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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350324/evolving-landscape-of-clinical-trials-in-heart-failure-patient-populations-endpoint-selection-and-regions-of-enrollment
#1
REVIEW
Ayman Samman Tahhan, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Stephen J Greene, Maureen Okafor, Sonali Kumar, Javed Butler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clinical trial design and execution are evolving as increasingly important considerations with respect to the success of heart failure trials. The current review highlights temporal trends in characteristics of heart failure clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent trials in heart failure have required longer recruitment phases, displayed inefficient enrollment rates, increased use of composite and nonfatal endpoints, undergone rapid globalization, and gradually increased focus on heart failure with preserved ejection fraction...
January 19, 2018: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347841/evolutionary-effect-on-the-embodied-beauty-of-landscape-architectures
#2
Wei Zhang, Xiaoxiang Tang, Xianyou He, Guangyao Chen
According to the framework of evolutionary aesthetics, a sense of beauty is related to environmental adaptation and plasticity of human beings, which has adaptive value and biological foundations. Prior studies have demonstrated that organisms derive benefits from the landscape. In this study, we investigated whether the benefits of landscape might elicit a stronger sense of beauty and what the nature of this sense of beauty is. In two experiments, when viewing classical landscape and nonlandscape architectures photographs, participants rated the aesthetic scores (Experiment 1) and had a two-alternative forced choice aesthetic judgment by pressing the reaction button located near to (15 cm) or far from (45 cm) the presenting stimuli (Experiment 2)...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315522/predation-risk-and-patch-size-jointly-determine-perceived-patch-quality-in-ovipositing-treefrogs-hyla-chrysoscelis
#3
William J Resetarits, Jason R Bohenek, Tyler Breech, Matthew R Pintar
Two of the most important factors determining community structure and diversity within and among habitat patches are patch size and patch quality. Despite the importance of patch size in existing paradigms in island biogeography, metapopulation biology, landscape ecology, and metacommunity ecology, and growing conservation concerns with habitat fragmentation, there has been little investigation into how patch size interacts with patch quality. We crossed three levels of patch size (1.13 m2 , 2.54 m2 and 5.73 m2 ) with two levels of patch quality [fish presence/absence - green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) and golden shiners (Notemigonus chrysoleucus) in 6 replicate experimental landscapes (3 x 2 x 6 = 36 patches)...
January 7, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287223/is-recovery-from-cannabis-use-problems-different-from-alcohol-and-other-drugs-results-from-a-national-probability-based-sample-of-the-united-states-adult-population
#4
John F Kelly, M Claire Greene, Brandon G Bergman
BACKGROUND: The policy landscape regarding the legal status of cannabis (CAN) in the US and globally is changing rapidly. Research on CAN has lagged behind in many areas, none more so than in understanding how individuals suffering from the broad range of cannabis-related problems resolve those problems, and how their characteristics and problem resolution pathways are similar to or different from alcohol [ALC] or other drugs [OTH]. Greater knowledge could inform national policy debates as well as the nature and scope of any additional needed services as CAN population exposure increases...
December 26, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282715/dynamic-occupancy-modeling-reveals-a-hierarchy-of-competition-among-fishers-gray-foxes-and-ringtails
#5
David S Green, Sean M Matthews, Robert C Swiers, Richard L Callas, J Scott Yaeger, Stuart Farber, Michael K Schwartz, Roger A Powell
1.Determining how species coexist is critical for understanding functional diversity, niche partitioning and interspecific interactions. Identifying the direct and indirect interactions among sympatric carnivores that enable their coexistence are particularly important to elucidate because they are integral for maintaining ecosystem function. 2.We studied the effects of removing 9 fishers (Pekania pennanti) on their population dynamics and used this perturbation to elucidate the interspecific interactions among fishers, gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and ringtails (Bassariscus astutus)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276989/-walk-like-a-penguin-older-minnesotans-experiences-of-non-therapeutic-white-space
#6
Jessica M Finlay
Therapeutic landscapes represent a lively field of inquiry in health geography. The health benefits of green and blue spaces feature prominently across this literature, and generate rich understanding of how it feels to encounter and move through natural environments. Juxtaposed against an abundant scholarship on green and blue (and growing attention to broader 'palettes of place' including grey and brown landscapes), white spaces - environmental snow and ice - have yet to be investigated. Research on everyday experiences of snow and ice is limited, particularly for older adults potentially more vulnerable to climactic conditions given health and mobility limitations...
