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Limits of Stability

Hiroko Fujisato, Masaya Ito, Yoshitake Takebayashi, Hiroki Hosogoshi, Noriko Kato, Shun Nakajima, Mitsuhiro Miyamae, Yuki Oe, Satoshi Usami, Ayako Kanie, Masaru Horikoshi, Matthias Berking
BACKGROUND: The Emotion Regulation Skills Questionnaire (ERSQ) comprehensively assesses nine aspects of emotion regulation skills: awareness, clarity, sensation, understanding, compassionate self-support, modification, acceptance, tolerance, and readiness to confront. However, it is unknown about the levels of emotion regulation skills in various mental disorders, and its cross-cultural validity. We developed a Japanese version of the ERSQ, then examined its validity and reliability in clinical and non-clinical populations...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Michael J Cooney
Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalyzed by enzymes, with a focus on their reaction rates. The study of an enzyme's kinetics considers the various stages of activity, reveals the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme, correlates its value to assay conditions, and describes how a drug or a poison might inhibit the enzyme. Victor Henri initially reported that enzyme reactions were initiated by a bond between the enzyme and the substrate. By 1910, Michaelis and Menten were advancing their work by studying the kinetics of an enzyme saccharase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sabina Besic, Shelley D Minteer
Although enzymes are highly efficient and selective catalysts, there have been problems incorporating them into fuel cells. Early enzyme-based fuel cells contained enzymes in solution rather than immobilized on the electrode surface. One problem utilizing an enzyme in solution is an issue of transport associated with long diffusion lengths between the site of bioelectrocatalysis and the electrode. This issue drastically decreases the theoretical overall power output due to the poor electron conductivity. On the other hand, enzymes immobilized at the electrode surface have eliminated the issue of poor electron conduction due to close proximity of electron transfer between electrode and the biocatalyst...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Paolo Girardi, Roberto Brugnoli, Giovanni Manfredi, Gabriele Sani
Lithium has been a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) for several decades. Despite a general reduction in the use of lithium over the past several years, it is effective in the management of both manic and depressive episodes in BD and continues to be recommended as a first-line mood stabilizer. This review provides an overview of the pharmacology of lithium and highlights its clinical profile in the management of BD, focusing on the potential advantages of prolonged-release (PR) versus immediate-release (IR) formulations of lithium...
October 21, 2016: Drugs in R&D
Rudolf Cejnar, Kateřina Hložková, Lukáš Jelínek, Pavel Kotrba, Pavel Dostálek
Compared to most other alcoholic beverages, the shelf life of beer is much more limited due to its instability in the bottle. That instability is most likely to appear as turbidity (haze), even sedimentation, during storage. The haze in beer is mostly caused by colloidal particles formed by interactions between proteins and polyphenols within the beer. Therefore, beers are usually stabilized by removing at least one of these components. We developed and constructed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with a proline-rich QPF peptide attached to the cell wall, using the C-terminal anchoring domain of α-agglutinin...
October 21, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
K-J Maier, B Bücking, K Horst, H Andruszkow, F Hildebrand, M Knobe
BACKGROUND: In unstable trochanteric fractures, the extramedullary rotationally stable screw-anchor (RoSA) combines the benefits of the load and rotational stability of the blade with the advantages of the screw (pull-out resistance, compression capability) in a single load carrier, and was designed to prevent femoral neck shortening by using an additional locked trochanteric stabilizing plate (TSP). OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current prospective cohort study was the clinical evaluation of the RoSA/TSP system regarding the mechanical re-operation rate and the amount of postoperative femoral neck shortening...
October 21, 2016: Der Unfallchirurg
A Achtnich, S Rosslenbroich, K Beitzel, A B Imhoff, W Petersen
OBJECTIVE: Arthroscopic assisted suture anchor refixation combined with microfracturing of the femoral ACL insertion zone in cases of acute proximal anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture to restore anatomical and biomechanical properties of the native ACL. INDICATIONS: Acute proximal ACL rupture/avulsion, multiligament injury of the knee CONTRAINDICATIONS: Chronic (>6 weeks) proximal ACL rupture, intraligamentary rupture, as well as previous ACL surgery. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: Arthroscopic examination of the knee joint, debridement of the femoral insertion zone, examination of the ligament quality by a probe, insertion of a curved lasso through the ACL to place the sutures and use of a drill guide to place the anchor in the middle of the femoral ACL insertion...
