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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933770/effects-of-land-use-cover-changes-and-urban-forest-configuration-on-urban-heat-islands-in-a-loess-hilly-region-case-study-based-on-yan-an-city-china
#1
Xinping Zhang, Dexiang Wang, Hongke Hao, Fangfang Zhang, Youning Hu
In this study Yan'an City, a typical hilly valley city, was considered as the study area in order to explain the relationships between the surface urban heat island (SUHI) and land use/land cover (LULC) types, the landscape pattern metrics of LULC types and land surface temperature (LST) and remote sensing indexes were retrieved from Landsat data during 1990-2015, and to find factors contributed to the green space cool island intensity (GSCI) through field measurements of 34 green spaces. The results showed that during 1990-2015, because of local anthropogenic activities, SUHI was mainly located in lower vegetation cover areas...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917702/hominin-track-assemblages-from-okote-member-deposits-near-ileret-kenya-and-their-implications-for-understanding-fossil-hominin-paleobiology-at-1-5%C3%A2-ma
#2
Kevin G Hatala, Neil T Roach, Kelly R Ostrofsky, Roshna E Wunderlich, Heather L Dingwall, Brian A Villmoare, David J Green, David R Braun, John W K Harris, Anna K Behrensmeyer, Brian G Richmond
Tracks can provide unique, direct records of behaviors of fossil organisms moving across their landscapes millions of years ago. While track discoveries have been rare in the human fossil record, over the last decade our team has uncovered multiple sediment surfaces within the Okote Member of the Koobi Fora Formation near Ileret, Kenya that contain large assemblages of ∼1.5 Ma fossil hominin tracks. Here, we provide detailed information on the context and nature of each of these discoveries, and we outline the specific data that are preserved on the Ileret hominin track surfaces...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905095/growing-canopy-on-a-college-campus-understanding-urban-forest-change-through-archival-records-and-aerial-photography
#3
Lara A Roman, Jason P Fristensky, Theodore S Eisenman, Eric J Greenfield, Robert E Lundgren, Chloe E Cerwinka, David A Hewitt, Caitlin C Welsh
Many municipalities are setting ambitious tree canopy cover goals to increase the extent of their urban forests. A historical perspective on urban forest development can help cities strategize how to establish and achieve appropriate tree cover targets. To understand how long-term urban forest change occurs, we examined the history of trees on an urban college campus: the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, PA. Using a mixed methods approach, including qualitative assessments of archival records (1870-2017), complemented by quantitative analysis of tree cover from aerial imagery (1970-2012), our analysis revealed drastic canopy cover increase in the late 20th and early 21st centuries along with the principle mechanisms of that change...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898651/from-early-farmers-to-norman-borlaug-the-making-of-modern-wheat
#4
David Vergauwen, Ive De Smet
If we wander through the countryside, passing fields of wheat, it is apparent that this crop is reasonably short in stature and that the stems carry large ears. However, this was not always the case. If we take a look at depictions of wheat throughout history, we observe that wheat used to be fairly tall. It was not until the second half of the 20(th) century that dwarf wheat varieties started to dominate the agricultural landscape. Underlying this short stature are the Reduced height (Rht) genes, which encode DELLA proteins and which formed the cornerstone of the Green Revolution...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890157/the-cumulative-burden-of-surviving-childhood-cancer-an-initial-report-from-the-st-jude-lifetime-cohort-study-sjlife
#5
Nickhill Bhakta, Qi Liu, Kirsten K Ness, Malek Baassiri, Hesham Eissa, Frederick Yeo, Wassim Chemaitilly, Matthew J Ehrhardt, Johnnie Bass, Michael W Bishop, Kyla Shelton, Lu Lu, Sujuan Huang, Zhenghong Li, Eric Caron, Jennifer Lanctot, Carrie Howell, Timothy Folse, Vijaya Joshi, Daniel M Green, Daniel A Mulrooney, Gregory T Armstrong, Kevin R Krull, Tara M Brinkman, Raja B Khan, Deo K Srivastava, Melissa M Hudson, Yutaka Yasui, Leslie L Robison
BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood cancer develop early and severe chronic health conditions (CHCs). A quantitative landscape of morbidity of survivors, however, has not been described. We aimed to describe the cumulative burden of curative cancer therapy in a clinically assessed ageing population of long-term survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: The St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE) retrospectively collected data on CHCs in all patients treated for childhood cancer at the St Jude Children's Research Hospital who survived 10 years or longer from initial diagnosis and were 18 years or older as of June 30, 2015...
