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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319704/assessing-the-drivers-shaping-global-patterns-of-urban-vegetation-landscape-structure
#1
C Dobbs, C Nitschke, D Kendal
Vegetation is one of the main resources involve in ecosystem functioning and providing ecosystem services in urban areas. Little is known on the landscape structure patterns of vegetation existing in urban areas at the global scale and the drivers of these patterns. We studied the landscape structure of one hundred cities around the globe, and their relation to demography (population), socioeconomic factors (GDP, Gini Index), climate factors (temperature and rain) and topographic characteristics (altitude, variation in altitude)...
March 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314196/governance-and-management-dynamics-of-landscape-restoration-at-multiple-scales-learning-from-successful-environmental-managers-in-sweden
#2
Lucas Dawson, Marine Elbakidze, Per Angelstam, Johanna Gordon
Due to a long history of intensive land and water use, habitat networks for biodiversity conservation are generally degraded in Sweden. Landscape restoration (LR) is an important strategy for achieving representative and functional green infrastructures. However, outcomes of LR efforts are poorly studied, particularly the dynamics of LR governance and management. We apply systems thinking methods to a series of LR case studies to analyse the causal structures underlying LR governance and management in Sweden...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304380/comprehensive-analysis-of-the-cancer-genome-atlas-reveals-a-unique-gene-and-non-coding-rna-signature-of-fibrolamellar-carcinoma
#3
Timothy A Dinh, Eva C M Vitucci, Eliane Wauthier, Rondell P Graham, Wendy A Pitman, Tsunekazu Oikawa, Mengjie Chen, Grace O Silva, Kevin G Greene, Michael S Torbenson, Lola M Reid, Praveen Sethupathy
Fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC) is a unique liver cancer primarily affecting young adults and characterized by a fusion event between DNAJB1 and PRKACA. By analyzing RNA-sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) for >9,100 tumors across ~30 cancer types, we show that the DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion is specific to FLCs. We demonstrate that FLC tumors (n = 6) exhibit distinct messenger RNA (mRNA) and long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) profiles compared to hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 263) and cholangiocarcinoma (n = 36), the two most common liver cancers...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297440/evaluation-of-the-uncertainty-in-an-ebt3-film-dosimetry-system-utilizing-net-optical-density
#4
Elsa Y León Marroquin, José A Herrera González, Miguel A Camacho López, José E Villarreal Barajas, Olivia A García-Garduño
Radiochromic film has become an important tool to verify dose distributions for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and quality assurance (QA) procedures. A new radiochromic film model, EBT3, has recently become available, whose composition and thickness of the sensitive layer are the same as those of previous EBT2 films. However, a matte polyester layer was added to EBT3 to prevent the formation of Newton's rings. Furthermore, the symmetrical design of EBT3 allows the user to eliminate side-orientation dependence...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267834/-that-landscape-is-where-i-d-like-to-be-%C3%A2-offering-patients-with-cancer-a-choice-of-artwork
#5
Daniel R George, Claire de Boer, Michael J Green
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251674/microglial-repopulation-resolves-inflammation-and-promotes-brain-recovery-after-injury
#6
Rachel A Rice, Jason Pham, Rafael J Lee, Allison R Najafi, Brian L West, Kim N Green
Microglia mediate chronic neuroinflammation following central nervous system (CNS) disease or injury, and in doing so, damage the local brain environment by impairing recovery and contributing to disease processes. Microglia are critically dependent on signaling through the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) and can be eliminated via administration of CSF1R inhibitors. Resolving chronic neuroinflammation represents a universal goal for CNS disorders, but long-term microglial elimination may not be amenable to clinical use...
March 2, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230108/mediation-pathways-and-effects-of-green-structures-on-respiratory-mortality-via-reducing-air-pollution
#7
Yu-Sheng Shen, Shih-Chun Candice Lung
Previous studies have shown both health and environmental benefits of green spaces, especially in moderating temperature and reducing air pollution. However, the characteristics of green structures have been overlooked in previous investigations. In addition, the mediation effects of green structures on respiratory mortality have not been assessed. This study explores the potential mediation pathways and effects of green structure characteristics on respiratory mortality through temperature, primary and secondary air pollutants separately using partial least squares model with data from Taiwan...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166733/a-machine-learning-classifier-trained-on-cancer-transcriptomes-detects-nf1-inactivation-signal-in-glioblastoma
#8
Gregory P Way, Robert J Allaway, Stephanie J Bouley, Camilo E Fadul, Yolanda Sanchez, Casey S Greene
BACKGROUND: We have identified molecules that exhibit synthetic lethality in cells with loss of the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) tumor suppressor gene. However, recognizing tumors that have inactivation of the NF1 tumor suppressor function is challenging because the loss may occur via mechanisms that do not involve mutation of the genomic locus. Degradation of the NF1 protein, independent of NF1 mutation status, phenocopies inactivating mutations to drive tumors in human glioma cell lines. NF1 inactivation may alter the transcriptional landscape of a tumor and allow a machine learning classifier to detect which tumors will benefit from synthetic lethal molecules...