December 18, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273783/clay-content-and-ph-soil-characteristic-associations-with-the-persistent-presence-of-chronic-wasting-disease-in-northern-illinois
#7
Sheena J Dorak, Michelle L Green, Michelle M Wander, Marilyn O Ruiz, Michael G Buhnerkempe, Ting Tian, Jan E Novakofski, Nohra E Mateus-Pinilla
Environmental reservoirs are important to infectious disease transmission and persistence, but empirical analyses are relatively few. The natural environment is a reservoir for prions that cause chronic wasting disease (CWD) and influences the risk of transmission to susceptible cervids. Soil is one environmental component demonstrated to affect prion infectivity and persistence. Here we provide the first landscape predictive model for CWD based solely on soil characteristics. We built a boosted regression tree model to predict the probability of the persistent presence of CWD in a region of northern Illinois using CWD surveillance in deer and soils data...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260711/inferring-genetic-interactions-from-comparative-fitness-data
#8
Kristina Crona, Alex Gavryushkin, Devin Greene, Niko Beerenwinkel
Darwinian fitness is a central concept in evolutionary biology. In practice, however, it is hardly possible to measure fitness for all genotypes in a natural population. Here, we present quantitative tools to make inferences about epistatic gene interactions when the fitness landscape is only incompletely determined due to imprecise measurements or missing observations. We demonstrate that genetic interactions can often be inferred from fitness rank orders, where all genotypes are ordered according to fitness, and even from partial fitness orders...
December 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234045/soil-biota-in-vineyards-are-more-influenced-by-plants-and-soil-quality-than-by-tillage-intensity-or-the-surrounding-landscape
#9
Jacob Buchholz, Pascal Querner, Daniel Paredes, Thomas Bauer, Peter Strauss, Muriel Guernion, Jennifer Scimia, Daniel Cluzeau, Françoise Burel, Sophie Kratschmer, Silvia Winter, Martin Potthoff, Johann G Zaller
Tillage is known for its adverse effects on soil biota, at least in arable agroecosystems. However, in vineyards effects might differ as tillage is often performed during dry periods or only in every other inter-row allowing species to re-colonise disturbed areas. We examined the response of earthworms (lumbricids), springtails (collembola) and litter decomposition to periodically mechanically disturbed (PMD) and permanently green covered (PGC) vineyard inter-rows and assessed whether site effects are altered by the surrounding landscape...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220353/research-on-hiv-cure-mapping-the-ethics-landscape
#10
Karine Dubé, Laurie Sylla, Lynda Dee, Jeff Taylor, David Evans, Carl Dean Bruton, Adam Gilberston, Lisa Gralinski, Brandon Brown, Asheley Skinner, Bryan J Weiner, Sandra B Greene, Amy Corneli, Adaora A Adimora, Joseph D Tucker, Stuart Rennie
In an essay, Karine Dubé and coauthors discuss the ethics of preclinical and clinical studies relevant to achieving an HIV cure.
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217218/nature-based-solutions-for-resilient-landscapes-and-cities
#11
Raffaele Lafortezza, Jiquan Chen, Cecil Konijnendijk van den Bosch, Thomas B Randrup
Nature-based solutions (NBS) are increasingly applied to guide the design of resilient landscapes and cities to enable them to reach economic development goals with beneficial outcomes for the environment and society. The NBS concept is closely related to other concepts including sustainability, resilience, ecosystem services, coupled human and environment, and green (blue) infrastructure; however, NBS represent a more efficient and cost-effective approach to development than traditional approaches. The European Commission is actively engaged in investing in NBS as a driver in developing ecosystem services-based approaches throughout Europe and the world...
December 4, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211852/migration-selection-balance-drives-genetic-differentiation-in-genes-associated-with-high-altitude-function-in-the-speckled-teal-anas-flavirostris-in-the-andes
#12
Allie M Graham, Philip Lavretsky, Violeta Muñoz-Fuentes, Andy J Green, Robert E Wilson, Kevin G McCracken
Local adaptation frequently occurs across populations as a result of migration-selection balance between divergent selective pressures and gene flow associated with life in heterogeneous landscapes. Studying the effects of selection and gene flow on the adaptation process can be achieved in systems that have recently colonized extreme environments. This study utilizes an endemic South American duck species, the speckled teal (Anas flavirostris), which has both high- and low-altitude populations. High-altitude speckled teal (A...
December 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198987/energy-landscape-of-the-intact-and-destabilized-fmo-antennas-from-c-tepidum-and-the-l122q-mutant-low-temperature-spectroscopy-and-modeling-study
#13
Anton Khmelnitskiy, Adam Kell, Tonu Reinot, Rafael G Saer, Robert E Blankenship, Ryszard Jankowiak
We discuss the excitonic energy landscape of the typically studied wild-type (WT) Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) antenna protein from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum (referred to as WTM), which is described as a mixture of intact (WTI) and destabilized (WTD) complexes. Optical spectra of WTM and the L122Q mutant (where leucine 122 near BChl 8 is replaced with glutamine) are compared to WTI FMO. We show that WTM and L122Q samples are mixtures of two subpopulations of proteins, most likely induced by protein conformational changes during the isolation/purification procedures...
