-phytomenadione-as-a-nanostructure-lipid-carrier-for-enhancement-of-bioavailability
#3
Bader Mubarak Aljaeid, Khaled Mohamed Hosny
Owing to its limited aqueous solubility, Phytomenadione (vitamin K) undergoes a low bioavailability (50%) with a large inter-individual variability after oral administration. Therefore, the aim of this work was to incorporate vitamine K into nanostructure lipid carrier systems to improve its aqueous solubility and bioavailability. Phytomenadione was used as a liquid lipid, Precirol ATO5, and Compritol ATO were used as solid lipids, Labrasol and Cremophore EL as water soluble surfactants, Capryol 90 and Lauroglycol as lipid soluble surfactants...
March 27, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346834/outcomes-of-inside-out-meniscal-repair-in-the-setting-of-multiligament-reconstruction-in-the-knee
#4
Jorge Chahla, Chase S Dean, Lauren M Matheny, Justin J Mitchell, Mark E Cinque, Robert F LaPrade
BACKGROUND: Limited evidence exists for meniscal repair outcomes in a multiligament reconstruction setting. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to assess outcomes and failure rates of meniscal repair in patients who underwent multiligament reconstruction compared with patients who underwent multiligament reconstruction but lacked meniscal tears. The authors hypothesized that the outcomes of meniscal repair associated with concomitant multiligament reconstruction would significantly improve from preoperatively to postoperatively at a minimum of 2 years after the index surgery...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346744/radiopaque-uhmwpe-sublaminar-cables-for-spinal-deformity-correction-preclinical-mechanical-and-radiopacifier-leaching-assessment
#5
Alex K Roth, Karlien Boon-Ceelen, Harold Smelt, Bert van Rietbergen, Paul C Willems, Lodewijk W van Rhijn, Jacobus J Arts
Polymeric sublaminar cables have a number of advantages over metal cables in the field of spinal deformity surgery, with decreased risk of neurological injury and potential for higher correction forces as the two most predominant. However, currently available polymer cables are radiolucent, precluding postoperative radiological assessment of instrumentation stability and integrity. This study provides a preclinical assessment of a woven UHMWPE cable made with radiopaque UHMWPE fibers. Our primary goal was to determine if the addition of a radiopacifier negatively affects the mechanical properties of UHMWPE woven cables...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346739/a-novel-approach-to-limit-chemical-deterioration-of-gilthead-sea-bream%C3%A2-sparus-aurata-%C3%A2-fillets-coating-with-electrospun-nanofibers-as-characterized-by-molecular-thermal-and-microstructural-properties
#6
Zafer Ceylan, Gulgun F Unal Sengor, Mustafa Tahsin Yilmaz
Coating of sea bream fillets with thymol loaded chitosan based electrospun nanofibers (TLCN) and chitosan based nanafibers (CN) has been presented a novel approach to delay chemical deterioration. We assessed CN and TLCN with respect of scanting of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), trimethylamine (TMA), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) deterioration during cold storage condition. Electrospinning process was applied to obtain TLCN and CN. Both of nanofibers obtained from biopolymer and bioactive material were cylindrical, smooth, beadless...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345927/stable-superwetting-meshes-for-on-demand-separation-of-immiscible-oil-water-mixtures-and-emulsions
#7
Mingming Liu, Yuanyuan Hou, Jing Li, Zhiguang Guo
Oil-water separation is of great importance for the treatment of oily wastewater, including immiscible light/heavy oil-water mixtures, oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions. Recently, interfacial materials (especially filtration membranes) with special wettability have been broadly developed to solve the environmental problems by virtue of their advantages in energy saving, high flux and good selectivity. However, the given wetting property (superhydrophilicity or superhydrophobicity) and pore size and poor stability of filtration membranes limit their widespread applications, which is far from meeting a wide variety of oil polluted water...
March 27, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345871/in-vivo-targeting-and-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-tumor-with-intrinsically-radioactive-metal-organic-frameworks-nanomaterials
#8
Daiqin Chen, Dongzhi Yang, Casey A Dougherty, Weifei Lu, Hongwei Wu, Xianran He, Ting Cai, Marcian E Van Dort, Brian D Ross, Hao Hong
Nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (nMOF) materials represent an attractive tool for various biomedical applications. Due to the chemical versatility, enormous porosity, and tunable degradability of nMOFs, they have been adopted as carriers for delivery of imaging and/or therapeutic cargos. However, the relatively low stability of most nMOFs has limited practical in vivo applications. Here we report the production and characterization of an intrinsically radioactive UiO-66 nMOF ((89)Zr-UiO-66) with incorporation of positron-emitting isotope zirconium-89 ((89)Zr)...