October 21, 2016: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
Shu-Yu Wu, Ping Zou, Alexandra W Fuller, Sanjay Mishra, Zhen Wang, Kevin L Schey, Hassane S Mchaourab
The refractivity and transparency of the ocular lens is dependent on the stability and solubility of the crystallins in the fiber cells. A number of mutations of lens crystallins have been associated with dominant cataracts in humans and mice. Of particular interest were γB- and γD-crystallin mutants linked to dominant cataracts in mouse models. While thermodynamically destabilized and aggregation-prone, these mutants were found to have weak affinity to the resident chaperone α-crystallin in vitro To better understand the mechanism of the cataract phenotype, we transgenically expressed different γD-crystallin mutants in the zebrafish lens, and observed a range of lens defects that arise primarily from the aggregation of the mutant proteins...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Liqing Wang, Suresh Kumar, Satinder Dahiya, Feng Wang, Jian Wu, Kheng Newick, Rongxiang Han, Arabinda Samanta, Ulf H Beier, Tatiana Akimova, Tricia R Bhatti, Benjamin Nicholson, Mathew P Kodrasov, Saket Agarwal, David E Sterner, Wei Gu, Joseph Weinstock, Tauseef R Butt, Steven M Albelda, Wayne W Hancock
Foxp3+ T-regulatory (Treg) cells are known to suppress protective host immune responses to a wide variety of solid tumors, but their therapeutic targeting is largely restricted to their transient depletion or "secondary" modulation, e.g. using anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody. Our ongoing studies of the post-translational modifications that regulate Foxp3 demonstrated that the histone/protein acetyltransferase, Tip60, plays a dominant role in promoting acetylation, dimerization and function in Treg cells. We now show that the ubiquitin-specific protease, Usp7, controls Treg function largely by stabilizing the expression and promoting the multimerization of Tip60 and Foxp3...
October 15, 2016: EBioMedicine
Cristiane I Cerceau, Luiz C A Barbosa, Elson S Alvarenga, Antonio G Ferreira, Sérgio S Thomasi
α-Bisabolol is a natural terpene produced by Eremanthus erythropappus and is widely used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals due to its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antimycotic properties. Due to these applications, a control of composition and authenticity of commercial oils rich in this terpene is required, resulting in a demand for new methodologies for quality control. In this work a rapid and efficient method for quantification of α-bisabolol in the essential oil of E. erythropappus (candeia) using (1)H NMR was developed, validated and compared to gas chromatography (GC) method...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Xiangheng Niu, Jianming Pan, Fengxian Qiu, Xin Li, Yongsheng Yan, Libo Shi, Hongli Zhao, Minbo Lan
Enzyme-free electrochemical detection of glucose in alkaline media with favorable properties has been acquired by fabricating a robust and large-surface sensing platform, which is composed of anneal-shrinked Cu2O dendrites grown on porous Cu foam. On the one hand, the good compatibility of electrodeposited Cu2O architectures and Cu foam substrate, together with a post-deposition anneal at 200°C, offers a mechanically stable interface for glucose determination. On the other hand, the macropores of Cu foam that is decorated with unique Cu2O dendrites provide large active surface for electrocatalytic reaction and mass transport...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Xuan Zhang, Yi-Chi Zhang, Jia-Wei Zhang
Chloramphenicol (CAP), as a broad-spectrum antibiotic, has been worldwide banned for using in the food producing animals due to its overuse may cause severe threats to public health. It is therefore highly desirable to develop facile, selective and sensitive biosensor for CAP detection and monitoring in drug and foodstuff samples. In this work, three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (3DRGO) architectures were prepared through a green and template-free approach and used as active electrode materials to develop a highly selective electrochemical sensor for CAP detection...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Jing Lan, Hong Yan Zou, Qiang Wang, Ping Zeng, Yuan Fang Li, Cheng Zhi Huang
An ultra-sensitive and selective turn off-on fluorescence detection of heparin based on the energy transfer in the BSA-stabilized gold nanoclusters/amino-functionalized graphene oxide (BSA-AuNCs/NH2-GO) hybrids was successfully realized. The BSA-AuNCs containing amounts of carboxyl groups could be absorbed on the surface of NH2-GO through the electrostatic interaction, which resulted in the fluorescence quenching of BSA-AuNCs with high efficiency. However, heparin, possessing high density of negative charge, could compete with BSA-AuNCs to bind NH2-GO and block the energy transfer from BSA-AuNCs to NH2-GO...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Yanhong Ma, Ziang Zhang, Yueling Xu, Ming Ma, Bo Chen, Lin Wei, Lehui Xiao
