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Green landscape

Alisa L Gallant, Walt Sadinski, Jesslyn F Brown, Gabriel B Senay, Mark F Roth
Assessing climate-related ecological changes across spatiotemporal scales meaningful to resource managers is challenging because no one method reliably produces essential data at both fine and broad scales. We recently confronted such challenges while integrating data from ground- and satellite-based sensors for an assessment of four wetland-rich study areas in the U.S. Midwest. We examined relations between temperature and precipitation and a set of variables measured on the ground at individual wetlands and another set measured via satellite sensors within surrounding 4 km² landscape blocks...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Galen P Dively, P Dilip Venugopal, Dick Bean, Joanne Whalen, Kristian Holmstrom, Thomas P Kuhar, Hélène B Doughty, Terry Patton, William Cissel, William D Hutchison
Transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes reduce pests and insecticide usage, promote biocontrol services, and economically benefit growers. Area-wide Bt adoption suppresses pests regionally, with declines expanding beyond the planted Bt crops into other non-Bt crop fields. However, the offsite benefits to growers of other crops from such regional suppression remain uncertain. With data spanning 1976-2016, we demonstrate that vegetable growers benefit via decreased crop damage and insecticide applications in relation to pest suppression in the Mid-Atlantic United States...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Carly Ziter, Monica G Turner
Urban landscapes are increasingly recognized as providing important ecosystem services (ES) to their occupants. Yet, urban ES assessments often ignore the complex spatial heterogeneity and land-use history of cities. Soil-based services may be particularly susceptible to land-use legacy effects. We studied indicators of three soil-based ES, carbon storage, water quality regulation, and runoff regulation, in a historically agricultural urban landscape and asked (1) How do ES indicators vary with contemporary land cover and time since development? (2) Do ES indicators vary primarily among land-cover classes, within land-cover classes, or within sites? (3) What is the relative contribution of urban land-cover classes to potential citywide ES provision? We measured biophysical indicators (soil carbon [C], available phosphorus [P], and saturated hydraulic conductivity [Ks ]) in 100 sites across five land-cover classes, spanning an ~125-year gradient of time since development within each land-cover class...
March 6, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Hoang Chinh Nguyen, Kuan-Hung Lin, Tung-Chuan Hsiung, Meng-Yuan Huang, Chi-Ming Yang, Jen-Hsien Weng, Ming-Huang Hsu, Po-Yen Chen, Kai-Chieh Chang
Plants of the genus Calathea possess many leaf colors, and they are economically important because they are widely used as ornamentals for interior landscaping. Physiological performances and photosynthetic capacities of C. insignis and C. makoyana were investigated. The photosynthetic efficiencies of C. insignis and C. makoyana were significantly increased when the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) increased from 0 to 600 μmol photons·m-2 ·s-1 and became saturated with a further increase in the PPFD...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Howard Casey Cromwell
Presents an obituary for Jaak Panksepp, who died April 18, 2017. Panksepp reshaped the landscape of psychology by highlighting emotions and coincident feelings in basic and clinical research. Most of his career was spent convincing others that the key to understanding human mental illness was the understanding of primal emotional operating systems in conserved neural circuitry. His framework was carefully laid out in his book Affective Neuroscience: The Foundation of Human and Animal Emotions (1998). His controversial writings vigorously pushed for the acceptance of nonhuman animal feelings as primary states that link to motivated action and emotional expression...