February 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159567/probing-the-excitonic-landscape-of-the-chlorobaculum-tepidum-fenna-matthews-olson-fmo-complex-a-mutagenesis-approach
#9
Rafael G Saer, Valentyn Stadnytskyi, Nikki C Magdaong, Carrie Goodson, Sergei Savikhin, Robert E Blankenship
In this paper we report the steady-state optical properties of a series of site-directed mutants in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex of Chlorobaculum tepidum, a photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium. The FMO antenna complex has historically been used as a model system for energy transfer due to the water-soluble nature of the protein, its stability at room temperature, as well as the availability of high-resolution structural data. Eight FMO mutants were constructed with changes in the environment of each of the bacteriochlorophyll a pigments found within each monomer of the homotrimeric FMO complex...
April 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106419/probing-the-nodal-structure-of-landau-level-wave-functions-in-real-space
#10
J R Bindel, J Ulrich, M Liebmann, M Morgenstern
The inversion layer of p-InSb(110) obtained by Cs adsorption of 1.8% of a monolayer is used to probe the Landau level wave functions within smooth potential valleys by scanning tunneling spectroscopy at 14 T. The nodal structure becomes apparent as a double peak structure of each spin polarized first Landau level, while the zeroth Landau level exhibits a single peak per spin level only. The real space data show single rings of the valley-confined drift states for the zeroth Landau level and double rings for the first Landau level...
January 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091603/repo-man-pp1-regulates-heterochromatin-formation-in-interphase
#11
Inês J de Castro, James Budzak, Maria L Di Giacinto, Lorena Ligammari, Ezgi Gokhan, Christos Spanos, Daniela Moralli, Christine Richardson, Jose I de Las Heras, Silvia Salatino, Eric C Schirmer, Katharine S Ullman, Wendy A Bickmore, Catherine Green, Juri Rappsilber, Sarah Lamble, Martin W Goldberg, Veronica Vinciotti, Paola Vagnarelli
Repo-Man is a protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) targeting subunit that regulates mitotic progression and chromatin remodelling. After mitosis, Repo-Man/PP1 remains associated with chromatin but its function in interphase is not known. Here we show that Repo-Man, via Nup153, is enriched on condensed chromatin at the nuclear periphery and at the edge of the nucleopore basket. Repo-Man/PP1 regulates the formation of heterochromatin, dephosphorylates H3S28 and it is necessary and sufficient for heterochromatin protein 1 binding and H3K27me3 recruitment...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074648/mispacking-and-the-fitness-landscape-of-the-green-fluorescent-protein-chromophore-milieu
#12
Shounak Banerjee, Christian D Schenkelberg, Thomas B Jordan, Julia M Reimertz, Emily E Crone, Donna E Crone, Christopher Bystroff
The autocatalytic maturation of the chromophore in green fluorescent protein (GFP) was thought to require the precise positioning of the side chains surrounding it in the core of the protein, many of which are strongly conserved among homologous fluorescent proteins. In this study, we screened for green fluorescence in an exhaustive set of point mutations of seven residues that make up the chromophore microenvironment, excluding R96 and E222 because mutations at these positions have been previously characterized...
January 24, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073389/the-distribution-of-echinostome-parasites-in-ponds-and-implications-for-larval-anuran-survival
#13
John A Marino, Manja P Holland, Earl E Werner
Parasites can influence host population dynamics, community composition and evolution. Prediction of these effects, however, requires an understanding of the influence of ecological context on parasite distributions and the consequences of infection for host fitness. We address these issues with an amphibian - trematode (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) host-parasite system. We initially performed a field survey of trematode infection in first (snail) and second (larval green frog, Rana clamitans) intermediate hosts over 5 years across a landscape of 23 ponds in southeastern Michigan...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039785/visible-light-neutralizes-the-effect-produced-by-ultraviolet-radiation-in%C3%A2-proteins
#14
J Horacio Espinoza, Hilda Mercado-Uribe
The damage produced by UV-C radiation (100-280nm) in organisms and cells is a well known fact. The main reactions of proteins to UV-C radiation consist in the alteration of their secondary structures, exposure of hydrophobic residues, unfolding and aggregation. Furthermore, it has been found that electromagnetic radiation of lower energy (visible light, where wavelengths are between 400 and 750nm) also induces different disturbances in biomolecules. For instance, it has been observed that blue visible light from emitting diodes (LEDs) produces severe damage in murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells, and it can be even more harmful for some organisms than UV radiation...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038875/scaling-green-rubber-cultivation-in-southwest-china-an-integrative-analysis-of-stakeholder-perspectives
#15
Seerp Wigboldus, Jim Hammond, Jianchu Xu, Zhuang-Fang Yi, Jun He, Laurens Klerkx, Cees Leeuwis
The rubber boom across much of Southeast Asia has led to environmental destruction, and the resultant crash in the price of rubber has destabilised livelihoods. We investigated the necessary factors required to enable a transition towards a more sustainable model for rubber cultivation in Southwest China (i.e. the 'greening' of rubber cultivation), using a framework for the integrative study of multiple aspects in complex land use issues. We present findings from stakeholder interviews and a stakeholder workshop, and discuss their relevance within and beyond Southwest China...