In this work, we demonstrated a convenient and green strategy for the synthesis of bright and water-soluble carbon dots (CDs) by carbonizing sodium citrate and glutathione together in a hydrothermal method for the first time. Without post surface modification, the as-synthesized CDs display fluorescence quantum yield (QY) as high as 21.03% and show superior stability not only in concentrated salt solutions but also in neutral and alkaline media. The probe exhibits selective and sensitive recognition capability towards mercury ion (Hg(2+)) in aqueous solution...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Jiamian Wang, Jie Song, Xiuyun Wang, Shuo Wu, Yanqiu Zhao, Pinchen Luo, Changgong Meng
A label-free ratiometric fluorescence aptasensor has been developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of cocaine in complex biofluids. The fluorescent aptasensor is composed of a non-labeled GC-38 cocaine aptamer which serves as a basic sensing unit and two fluorophores, 2-amino-5,6,7-trimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine (ATMND) and SYBR Green I (SGI) which serves as a signal reporter and a build-in reference, respectively. The detection principle is based on a specific cocaine mediated ATMND displacement reaction and the corresponding change in the fluorescence ratio of ATMND to SGI...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Mingxue Wu, Gang Chen, Jiutong Ma, Ping Liu, Qiong Jia
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are an emerging class of porous organic frameworks with diverse promising applications. Herein, we presented the first example of cross-linked hydrazone COFs (cross-linked COFs) coating via thiol-ene click chemistry for solid phase microextraction (SPME). Strong covalent bonds and interlayer of the prepared networks ensured the adsorption capacity and durability of the novel SPME fiber. π-π conjugated structure existed because of abundant phenyl rings and -C=N groups in the cross-lined COFs...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Na Wei, Xian-En Zhao, Shuyun Zhu, Yongrui He, Longfang Zheng, Guang Chen, Jinmao You, Shu Liu, Zhiqiang Liu
This paper, for the first time, reported a simple, rapid, sensitive and environmental friendly ultrasonic-assisted in situ derivatization-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (in situ UAD-DLLME) method followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their biosynthesis precursors and metabolites in rat brain microdialysates. In this work, a commercial reagent, Lissamine rhodamine B sulfonylchloride (LRSC), was proposed as a derivatization reagent...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
A Argente-García, N Jornet-Martínez, R Herráez-Hernández, P Campíns-Falcó
A solid sensor obtained by embedding 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS) into polydimethylsiloxane/tetraethylortosilicate/silicon dioxide nanoparticles composite has been developed to identify and determine amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA). The analytes are derivatized inside the composite for 10 min to create a colored product which can be then quantified by measuring the diffuse reflectance or the color intensity after processing the digitalized image...
November 2, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Anne-Sophie Dumas, Ludivine Taconnat, Evangelos Barbas, Guillem Rigaill, Olivier Catrice, Delphine Bernard, Abdelilah Benamar, David Macherel, Abdelhak El Amrani, Richard Berthomé
BACKGROUND: Higher plants have to cope with increasing concentrations of pollutants of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Given their capacity to concentrate and metabolize various compounds including pollutants, plants can be used to treat environmental problems - a process called phytoremediation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the stabilization, the extraction, the accumulation and partial or complete degradation of pollutants by plants remain poorly understood. RESULTS: Here, we determined the molecular events involved in the early plant response to phenanthrene, used as a model of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Chellakannu Rajkumar, Balamurugan Thirumalraj, Shen-Ming Chen, His-An Chen
In this study, we demonstrate a simple preparation of graphite (GR) sheets assisted with gelatin (GLN) polypeptide composite was developed for sensitive detection of dopamine (DA) sensor. The GR/GLN composite was prepared by GR powder in GLN solution (5mg/mL) via sonication process. The prepared GR/GLN composite displays well dispersion ability in biopolymer matrix and characterized via scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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