February 2018: American Psychologist
Simona Volpi, Carol Bult, Rex L Chisholm, Patricia A Deverka, Geoffrey S Ginsburg, Howard J Jacob, Melpomeni Kasapi, Howard L McLeod, Dan M Roden, Marc S Williams, Eric D Green, Laura Lyman Rodriguez, Samuel Aronson, Larisa H Cavallari, Joshua C Denny, Lynn Dressler, Julie A Johnson, Teri E Klein, J Steven Leeder, Micheline Piquette-Miller, Minoli Perera, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Heidi L Rehm, Marylyn D Ritchie, Todd C Skaar, Nikhil Wagle, Richard Weinshilboum, Kristin W Weitzel, Robert Wildin, John Wilson, Teri A Manolio, Mary V Relling
Response to a drug often differs widely among individual patients. This variability is frequently observed not only with respect to effective responses but also with adverse drug reactions. Matching patients to the drugs that are most likely to be effective and least likely to cause harm is the goal of effective therapeutics. Pharmacogenomics (PGx) holds the promise of precision medicine through elucidating the genetic determinants responsible for pharmacological outcomes and using them to guide drug selection and dosing...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Wei-Lun Tsai, Melissa R McHale, Viniece Jennings, Oriol Marquet, J Aaron Hipp, Yu-Fai Leung, Myron F Floyd
Urbanization increases risk for depression and other mental disorders. A growing body of research indicates the natural environment confers numerous psychological benefits including alleviation of mental distress. This study examined land cover types and landscape metrics in relation to mental health for 276 U.S. counties within metropolitan areas having a population of 1 million or more. County Health Rankings and Behavioral Risk and Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) provided a measure of mental health. The 2011 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) provided data on green land cover types, from which seven landscape metrics were generated to characterize landscape patterns...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Valérie Trichon, Pierre Hiernaux, Romain Walcker, Eric Mougin
Following 25 years of below average annual rainfall in the Sahel between 1970 and 1995, the return to more humid conditions has led to rapid postdrought recovery of the woody cover. However, the increase in the woody cover is not spatially homogeneous raising questions about the resilience of some woody vegetation types. Based on the analysis of field and remote sensing data collected on the tiger bush systems in the northern Sahel in Mali, this study noted the current and persistent degradation of these systems in the Sahel since the 1970s despite the recent improvement in rainfall since the mid-1990s and the general Sahel re-greening...
February 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
Federico Comoglio, Hyun Jung Park, Stefan Schoenfelder, Iros Barozzi, Daniel Bode, Peter Fraser, Anthony R Green
Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a critical cytokine regulating hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and differentiation into the megakaryocytic lineage. However, the transcriptional and chromatin dynamics elicited by TPO signaling are poorly understood. Here, we study the immediate early transcriptional and cis-regulatory responses to TPO in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and use this paradigm of cytokine signaling to chromatin to dissect the relation between cis- regulatory activity and chromatin architecture...
February 2, 2018: Genome Research
Cathleen M Green, Olga Novikova, Marlene Belfort
Background: Inteins are mobile, self-splicing sequences that interrupt proteins and occur across all three domains of life. Scrutiny of the intein landscape in prokaryotes led to the hypothesis that some inteins are functionally important. Our focus shifts to eukaryotic inteins to assess their diversity, distribution, and dissemination, with the aim to comprehensively evaluate the eukaryotic intein landscape, understand intein maintenance, and dissect evolutionary relationships. Results: This bioinformatics study reveals that eukaryotic inteins are scarce, but present in nuclear genomes of fungi, chloroplast genomes of algae, and within some eukaryotic viruses...
2018: Mobile DNA
Bobby Daly, Robin T Zon, Ray D Page, Stephen B Edge, Gary H Lyman, Sybil R Green, Dana S Wollins, Linda D Bosserman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
Mark J Lara, Ingmar Nitze, Guido Grosse, Philip Martin, A David McGuire
Arctic tundra ecosystems have experienced unprecedented change associated with climate warming over recent decades. Across the Pan-Arctic, vegetation productivity and surface greenness have trended positively over the period of satellite observation. However, since 2011 these trends have slowed considerably, showing signs of browning in many regions. It is unclear what factors are driving this change and which regions/landforms will be most sensitive to future browning. Here we provide evidence linking decadal patterns in arctic greening and browning with regional climate change and local permafrost-driven landscape heterogeneity...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
P Giannakeas, Chris H Greene
The mass-imbalanced three-body recombination process that forms a shallow dimer is shown to possess a rich Efimov-Stückelberg landscape, with corresponding spectra that differ fundamentally from the homonuclear case. A semianalytical treatment of the three-body recombination predicts unusual spectra with intertwined resonance peaks and minima and yields in-depth insight into the behavior of the corresponding Efimov spectra. In particular, the patterns of the Efimov-Stückelberg landscape are shown to depend inherently on the degree of diabaticity of the three-body collisions, which strongly affects the universality of the heteronuclear Efimov states...
