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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080260/non-linearities-in-bird-responses-across-urbanisation-gradients-a-meta-analysis
#1
Péter Batáry, Kornélia Kurucz, Marcela Suarez-Rubio, Dan E Chamberlain
Urbanisation is one of the most extreme forms of environmental alteration, posing a major threat to biodiversity. We studied the effects of urbanisation on avian communities via a systematic review using hierarchical and categorical meta-analyses. Altogether, we found 42 observations from 37 case studies for species richness and 23 observations from 20 case studies for abundance. Urbanisation had an overall strong negative effect on bird species richness, whereas abundance increased marginally with urbanisation...
October 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079974/technical-and-natural-conditions-and-operating-efficiency-of-a-municipal-stormwater-treatment-plant
#2
Tomasz Zubala
A decade of observations provided grounds for assessing the operation of one of the few stormwater treatment plants in Poland (system: screens-grit chambers-settler-retention pond) which collects effluents from 471 ha of the city. Among other aspects, the following were evaluated: treatment efficiency, relationship between the quality of treated stormwater and that of waters in the receiving body (the ox-bow lake of the Vistula river), operating stability of key units, significance of the facility for nature...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079804/an-early-warning-system-to-forecast-the-close-of-the-spring-burning-window-from-satellite-observed-greenness
#3
Paul D Pickell, Nicholas C Coops, Colin J Ferster, Christopher W Bater, Karen D Blouin, Mike D Flannigan, Jinkai Zhang
Spring represents the peak of human-caused wildfire events in populated boreal forests, resulting in catastrophic loss of property and human life. Human-caused wildfire risk is anticipated to increase in northern forests as fuels become drier, on average, under warming climate scenarios and as population density increases within formerly remote regions. We investigated springtime human-caused wildfire risk derived from satellite-observed vegetation greenness in the early part of the growing season, a period of increased ignition and wildfire spread potential from snow melt to vegetation green-up with the aim of developing an early warning wildfire risk system...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078119/habitat-template-approach-for-green-roofs-using-a-native-rocky-sea-coast-plant-community-in-japan
#4
Ayako Nagase, Yurika Tashiro-Ishii
The present study examined whether it is possible to simulate a local herbaceous coastal plant community on a roof, by studying the natural habitats of rocky sea coast plants and their propagation and performance on a green roof. After studying the natural habitat of coastal areas in Izu peninsula, a germination and cutting transplant study was carried out using herbaceous plants from the Jogasaki sea coast. Many plant species did not germinate at all and the use of cuttings was a better method than direct seeding...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072582/genus-specific-real-time-pcr-and-hrm-assays-to-distinguish-liriope-from-ophiopogon-samples
#5
Eva Masiero, Dipanwita Banik, John Abson, Paul Greene, Adrian Slater, Tiziana Sgamma
Liriope and Ophiopogon species have a long history of use as traditional medicines across East Asia. They have also become widely used around the world for ornamental and landscaping purposes. The morphological similarities between Liriope and Ophiopogon taxa have made the taxonomy of the two genera problematic and caused confusion about the identification of individual specimens. Molecular approaches could be a useful tool for the discrimination of these two genera in combination with traditional methods. Seventy-five Liriope and Ophiopogon samples from the UK National Plant Collections of Ophiopogon and Liriope were analyzed...
October 26, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053677/building-double-decker-traps-for-early-detection-of-emerald-ash-borer
#6
Deborah G McCullough, Therese M Poland
Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), the most destructive forest insect to have invaded North America, has killed hundreds of millions of forest and landscape ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. Several artificial trap designs to attract and capture EAB beetles have been developed to detect, delineate, and monitor infestations. Double-decker (DD) traps consist of two corrugated plastic prisms, one green and one purple, attached to a 3 m tall polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe supported by a t-post. The green prism at the top of the PVC pipe is baited with cis-3-hexenol, a compound produced by ash foliage...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048880/interactions-of-native-cyclodextrins-with-metal-ions-and-inorganic-nanoparticles-fertile-landscape-for-chemistry-and-materials-science
#7
Daniel Prochowicz, Arkadiusz Kornowicz, Janusz Lewiński
Readily available cyclodextrins (CDs) with an inherent hydrophobic internal cavity and hydrophilic external surface are macrocyclic entities that display a combination of molecular recognition and complexation properties with vital implications for host-guest supramolecular chemistry. While the host-guest chemistry of CDs has been widely recognized and led to their exploitation in a variety of important functions over the last five decades, these naturally occurring macrocyclic systems have emerged only recently as promising macrocyclic molecules to fabricate environmentally benign functional nanomaterials...