November 30, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168864/using-time-resolved-photoelectron-spectroscopy-to-unravel-the-electronic-relaxation-dynamics-of-photoexcited-molecules
#14
Helen H Fielding, Graham A Worth
Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measurements combined with quantum chemistry and dynamics calculations allow unprecedented insight into the electronic relaxation mechanisms of photoexcited molecules in the gas-phase. In this Tutorial Review, we explain the essential concepts linking photoelectron spectroscopy measurements with electronic structure and how key features on the potential energy landscape are identified using quantum chemistry and quantum dynamics calculations. We illustrate how time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and theory work together using examples ranging in complexity from the prototypical organic molecule benzene to a pyrrole dimer bound by a weak N-Hπ interaction and the green fluorescent protein chromophore...
November 23, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080260/non-linearities-in-bird-responses-across-urbanisation-gradients-a-meta-analysis
#15
Péter Batáry, Kornélia Kurucz, Marcela Suarez-Rubio, Dan E Chamberlain
Urbanisation is one of the most extreme forms of environmental alteration, posing a major threat to biodiversity. We studied the effects of urbanisation on avian communities via a systematic review using hierarchical and categorical meta-analyses. Altogether, we found 42 observations from 37 case studies for species richness and 23 observations from 20 case studies for abundance. Urbanisation had an overall strong negative effect on bird species richness, whereas abundance increased marginally with urbanisation...
October 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079974/technical-and-natural-conditions-and-operating-efficiency-of-a-municipal-stormwater-treatment-plant
#16
Tomasz Zubala
A decade of observations provided grounds for assessing the operation of one of the few stormwater treatment plants in Poland (system: screens-grit chambers-settler-retention pond) which collects effluents from 471 ha of the city. Among other aspects, the following were evaluated: treatment efficiency, relationship between the quality of treated stormwater and that of waters in the receiving body (the ox-bow lake of the Vistula river), operating stability of key units, significance of the facility for nature...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079804/an-early-warning-system-to-forecast-the-close-of-the-spring-burning-window-from-satellite-observed-greenness
#17
Paul D Pickell, Nicholas C Coops, Colin J Ferster, Christopher W Bater, Karen D Blouin, Mike D Flannigan, Jinkai Zhang
Spring represents the peak of human-caused wildfire events in populated boreal forests, resulting in catastrophic loss of property and human life. Human-caused wildfire risk is anticipated to increase in northern forests as fuels become drier, on average, under warming climate scenarios and as population density increases within formerly remote regions. We investigated springtime human-caused wildfire risk derived from satellite-observed vegetation greenness in the early part of the growing season, a period of increased ignition and wildfire spread potential from snow melt to vegetation green-up with the aim of developing an early warning wildfire risk system...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078119/habitat-template-approach-for-green-roofs-using-a-native-rocky-sea-coast-plant-community-in-japan
#18
Ayako Nagase, Yurika Tashiro-Ishii
The present study examined whether it is possible to simulate a local herbaceous coastal plant community on a roof, by studying the natural habitats of rocky sea coast plants and their propagation and performance on a green roof. After studying the natural habitat of coastal areas in Izu peninsula, a germination and cutting transplant study was carried out using herbaceous plants from the Jogasaki sea coast. Many plant species did not germinate at all and the use of cuttings was a better method than direct seeding...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072582/genus-specific-real-time-pcr-and-hrm-assays-to-distinguish-liriope-from-ophiopogon-samples
#19
Eva Masiero, Dipanwita Banik, John Abson, Paul Greene, Adrian Slater, Tiziana Sgamma
Liriope and Ophiopogon species have a long history of use as traditional medicines across East Asia. They have also become widely used around the world for ornamental and landscaping purposes. The morphological similarities between Liriope and Ophiopogon taxa have made the taxonomy of the two genera problematic and caused confusion about the identification of individual specimens. Molecular approaches could be a useful tool for the discrimination of these two genera in combination with traditional methods. Seventy-five Liriope and Ophiopogon samples from the UK National Plant Collections of Ophiopogon and Liriope were analyzed...
October 26, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053677/building-double-decker-traps-for-early-detection-of-emerald-ash-borer
#20
Deborah G McCullough, Therese M Poland
Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), the most destructive forest insect to have invaded North America, has killed hundreds of millions of forest and landscape ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. Several artificial trap designs to attract and capture EAB beetles have been developed to detect, delineate, and monitor infestations. Double-decker (DD) traps consist of two corrugated plastic prisms, one green and one purple, attached to a 3 m tall polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe supported by a t-post. The green prism at the top of the PVC pipe is baited with cis-3-hexenol, a compound produced by ash foliage...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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