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Active living

Caroline Charette, Krista L Best, Emma M Smith, William C Miller, François Routhier
Background: Mobility limitations represent the third most prevalent cause of disability, affecting more than 1.9 million community-dwelling Canadians. Walking aids are often prescribed to reduce the impacts of mobility impairments. There are limited data on walking aids since 2004. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of walking aid use in Canada and to explore demographic characteristics among users of walking aids. Design: The design used was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional national survey...
March 14, 2018: Physical Therapy
Douglas P Beall, M R Chambers, Sam Thomas, John Amburgy, James R Webb, Bradly S Goodman, Devin K Datta, Richard W Easton, Douglas Linville, Sanjay Talati, John B Tillman
BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic and neoplastic vertebral compression fractures (VCF) are common and painful, threatening quality of life and increasing risk of morbidity and mortality. Balloon kyphoplasty is a percutaneous option for treating painful cancer- and osteoporosis-related VCFs, supported by 2 randomized trials demonstrating efficacy benefits of BKP over nonsurgical care. OBJECTIVE: To investigate 12-mo disability, quality of life, and safety outcomes specifically in a Medicare-eligible population, representing characteristic patients seen in routine clinical practice...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Rachel M Speer, Catherine F Wise, Jamie L Young, AbouEl-Makarim Aboueissa, Mark Martin Bras, Mike Barandiaran, Erick Bermúdez, Lirio Márquez-D'Acunti, John Pierce Wise
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a marine pollution of concern as recent studies show it has a global distribution, with some regions showing high Cr concentrations in marine animal tissue, and it is extensively used. Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are an endangered marine species that may experience prolonged exposures to environmental contaminants including Cr(VI). Human activities have led to global Cr(VI) contamination of the marine environment. While Cr(VI) has been identified as a known human carcinogen, the health effects in marine species are poorly understood...
March 4, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Tatsuya Soeno, Tomoharu Mochizuki, Osamu Tanifuji, Hiroshi Koga, Takayuki Murayama, Hiroki Hijikata, Yuki Takahashi, Naoto Endo
INTRODUCTION: Instability after total knee arthroplasty is a critical problem. The purpose of this study was to clarify the stability of implanted knees during walking by comparing differences in dynamic instability during knee acceleration between individuals with or without previously experienced subjective instability, as measured by self-reported questionnaire. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 92 knees with medial pivot implants. Mean patient age and follow-up duration were 78...
2018: PloS One
Thomas Joshua Pasvol, Caroline Foster, Sarah Fidler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Successful roll-out of paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a significant increase in survival of adolescents and young people growing up with HIV. Those on suppressive ART since childhood represent a unique group particularly well positioned to interrupt ART and achieve post-treatment control (PTC), or HIV remission. This maybe a consequence of early and sustained treatment since infancy, the small size of the HIV reservoir, the presence of a functioning thymus and a more 'flexible' immune system better able to respond to novel immune therapeutic interventions when compared with adults who acquired HIV at a time of immunological maturity and thymic involution...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Dong Dong, Lawrence K F Wong, Zhiwei Luo
By using slide-based task in a laboratory setting, previous studies have found that activation of the rostral prefrontal cortex (BA10) is related to prospective memory performance. In this present study, we used immersive virtual reality (VR) technology to measure PM performance in a real-life task in a simulated virtual environment. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy was used simultaneously to record the rostral prefrontal cortex activities of the subjects. By comparing the data against the ones from the slide-based task, the result suggested that the activation of BA10 in the VR tasks were greater than the one in the slide-based tasks, and the VR tasks have the potential to identify the particular location of BA10 that is connected to the PM performance in our daily lives...
March 16, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Y Ni, Y Qin, Z Fang, Z Zhang
PURPOSE: Dysfunction or death of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is a common pathogenesis of various types of retinal degenerative diseases. Recent reports indicated that ROCK pathway inhibitors regulate cell proliferation or apoptosis in a cell-type-dependent manner. Here, we aim to investigate the effect of ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 on the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in vitro. METHODS: Cell proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed by CCK-8 and flow cytometry respectively...