October 19, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044812/roads-to-ruin-conservation-threats-to-a-sentinel-species-across-an-urban-gradient
#8
Blake E Feist, Eric R Buhle, David H Baldwin, Julann A Spromberg, Steven E Damm, Jay W Davis, Nathaniel L Scholz
Urbanization poses a global challenge to species conservation. This is primarily understood in terms of physical habitat loss, as agricultural and forested lands are replaced with urban infrastructure. However, aquatic habitats are also chemically degraded by urban development, often in the form of toxic stormwater runoff. Here we assess threats of urbanization to coho salmon throughout developed areas of the Puget Sound Basin in Washington, USA. Puget Sound coho are a sentinel species for freshwater communities and also a species of concern under the U...
October 18, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037474/land-surface-phenology-what-do-we-really-see-from-space
#9
David Helman
Land surface phenology (LSP) provides bio-indication of ongoing climate change. It uses space-borne greenness proxies to monitor plant phenology at the landscape level from the regional to global scale. However, several unconsidered methodological and observational -related limitations may lead to misinterpretation of the satellite-derived signals. For instance, changes in species composition within a pixel could result in a change in the time series of the greenness proxy, due to the distinct phenology of the plant species involved...
October 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975788/pathways-and-thermodynamics-of-oxygen-diffusion-in-fefe-hydrogenase
#10
Mohammadjavad Mohammadi, Harish Vashisth
The H2 production potential of [FeFe]-hydrogenase, a hydrogen-producing enzyme from green algae, is reported to be promising for economical and large-scale production of H2 as an alternative source of renewable energy. The production of hydrogen takes place at the catalytic center buried in the enzyme core. Unfortunately, binding of O2 to the catalytic center of the enzyme irreversibly inactivates it, essentially blocking hydrogen production. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanism of O2 entry/exit is necessary to develop strategies for designing oxygen-tolerant enzymes...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965255/snowmelt-timing-phenology-and-growing-season-length-in-conifer-forests-of-crater-lake-national-park-usa
#11
Donal S O'Leary, Jherime L Kellermann, Chris Wayne
Anthropogenic climate change is having significant impacts on montane and high-elevation areas globally. Warmer winter temperatures are driving reduced snowpack in the western USA with broad potential impacts on ecosystem dynamics of particular concern for protected areas. Vegetation phenology is a sensitive indicator of ecological response to climate change and is associated with snowmelt timing. Human monitoring of climate impacts can be resource prohibitive for land management agencies, whereas remotely sensed phenology observations are freely available at a range of spatiotemporal scales...
September 30, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933770/effects-of-land-use-cover-changes-and-urban-forest-configuration-on-urban-heat-islands-in-a-loess-hilly-region-case-study-based-on-yan-an-city-china
#12
Xinping Zhang, Dexiang Wang, Hongke Hao, Fangfang Zhang, Youning Hu
In this study Yan'an City, a typical hilly valley city, was considered as the study area in order to explain the relationships between the surface urban heat island (SUHI) and land use/land cover (LULC) types, the landscape pattern metrics of LULC types and land surface temperature (LST) and remote sensing indexes were retrieved from Landsat data during 1990-2015, and to find factors contributed to the green space cool island intensity (GSCI) through field measurements of 34 green spaces. The results showed that during 1990-2015, because of local anthropogenic activities, SUHI was mainly located in lower vegetation cover areas...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917702/hominin-track-assemblages-from-okote-member-deposits-near-ileret-kenya-and-their-implications-for-understanding-fossil-hominin-paleobiology-at-1-5%C3%A2-ma
#13
Kevin G Hatala, Neil T Roach, Kelly R Ostrofsky, Roshna E Wunderlich, Heather L Dingwall, Brian A Villmoare, David J Green, David R Braun, John W K Harris, Anna K Behrensmeyer, Brian G Richmond
Tracks can provide unique, direct records of behaviors of fossil organisms moving across their landscapes millions of years ago. While track discoveries have been rare in the human fossil record, over the last decade our team has uncovered multiple sediment surfaces within the Okote Member of the Koobi Fora Formation near Ileret, Kenya that contain large assemblages of ∼1.5 Ma fossil hominin tracks. Here, we provide detailed information on the context and nature of each of these discoveries, and we outline the specific data that are preserved on the Ileret hominin track surfaces...
November 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905095/growing-canopy-on-a-college-campus-understanding-urban-forest-change-through-archival-records-and-aerial-photography
#14
Lara A Roman, Jason P Fristensky, Theodore S Eisenman, Eric J Greenfield, Robert E Lundgren, Chloe E Cerwinka, David A Hewitt, Caitlin C Welsh
Many municipalities are setting ambitious tree canopy cover goals to increase the extent of their urban forests. A historical perspective on urban forest development can help cities strategize how to establish and achieve appropriate tree cover targets. To understand how long-term urban forest change occurs, we examined the history of trees on an urban college campus: the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, PA. Using a mixed methods approach, including qualitative assessments of archival records (1870-2017), complemented by quantitative analysis of tree cover from aerial imagery (1970-2012), our analysis revealed drastic canopy cover increase in the late 20th and early 21st centuries along with the principle mechanisms of that change...