September 7, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887140/envisioning-women-centered-hiv-care-perspectives-from-women-living-with-hiv-in-canada
#6
Nadia O'Brien, Saara Greene, Allison Carter, Johanna Lewis, Valerie Nicholson, Gladys Kwaramba, Brigitte Ménard, Elaina Kaufman, Nourane Ennabil, Neil Andersson, Mona Loutfy, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Angela Kaida
BACKGROUND: Women comprise nearly one-quarter of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Canada. Compared with men, women living with HIV experience inequities in HIV care and health outcomes, prompting a need for gendered and tailored approaches to HIV care. METHOD: Peer and academic researchers from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study conducted focus groups to understand women's experience of seeking care, with the purpose of identifying key characteristics that define a women-centered approach to HIV care...
September 5, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886037/growing-season-carries-stronger-contributions-to-albedo-dynamics-on-the-tibetan-plateau
#7
Li Tian, Jiquan Chen, Yangjian Zhang
The Tibetan Plateau has experienced higher-than-global-average climate warming in recent decades, resulting in many significant changes in ecosystem structure and function. Among them is albedo, which bridges the causes and consequences of land surface processes and climate. The plateau is covered by snow/ice and vegetation in the non-growing season (nGS) and growing season (GS), respectively. Based on the MODIS products, we investigated snow/ice cover and vegetation greenness in relation to the spatiotemporal changes of albedo on the Tibetan Plateau from 2000 through 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875263/pillar-of-strength-columnar-cactus-as-a-key-factor-in-yoreme-heritage-and-wildland-preservation
#8
Andrew J Semotiuk, Patricia Colunga-GarcíaMarín, David Valenzuela Maldonado, Exequiel Ezcurra
The persistence of traditional cultures and modes of land use within rapidly changing, globalized societies is a central issue in understanding ecological and cultural change in the Anthropocene. Located in the heart of the Green Revolution, the Yoreme (Mayo) people of the Mayo Valley in Mexico still obtain a significant proportion of their sustenance from wild ecosystems in the midst of this intensive technological and agricultural development. They live in and around the thornscrub dominated by pitaya (Stenocereus thurberi (Engelm...
September 5, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874894/acute-care-hospitalization-near-the-end-of-life-for-cancer-patients-who-die-in-hospital-in-canada
#9
K DeCaria, D Dudgeon, E Green, R Shaw Moxam, R Rahal, J Niu, H Bryant
Acute care hospitals have a role in managing the health care needs of people affected by cancer when they are at the end of life. However, there is a need to provide end-of-life care in other settings, including at home or in hospice, when such settings are more appropriate. Using data from 9 provinces, we examined indicators that describe the current landscape of acute care hospital use at the end of life for patients who died of cancer in hospital in Canada. Interprovincial variation was observed in acute care hospital deaths, length of stay in hospital, readmission to hospital, and intensive care unit use at the end of life...
August 2017: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865306/natural-ecosystem-mimicry-in-traditional-dryland-agroecosystems-insights-from-an-empirical-and-holistic-approach
#10
Julien Blanco, Geneviève Michon, Stéphanie M Carrière
While the aim of Ecological Intensification is to enable the design of more sustainable and productive agricultural systems, it is not suited to dryland agroecosystems that are driven by non-equilibrium dynamics and intrinsic variability. Instead, a model based on mobility and variability management has been proposed for these agroecosystems. However, this model remains under-applied in southern Morocco where there have been few studies on the functioning of traditional agroecosystems. This paper focuses on an agroecosystem in the Moroccan Saharan fringe zone that combines agriculture and pastoralism in an acacia parkland...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854978/the-neoepitope-landscape-in-pediatric-cancers
#11
Ti-Cheng Chang, Robert A Carter, Yongjin Li, Yuxin Li, Hong Wang, Michael N Edmonson, Xiang Chen, Paula Arnold, Terrence L Geiger, Gang Wu, Junmin Peng, Michael Dyer, James R Downing, Douglas R Green, Paul G Thomas, Jinghui Zhang
BACKGROUND: Neoepitopes derived from tumor-specific somatic mutations are promising targets for immunotherapy in childhood cancers. However, the potential for such therapies in targeting these epitopes remains uncertain due to a lack of knowledge of the neoepitope landscape in childhood cancer. Studies to date have focused primarily on missense mutations without exploring gene fusions, which are a major class of oncogenic drivers in pediatric cancer. METHODS: We developed an analytical workflow for identification of putative neoepitopes based on somatic missense mutations and gene fusions using whole-genome sequencing data...