January 12, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Panpim Thongsripong, James Angus Chandler, Amy B Green, Pattamaporn Kittayapong, Bruce A Wilcox, Durrell D Kapan, Shannon N Bennett
Vector-borne diseases are a major health burden, yet factors affecting their spread are only partially understood. For example, microbial symbionts can impact mosquito reproduction, survival, and vectorial capacity, and hence affect disease transmission. Nonetheless, current knowledge of mosquito-associated microbial communities is limited. To characterize the bacterial and eukaryotic microbial communities of multiple vector species collected from different habitat types in disease endemic areas, we employed next-generation 454 pyrosequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA amplicon libraries, also known as metabarcoding...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Ayman Samman Tahhan, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Stephen J Greene, Maureen Okafor, Sonali Kumar, Javed Butler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clinical trial design and execution are evolving as increasingly important considerations with respect to the success of heart failure trials. The current review highlights temporal trends in characteristics of heart failure clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent trials in heart failure have required longer recruitment phases, displayed inefficient enrollment rates, increased use of composite and nonfatal endpoints, undergone rapid globalization, and gradually increased focus on heart failure with preserved ejection fraction...
January 19, 2018: Current Heart Failure Reports
Wei Zhang, Xiaoxiang Tang, Xianyou He, Guangyao Chen
According to the framework of evolutionary aesthetics, a sense of beauty is related to environmental adaptation and plasticity of human beings, which has adaptive value and biological foundations. Prior studies have demonstrated that organisms derive benefits from the landscape. In this study, we investigated whether the benefits of landscape might elicit a stronger sense of beauty and what the nature of this sense of beauty is. In two experiments, when viewing classical landscape and nonlandscape architectures photographs, participants rated the aesthetic scores (Experiment 1) and had a two-alternative forced choice aesthetic judgment by pressing the reaction button located near to (15 cm) or far from (45 cm) the presenting stimuli (Experiment 2)...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
William J Resetarits, Jason R Bohenek, Tyler Breech, Matthew R Pintar
Two of the most important factors determining community structure and diversity within and among habitat patches are patch size and patch quality. Despite the importance of patch size in existing paradigms in island biogeography, metapopulation biology, landscape ecology, and metacommunity ecology, and growing conservation concerns with habitat fragmentation, there has been little investigation into how patch size interacts with patch quality. We crossed three levels of patch size (1.13 m2 , 2.54 m2 and 5.73 m2 ) with two levels of patch quality [fish presence/absence - green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) and golden shiners (Notemigonus chrysoleucus) in 6 replicate experimental landscapes (3 x 2 x 6 = 36 patches)...
January 7, 2018: Ecology
John F Kelly, M Claire Greene, Brandon G Bergman
BACKGROUND: The policy landscape regarding the legal status of cannabis (CAN) in the US and globally is changing rapidly. Research on CAN has lagged behind in many areas, none more so than in understanding how individuals suffering from the broad range of cannabis-related problems resolve those problems, and how their characteristics and problem resolution pathways are similar to or different from alcohol [ALC] or other drugs [OTH]. Greater knowledge could inform national policy debates as well as the nature and scope of any additional needed services as CAN population exposure increases...
December 26, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
David S Green, Sean M Matthews, Robert C Swiers, Richard L Callas, J Scott Yaeger, Stuart L Farber, Michael K Schwartz, Roger A Powell
Determining how species coexist is critical for understanding functional diversity, niche partitioning and interspecific interactions. Identifying the direct and indirect interactions among sympatric carnivores that enable their coexistence is particularly important to elucidate because they are integral for maintaining ecosystem function. We studied the effects of removing nine fishers (Pekania pennanti) on their population dynamics and used this perturbation to elucidate the interspecific interactions among fishers, grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and ringtails (Bassariscus astutus)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
Jessica M Finlay
Therapeutic landscapes represent a lively field of inquiry in health geography. The health benefits of green and blue spaces feature prominently across this literature, and generate rich understanding of how it feels to encounter and move through natural environments. Juxtaposed against an abundant scholarship on green and blue (and growing attention to broader 'palettes of place' including grey and brown landscapes), white spaces - environmental snow and ice - have yet to be investigated. Research on everyday experiences of snow and ice is limited, particularly for older adults potentially more vulnerable to climactic conditions given health and mobility limitations...
December 18, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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