December 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898651/from-early-farmers-to-norman-borlaug-the-making-of-modern-wheat
#15
David Vergauwen, Ive De Smet
If we wander through the countryside, passing fields of wheat, it is apparent that this crop is reasonably short in stature and that the stems carry large ears. However, this was not always the case. If we take a look at depictions of wheat throughout history, we observe that wheat used to be fairly tall. It was not until the second half of the 20(th) century that dwarf wheat varieties started to dominate the agricultural landscape. Underlying this short stature are the Reduced height (Rht) genes, which encode DELLA proteins and which formed the cornerstone of the Green Revolution...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890157/the-cumulative-burden-of-surviving-childhood-cancer-an-initial-report-from-the-st-jude-lifetime-cohort-study-sjlife
#16
Nickhill Bhakta, Qi Liu, Kirsten K Ness, Malek Baassiri, Hesham Eissa, Frederick Yeo, Wassim Chemaitilly, Matthew J Ehrhardt, Johnnie Bass, Michael W Bishop, Kyla Shelton, Lu Lu, Sujuan Huang, Zhenghong Li, Eric Caron, Jennifer Lanctot, Carrie Howell, Timothy Folse, Vijaya Joshi, Daniel M Green, Daniel A Mulrooney, Gregory T Armstrong, Kevin R Krull, Tara M Brinkman, Raja B Khan, Deo K Srivastava, Melissa M Hudson, Yutaka Yasui, Leslie L Robison
BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood cancer develop early and severe chronic health conditions (CHCs). A quantitative landscape of morbidity of survivors, however, has not been described. We aimed to describe the cumulative burden of curative cancer therapy in a clinically assessed ageing population of long-term survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: The St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE) retrospectively collected data on CHCs in all patients treated for childhood cancer at the St Jude Children's Research Hospital who survived 10 years or longer from initial diagnosis and were 18 years or older as of June 30, 2015...
September 7, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887140/envisioning-women-centered-hiv-care-perspectives-from-women-living-with-hiv-in-canada
#17
Nadia O'Brien, Saara Greene, Allison Carter, Johanna Lewis, Valerie Nicholson, Gladys Kwaramba, Brigitte Ménard, Elaina Kaufman, Nourane Ennabil, Neil Andersson, Mona Loutfy, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Angela Kaida
BACKGROUND: Women comprise nearly one-quarter of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Canada. Compared with men, women living with HIV experience inequities in HIV care and health outcomes, prompting a need for gendered and tailored approaches to HIV care. METHOD: Peer and academic researchers from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study conducted focus groups to understand women's experience of seeking care, with the purpose of identifying key characteristics that define a women-centered approach to HIV care...
September 5, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886037/growing-season-carries-stronger-contributions-to-albedo-dynamics-on-the-tibetan-plateau
#18
Li Tian, Jiquan Chen, Yangjian Zhang
The Tibetan Plateau has experienced higher-than-global-average climate warming in recent decades, resulting in many significant changes in ecosystem structure and function. Among them is albedo, which bridges the causes and consequences of land surface processes and climate. The plateau is covered by snow/ice and vegetation in the non-growing season (nGS) and growing season (GS), respectively. Based on the MODIS products, we investigated snow/ice cover and vegetation greenness in relation to the spatiotemporal changes of albedo on the Tibetan Plateau from 2000 through 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875263/pillar-of-strength-columnar-cactus-as-a-key-factor-in-yoreme-heritage-and-wildland-preservation
#19
Andrew J Semotiuk, Patricia Colunga-GarcíaMarín, David Valenzuela Maldonado, Exequiel Ezcurra
The persistence of traditional cultures and modes of land use within rapidly changing, globalized societies is a central issue in understanding ecological and cultural change in the Anthropocene. Located in the heart of the Green Revolution, the Yoreme (Mayo) people of the Mayo Valley in Mexico still obtain a significant proportion of their sustenance from wild ecosystems in the midst of this intensive technological and agricultural development. They live in and around the thornscrub dominated by pitaya (Stenocereus thurberi (Engelm...
September 5, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874894/acute-care-hospitalization-near-the-end-of-life-for-cancer-patients-who-die-in-hospital-in-canada
#20
K DeCaria, D Dudgeon, E Green, R Shaw Moxam, R Rahal, J Niu, H Bryant
Acute care hospitals have a role in managing the health care needs of people affected by cancer when they are at the end of life. However, there is a need to provide end-of-life care in other settings, including at home or in hospice, when such settings are more appropriate. Using data from 9 provinces, we examined indicators that describe the current landscape of acute care hospital use at the end of life for patients who died of cancer in hospital in Canada. Interprovincial variation was observed in acute care hospital deaths, length of stay in hospital, readmission to hospital, and intensive care unit use at the end of life...
August 2017: Current Oncology
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