March 16, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
Lisa Menegazzo, Valentina Scattolini, Roberta Cappellari, Benedetta Maria Bonora, Mattia Albiero, Mario Bortolozzi, Filippo Romanato, Giulio Ceolotto, Saula Vigili de Kreutzeberg, Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini
AIMS: Diabetes is associated with an excess release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and an enhanced NETosis, a neutrophil cell death programme instrumental to anti-microbial defences, but also involved in tissue damage. We herein investigated whether the antidiabetic drug metformin protects against NETosis. METHODS: We measured NET components in the plasma of patients with pre-diabetes who were randomized to receive metformin or placebo for 2 months. To control for the effect on glucose, we also measured NET components in the plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes before and after treatment with insulin or dapagliflozin...
March 15, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Fabien Bernard, Sylvain Dumez, Sébastien Lemière, Anne Platel, Fabrice Nesslany, Annabelle Deram, Franck Vandenbulcke, Damien Cuny
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element for living organisms and is widespread in metal-contaminated soils. As organisms which can grow up on these polluted areas, plants have some protection mechanisms against Cd issues. Among the plant kingdom, the Brassicaceae family includes species which are known to be able to tolerate and accumulate Cd in their tissues. In this study, Brassica oleracea var. viridis cv "Prover" was exposed to a range of artificially Cd-contaminated soils (from 2.5 up to 20 mg kg-1 ) during 3, 10, and 56 days and the effects on life traits, photosynthesis activity, antioxidant enzymatic activities were studied...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tuija Leskinen, Sari Stenholm, Ville Aalto, Jenny Head, Mika Kivimäki, Jussi Vahtera
Background: physical activity promotes healthy aging. However, little is known about the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy and chronic disease-free life expectancy (LE). The study aim was to examine healthy and chronic disease-free LE between ages 50 and 75 and across various levels of physical activity by sex and different occupational statuses. Methods: overall, 34,379 women (mean age 53.2 (SD 2.9) years) and 8,381 men (53.6 (SD 3.2) years) from the Finnish Public Sector study were categorized into five physical activity levels (inactive to vigorously active) according to self-reported physical activity and into three occupational statuses at the first observation point...
March 13, 2018: Age and Ageing
Robin P Shook, Gregory A Hand, Daniel P O'Connor, Diana M Thomas, Thomas G Hurley, James R Hébert, Clemens Drenowatz, Gregory J Welk, Alicia L Carriquiry, Steven N Blair
Background: Assessments of energy intake (EI) are frequently affected by measurement error. Recently, a simple equation was developed and validated to estimate EI on the basis of the energy balance equation [EI = changed body energy stores + energy expenditure (EE)]. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare multiple estimates of EI, including 2 calculated from the energy balance equation by using doubly labeled water (DLW) or activity monitors, in free-living adults...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
M Hobbs, M J Duncan, P Collins, J Mckenna, S Schoeppe, A L Rebar, S Alley, C Short, C Vandelanotte
Background: The co-occurrence of unhealthy lifestyles, calls for interventions that target multiple health behaviours. This study investigates the clustering of health behaviours and examines demographic differences between each cluster. Methods: In total, 934 adults from Queensland, Australia completed a cross-sectional survey assessing multiple health behaviours. A two-step hierarchical cluster analysis using multiple iterations identified the optimal number of clusters and the subset of distinguishing health behaviour variables...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Fiona M Nea, L Kirsty Pourshahidi, John M Kearney, M Barbara E Livingstone, Carolina Bassul, Clare A Corish
Background: Approximately 17% of the European workforce is engaged in shift work. How the experience of shift work impacts on the dietary and lifestyle practices of workers is unclear. Methods: Overall, 15 focus groups were conducted by two researchers, with 109 participants. The initial focus group was carried out with both researchers present, to ensure consistency in facilitation. Both researchers thematically analysed all data collected. Results: Shift work was described as affecting many areas of workers' lives...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Verena M Throm, David Männle, Thomas Giese, Andrea S Bauer, Matthias M Gaida, Juergen Kopitz, Thomas Bruckner, Konstanze Plaschke, Svetlana P Grekova, Klaus Felix, Thilo Hackert, Nathalia A Giese, Oliver Strobel