February 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960340/spectroscopic-investigations-of-catalase-compound-ii-characterization-of-an-iron-iv-hydroxide-intermediate-in-a-non-thiolate-ligated-heme-enzyme
#16
Timothy H Yosca, Matthew C Langston, Courtney M Krest, Elizabeth L Onderko, Tyler L Grove, Jovan Livada, Michael T Green
We report on the protonation state of Helicobacter pylori catalase compound II. UV/visible, Mössbauer, and X-ray absorption spectroscopies have been used to examine the intermediate from pH 5 to 14. We have determined that HPC-II exists in an iron(IV) hydroxide state up to pH 11. Above this pH, the iron(IV) hydroxide complex transitions to a new species (pKa = 13.1) with Mössbauer parameters that are indicative of an iron(IV)-oxo intermediate. Recently, we discussed a role for an elevated compound II pKa in diminishing the compound I reduction potential...
December 14, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941984/tropical-forest-fragmentation-limits-movements-but-not-occurrence-of-a-generalist-pollinator-species
#17
Noelia L Volpe, W Douglas Robinson, Sarah J K Frey, Adam S Hadley, Matthew G Betts
Habitat loss and fragmentation influence species distributions and therefore ecological processes that depend upon them. Pollination may be particularly susceptible to fragmentation, as it depends on frequent pollinator movement. Unfortunately, most pollinators are too small to track efficiently which has precluded testing the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation reduces or eliminates pollen flow by disrupting pollinator movement. We used radio-telemetry to examine space use of the green hermit hummingbird (Phaethornis guy), an important 'hub' pollinator of understory flowering plants across substantial portions of the neotropics and the primary pollinator of a keystone plant which shows reduced pollination success in fragmented landscapes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907260/ten-year-responses-of-ground-dwelling-spiders-to-retention-harvest-in-the-boreal-forest
#18
Jaime Pinzon, John R Spence, David W Langor, David P Shorthouse
The Ecosystem Management Emulating Natural Disturbances (EMEND) project tests the hypothesis that varying levels of green tree retention maintain and retain forest biodiversity better than conventional clear-cutting. We studied epigaeic spiders to assess biodiversity changes 2, 5, and 10 yr following a range of partial retention harvests (clear-cut, 10-75% retention) and unharvested controls in four boreal mixedwood cover types. A total of 56 371 adult spiders representing 220 species was collected using pitfall traps...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907252/residential-yards-as-designer-ecosystems-effects-of-yard%C3%A2-management-on-land-snail-species-composition
#19
Elizabeth A Bergey, Laura L Figueroa
Residential yards comprise the majority of green space in urban landscapes, yet are an understudied system because of access issues and because yards may be considered biologically depauperate. Yards are purposely created and managed and, hence, qualify as designer ecosystems, a term borrowed from restoration ecology. We investigated whether yard management (watering regime, mulching, and chemical use) or dog presence affected land snail assemblage composition and described the pattern of native vs. nonnative species among yards...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878085/stable-isotope-based-trophic-structure-of-pelagic-fish-and-jellyfish-across-natural-and-anthropogenic-landscape-gradients-in-a-fjord-estuary
#20
Sean M Naman, Correigh M Greene, Casimir A Rice, Joshua Chamberlin, Letitia Conway-Cranos, Jeffery R Cordell, Jason E Hall, Linda D Rhodes
Identifying causes of structural ecosystem shifts often requires understanding trophic structure, an important determinant of energy flow in ecological communities. In coastal pelagic ecosystems worldwide, increasing jellyfish (Cnidaria and Ctenophora) at the expense of small fish has been linked to anthropogenic alteration of basal trophic pathways. However, this hypothesis remains untested in part because baseline description of fish-jellyfish trophic dynamics, and the environmental features that influence them are lacking...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
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