March 28, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345095/a-simple-functional-carbon-nanotube-fiber-for-in-vivo-monitoring-of-no-in-a-rat-brain-following-cerebral-ischemia
#9
Li Liu, Limin Zhang, Zhihui Dai, Yang Tian
Nitric oxide (NO) is key free-radical messenger and neuronal signal which is closely related to many brain diseases. It is a challenge to develop a sensitive and reliable biosensor for in vivo monitoring of NO in the brain. In this research, a simple ratiometric electrochemical biosensor for NO monitoring in rat brain following cerebral ischemia was developed using a carbon nanotube fiber (CNF) modified with hemin, in which the CNF not only served as a platform to assemble the hemin molecule, but greatly facilitated the electron transfer of hemin on to the electrode surface...
March 27, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344049/-serum-potassium-levels-and-long-term-mortality-in-the-elderly-with-hypertension
#10
M Heras Benito, M J Fernández-Reyes, M T Guerrero Díaz, A Muñoz Pascual
There is increasing evidence that small variations within the normal range (3.5-5mEq/L) of potassium are associated with mortality. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is an association between serum potassium level (sK) and mortality in a cohort of elderly hypertensive patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective, observational study was conducted on patients who had sK levels available in a period of clinical stability during their recruitment between January and April 2006 and followed-up for 10 years...
March 23, 2017: Hipertensión y Riesgo Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343746/preliminary-development-of-an-advanced-modular-pressure-relief-cushion-testing-and-user-evaluation
#11
Tyler Freeto, Steven J Mitchell, Kath M Bogie
STUDY AIM: Effective pressure relief cushions are identified as a core assistive technology need by the World Health Organization Global Cooperation on Assistive Technology. High quality affordable wheelchair cushions could provide effective pressure relief for many individuals with limited access to advanced assistive technology. MATERIALS: Value driven engineering (VdE) principles were employed to develop a prototype modular cushion. Low cost dynamically responsive gel balls were arranged in a close packed array and seated in bilayer foam for containment and support...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Tissue Viability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343245/an-acid-inert-fluorescent-probe-for-the-detection-of-nitrite
#12
Meiyi Cai, Xiaoyun Chai, Xuedong Wang, Ting Wang
The fluorescent detection of nitrite ions has been challenging owing to the poor acid-stability of typical fluorescent probes. Herein, an acid-inert rhodamine-based fluorescent probe has been developed for the fast detection of trace amount of nitrite ions with turn-on mode. The detection limit of nitrite ions was determined to be 9.4 nM (S/N = 3) and the linear range with high linear correlation was observed between 0.025 to 2.5 μM. A test paper method was developed for rapid visual detection of nitrite ions...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343103/pd-au-carbon-dots-nanocomposite-facile-synthesis-and-application-as-an-ultrasensitive-electrochemical-biosensor-for-determination-of-colitoxin-dna-in-human-serum
#13
Qitong Huang, Xiaofeng Lin, Jie-Ji Zhu, Qing-Xiao Tong
In this study, a green and fast method was developed to synthesize high-yield carbon dots (CDs) via one-pot microwave treatment of banana peels without using any other surface passivation agents. Then the as-prepared CDs was used as the reducing agent and stabilizer to synthesize a Pd-Au@CDs nanocomposite by a simple sequential reduction strategy. Finally, Pd-Au@CDs nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (Pd-Au@CDs/GCE) was obtained as a biosensor for target DNA after being immobilized a single-stranded probe DNA by a carboxyl ammonia condensation reaction...