Smoking is associated with increased risk and poorer prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Nicotine acts through cholinergic nicotinic receptors, preferentially α7 (CHRNA7) that also binds the endogenous ligand SLURP1 (Secreted Ly-6/uPAR-Related Protein 1). The clinical significance of SLURP1 and its interaction with nicotine in PDAC are unclear. We detected similar levels of SLURP1 in sera from healthy donors and patients with chronic pancreatitis or PDAC; higher preoperative values were associated with significantly better survival in patients with resected tumors...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Naira F Z Schneider, Claudia Cerella, Jin-Young Lee, Aloran Mazumder, Kyung Rok Kim, Annelise de Carvalho, Jennifer Munkert, Rodrigo M Pádua, Wolfgang Kreis, Kyu-Won Kim, Christo Christov, Mario Dicato, Hyun-Jung Kim, Byung Woo Han, Fernão C Braga, Cláudia M O Simões, Marc Diederich
Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are natural compounds used traditionally to treat congestive heart diseases. Recent investigations repositioned CGs as potential anticancer agents. To discover novel cytotoxic CG scaffolds, we selected the cardenolide glucoevatromonoside (GEV) out of 46 CGs for its low nanomolar anti-lung cancer activity. GEV presented reduced toxicity toward non-cancerous cell types (lung MRC-5 and PBMC) and high-affinity binding to the Na+ /K+ -ATPase α subunit, assessed by computational docking...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Barry H Smith, Lawrence S Gazda, Thomas J Fahey, Angelica Nazarian, Melissa A Laramore, Prithy Martis, Zoe P Andrada, Joanne Thomas, Tapan Parikh, Sudipta Sureshbabu, Nathaniel Berman, Allyson J Ocean, Richard D Hall, David J Wolf
Objective: The complexity, heterogeneity and capacity of malignant neoplastic cells and tumors for rapid change and evolution suggest that living-cell-based biological-systems approaches to cancer treatment are merited. Testing this hypothesis, the tumor marker, metabolic activity, and overall survival (OS) responses, to the use of one such system, implantable macrobeads [RENCA macrobeads (RMBs)], in phase I and IIa clinical trials in advanced, treatment-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are described here...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
JuHyung Park
[Purpose] The purpose of this research is to take a look at the influences of client-centered therapy on the level of everyday life performance, the level of satisfaction, and the quality of life of the chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] This research used client-centered therapy with two chronic stroke and hemiplegia patients as subjects. The therapy was carried out once a day, five times a week, for thirty minutes at a time for four weeks. Also, five kinds of training were included in the medical treatment programs which were organized after the initial Canadian occupational performance measure (COPM) evaluations...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Keum-Sook Kim, Young-Seok Cho
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of an occupation-centered cognitive rehabilitation program on the cognitive function, electroencephalogram amplitude, and daily activity performance of patients with mild cognitive impairment living in a local community. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 6 patients (all female; age: 72.5 ± 6.6 years) with mild cognitive impairment. The patients took part in 10 60-minute sessions, over 10 weeks. [Results] The cognitive function scale scores increased, but the increase was not statistically significant...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Yusuke Chigira, Ikuri Miyazaki, Masataka Izumi, Takahiro Oda
[Purpose] The present study examined the effects of expiratory muscle training on elderly day care service users, who had been classified into Care Grades 1 and 2 based on Japan's long-term care insurance system. [Subjects and Methods] Intervention was provided for 29 Care Grade 1 or 2 day care service users. During intervention, expiratory muscle training was performed by slowly expiring using the abdominal muscles and a device after maximal inspiration. Each intervention session lasted for approximately 10 minutes, and 2 sessions were held weekly for 3 months to compare respiratory function test values before and after intervention...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Noemia Teixeira de Siqueira-Filha, Maria de Fatima Militao de Albuquerque, Laura Cunha Rodrigues, Rosa Legood, Andreia Costa Santos
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to measure the costs of people living with HIV (PLHIV) as well as active tuberculosis (TB/HIV), latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI/HIV) or without TB (HIV/AIDS). METHODS: We analysed the costs through the entire pathway of care during the prediagnosis and treatment periods from the Brazilian public health system perspective. We applied a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches to capture and estimate direct medical and non-medical costs...
March 15, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
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