August 31, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841692/using-niche-modelling-and-species-specific-cost-analyses-to-determine-a-multispecies-corridor-in-a-fragmented-landscape
#12
Karen E DeMatteo, Miguel A Rinas, Juan Pablo Zurano, Nicole Selleski, Rosio G Schneider, Carina F Argüelles
Misiones, Argentina, contains the largest remaining tract of Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion; however, ~50% of native forest is unprotected and located in a mosaic of plantations, agriculture, and pastures. Existing protected areas are becoming increasingly isolated due to ongoing habitat modification. These factors, combined with lower than expected regional carnivore densities, emphasize the need to understand the effect of fragmentation on animal movement and connectivity between protected areas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805968/protein-turnover-in-the-failing-heart-an-ever-changing-landscape
#13
EDITORIAL
Baljash S Cheema, Hani N Sabbah, Stephen J Greene, Mihai Gheorghiade
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793030/mosquito-species-occurrence-in-association-with-landscape-composition-in-green-urban-areas
#14
F R G Montagner, O S Silva, S M Jahnke
Aedes aegypti prefers densely populated habitats, but has been shown to explore less anthropogenic environments. We investigated composition of the abundance of mosquitoes in forested areas and assessed relationships between species occurrences and different types of land use and land cover at three spatial scales (100m, 500m and 1000m). Mosquitoes were collected from October 2012 to March 2013 using oviposition traps. We collected 4,179 mosquitoes in total including at least 10 species. Aedes albopictus and Limatus durhami were eudominant species, representing 90% of all collected individuals...
July 27, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724111/agricultural-conservation-planning-framework-3-land-use-and-field-boundary-database-development-and-structure
#15
Mark D Tomer, David E James, Claudette M J Sandoval-Green
Conservation planning information is important for identifying options for watershed water quality improvement and can be developed for use at field, farm, and watershed scales. Translation across scales is a key issue impeding progress at watershed scales because watershed improvement goals must be connected with implementation of farm- and field-level conservation practices to demonstrate success. This is particularly true when examining alternatives for "trap and treat" practices implemented at agricultural-field edges to control (or influence) water flows through fields, landscapes, and riparian corridors within agricultural watersheds...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706999/ecological-connectivity-networks-in-rapidly-expanding-cities
#16
Amal Najihah M Nor, Ron Corstanje, Jim A Harris, Darren R Grafius, Gavin M Siriwardena
Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689735/green-to-gray-silicon-valley-of-india
#17
H A Bharath, S Vinay, M C Chandan, B A Gouri, T V Ramachandra
Rapid growth, population concentration and the expansion of urban areas towards peri-urban regions have led to changes in urban structure and composition, and consequently changes in urban ecology. The purpose of this study is to estimate trees in the urban environment through quantification of vegetation cover using multi resolution spatial data supplemented with tree data acquired from field using pre-calibrated GPS. Optimal resolution for extracting trees was attained through fusion of multi resolution (spectral and spatial) data...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689728/enablers-towards-establishing-and-growing-south-africa-s-waste-to-electricity-industry
#18
Heinrich Amsterdam, George Alex Thopil
In South Africa the electricity generation mix is relatively un-diverse whereas globally the transformation of the sector is advancing rapidly. Coal remains the predominant fuel source and limited success has to date been achieved in the renewable energy sector. The electricity generation sector is therefore hindered from moving towards an electricity generation landscape where alternative fuel sources is utilised. This research is aimed at gaining insight into the enablers that led towards an increasing trend (observed globally) in exploiting waste as a fuel for electricity generation, and to outline the presence of obstacles that hinder separation of waste for electricity use in the South African context...
July 6, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678168/the-influences-of-landscape-features-on-visitation-of-hospital-green-spaces-a-choice-experiment-approach
#19
Kaowen Grace Chang, Hungju Chien
Studies have suggested that visiting and viewing landscaping at hospitals accelerates patient's recovery from surgery and help staff's recovery from mental fatigue. To plan and construct such landscapes, we need to unravel landscape features desirable to different groups so that the space can benefit a wide range of hospital users. Using discrete choice modeling, we developed experimental choice sets to investigate how landscape features influence the visitations of different users in a large regional hospital in Taiwan...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651557/amphibian-and-reptile-road-kills-on-tertiary-roads-in-relation-to-landscape-structure-using-a-citizen-science-approach-with-open-access-land-cover-data
#20
Florian Heigl, Kathrin Horvath, Gregor Laaha, Johann G Zaller
BACKGROUND: Amphibians and reptiles are among the most endangered vertebrate species worldwide. However, little is known how they are affected by road-kills on tertiary roads and whether the surrounding landscape structure can explain road-kill patterns. The aim of our study was to examine the applicability of open-access remote sensing data for a large-scale citizen science approach to describe spatial patterns of road-killed amphibians and reptiles on tertiary roads. Using a citizen science app we monitored road-kills of amphibians and reptiles along 97...
June 26, 2017: BMC Ecology
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