March 22, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342831/inference-of-direct-and-multistep-effective-connectivities-from-functional-connectivity-of-the-brain-and-of-relationships-to-cortical-geometry
#14
Grishma Mehta-Pandejee, P A Robinson, James A Henderson, K M Aquino, Somwrita Sarkar
BACKGROUND: The problem of inferring effective brain connectivity from functional connectivity is under active investigation, and connectivity via multistep paths is poorly understood. NEW METHOD: A method is presented to calculate the direct effective connection matrix (deCM), which embodies direct connection strengths between brain regions, from functional CMs (fCMs) by minimizing the difference between an experimental fCM and one calculated via neural field theory from an ansatz deCM based on an experimental anatomical CM...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342355/pd-nanospheres-decorated-reduced-graphene-oxide-with-multi-functions-highly-efficient-catalytic-reduction-and-ultrasensitive-sensing-of-hazardous-4-nitrophenol-pollutant
#15
A T Ezhil Vilian, Sang Rak Choe, Krishnan Giribabu, Sung-Chan Jang, Changhyun Roh, Yun Suk Huh, Young-Kyu Han
We illustrate a facile approach for in situ synthesis of Pd-gum arabic/reduced graphene oxide (Pd-GA/RGO) using GA as the reducing agent, which favors the instantaneous reduction of both Pd ions and GO into Pd nanoparticles (NPs) and RGO. From the morphological analysis of Pd-GA/RGO, we observed highly dispersed spherical 5nm Pd NPs decorated over RGO. The as-synthesized Pd-GA/RGO composite was employed for the catalytic reduction and the electrochemical detection of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), respectively. The catalytic reduction of 4-NP was highly pronounced for Pd-GA/RGO (5min) when compared to Pd NPs (140min) and Pd/RGO (36min)...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342347/assumed-non-persistent-environmental-chemicals-in-human-adipose-tissue-matrix-stability-and-correlation-with-levels-measured-in-urine-and-serum
#16
F Artacho-Cordón, J P Arrebola, O Nielsen, P Hernández, N E Skakkebaek, M F Fernández, A M Andersson, N Olea, H Frederiksen
The aim of this study was to (1) optimize a method for the measurement of parabens and phenols in adipose tissue, (2) evaluate the stability of chemical residues in adipose tissue samples, and (3) study correlations of these compounds in urine, serum, and adipose tissue. Samples were obtained from adults undergoing trauma surgery. Nine phenols and seven parabens were determined by isotope diluted TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS. The analytical method showed good accuracy and precision. Limits of detection (LOD) for parabens and phenols ranged from 0...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341989/a-fully-validated-bioanalytical-method-using-an-uhplc-ms-ms-system-for-quantification-of-dna-and-rna-oxidative-stress-biomarkers
#17
Barbora Cervinkova, Lenka Kujovska Krcmova, Veronika Sestakova, Dagmar Solichova, Petr Solich
A new, rapid and effective ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection is described for the separation and quantification of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, 8-hydroxyguanosine and creatinine in human urine. The present study uses an isotope-labelled internal standard ([(15)N]5-8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine), a BIO core-shell stationary phase and an isocratic elution of methanol and water. Sample preparation of human urine was performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) on Oasis HLB cartridges with methanol/water 50:50 (v/v) elution...
March 24, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341957/phase-ib-dose-finding-trial-of-lapatinib-plus-pegylated-liposomal-doxorubicin-in-advanced-her2-positive-breast-cancer
#18
Andrea Rocca, Lorenzo Cecconetto, Alessandro Passardi, Elisabetta Melegari, Daniele Andreis, Manuela Monti, Roberta Maltoni, Samanta Sarti, Elisabetta Pietri, Alessio Schirone, Francesco Fabbri, Caterina Donati, Oriana Nanni, Anna Fedeli, Marina Faedi, Dino Amadori
PURPOSE: Combination of anthracyclines with trastuzumab is hampered by cardiotoxicity. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and lapatinib could represent a safer alternative to combination therapy. METHODS: In this phase Ib study with 3 + 3 dose escalation design, patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer received pegylated liposomal doxorubicin 30 mg/m(2) intravenously on day 1 plus lapatinib 1250 (level 1) or 1500 (level 2) mg/day orally on days 1-21 of each 21-day cycle...
March 24, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341698/schizosaccharomyces-pombe-muts%C3%AE-and-mutl%C3%AE-maintain-stability-of-tetra-nucleotide-repeats-and-msh3-of-hepta-nucleotide-repeats
#19
Desirée Villahermosa, Olaf Christensen, Karen Knapp, Oliver Fleck
Defective mismatch repair (MMR) in humans is associated with colon cancer and instability of microsatellites, DNA sequences with one or several nucleotides repeated. Key factors of eukaryotic MMR are the heterodimers MutSα (Msh2-Msh6), which recognizes base-base mismatches and unpaired nucleotides in DNA and MutLα (Mlh1-Pms1), which facilitates downstream steps. In addition, MutSβ (Msh2-Msh3) recognizes DNA loops of various sizes, although our previous data and the data presented here suggest that Msh3 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe does not play a role in MMR...
March 24, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341641/proliferation-of-latently-infected-cd4-t-cells-carrying-replication-competent-hiv-1-potential-role-in-latent-reservoir-dynamics
#20
Nina N Hosmane, Kyungyoon J Kwon, Katherine M Bruner, Adam A Capoferri, Subul Beg, Daniel I S Rosenbloom, Brandon F Keele, Ya-Chi Ho, Janet D Siliciano, Robert F Siliciano
A latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4(+) T lymphocytes precludes cure. Mechanisms underlying reservoir stability are unclear. Recent studies suggest an unexpected degree of infected cell proliferation in vivo. T cell activation drives proliferation but also reverses latency, resulting in productive infection that generally leads to cell death. In this study, we show that latently infected cells can proliferate in response to mitogens without producing virus, generating progeny cells that can release infectious virus...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
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