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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528907/widespread-biological-response-to-rapid-warming-on-the-antarctic-peninsula
#1
Matthew J Amesbury, Thomas P Roland, Jessica Royles, Dominic A Hodgson, Peter Convey, Howard Griffiths, Dan J Charman
Recent climate change on the Antarctic Peninsula is well documented [1-5], with warming, alongside increases in precipitation, wind strength, and melt season length [1, 6, 7], driving environmental change [8, 9]. However, meteorological records mostly began in the 1950s, and paleoenvironmental datasets that provide a longer-term context to recent climate change are limited in number and often from single sites [7] and/or discontinuous in time [10, 11]. Here we use moss bank cores from a 600-km transect from Green Island (65...
May 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500712/time-resolved-energetics-of-photoprocesses-in-prokaryotic-phytochrome-related-photoreceptors
#2
Aba Losi, Hernán R Bonomi, Norbert Michael, Kun Tang, Kai-Hong Zhao
Time-resolved photoacoustics (PA) is uniquely able to explore the energy landscape of photoactive proteins and concomitantly detects light-induced volumetric changes (ΔV) accompanying the formation and decay of transient species in a time window between ca. 20 ns and 5 μs. Here, we report PA measurements on diverse photochromic bilin-binding photoreceptors of prokaryotic origin: (1) the chromophore-binding GAF3 domain of the red (R)/green (G) switching cyanobacteriochrome 1393 (Slr1393g3) from Synechocystis; (2) the red/far red (R/FR) Synechocystis Cph1 phytochrome; (3) full-length and truncated constructs of Xanthomonas campestris bacteriophytochrome (XccBphP), absorbing up to the NIR spectral region...
May 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486549/genome-and-transcriptome-profiling-of-fibrolamellar-hepatocellular-carcinoma-demonstrates-p53-and-igf2bp1-dysregulation
#3
Eric C Sorenson, Raya Khanin, Zubin M Bamboat, Michael J Cavnar, Teresa S Kim, Eran Sadot, Shan Zeng, Jonathan B Greer, Adrian M Seifert, Noah A Cohen, Megan H Crawley, Benjamin L Green, David S Klimstra, Ronald P DeMatteo
Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is a rare variant of HCC that most frequently affects young adults. Because of its rarity and an absence of preclinical models, our understanding of FL-HCC is limited. Our objective was to analyze chromosomal alterations and dysregulated gene expression in tumor specimens collected at a single center during two decades of experience with FL-HCC. We analyzed 38 specimens from 26 patients by array comparative genomic hybridiziation (aCGH) and 35 specimens from 15 patients by transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475344/tailoring-the-energy-landscape-in-quasi-2d-halide-perovskites-enables-efficient-green-light-emission
#4
Li Na Quan, Yongbiao Zhao, F Pelayo Garcia de Arquer, Randy P Sabatini, Grant Walters, Oleksandr Voznyy, Riccardo Comin, Yiying Li, James Z Fan, Hairen Tan, Jun Pan, Mingjian Yuan, Osman M Bakr, Zheng-Hong Lu, Dong Ha Kim, Edward H Sargent
Organo-metal halide perovskites are a promising platform for optoelectronic applications in view of their excellent charge transport and bandgap tunability. However, their low photoluminescence quantum efficiencies, especially in low excitation regimes, limit their efficiency for light emission. Consequently, perovskite light emitting devices are operated under high injection, a regime under which the materials have so far been unstable. Here we show that, by concentrating photoexcited states into a small subpopulation of radiative domains, one can achieve a high quantum yield even at low excitation intensities...
May 5, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458007/probing-the-inhibitory-activity-of-epigallocatechin-gallate-on-toxic-aggregates-of-mutant-l84f-sod1-protein-through-geometry-based-sampling-and-steered-molecular-dynamics
#5
E Srinivasan, R Rajasekaran
Amyloid formation and protein aggregation are considered to be at the core of the disease pathology for the various neurodegenerative disorders such as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Considerable experimental reports have suggested that epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), a natural polyphenol from the green tea inhibits the amyloid formation in multiple neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in SOD1 protein are considered to a key factor that contributes towards the rapid disease progression and the pathogenesis in both, the sporadic and familial form...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451966/phenotypic-characterisation-of-breast-cancer-the-role-of-cdc42
#6
Eleni Chrysanthou, Kylie L Gorringe, Chitra Joseph, Madeleine Craze, Christopher C Nolan, Maria Diez-Rodriguez, Andrew R Green, Emad A Rakha, Ian O Ellis, Abhik Mukherjee
PURPOSE: The molecular landscape of breast cancer (BC), especially of the Luminal A subtype, remains to be fully delineated. Transcriptomic data show that Luminal A tumours are enriched for aberrant expression of genes in the cell division control 42 homolog (CDC42) pathway. This study aims to investigate the protein expression of CDC42 in BC and assess its clinicopathological significance. METHODS: Expression of CDC42 protein was examined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays in a well-characterised cohort of 895 early-stage (I-IIIa) primary invasive BCs...
April 27, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446236/the-malaria-testing-and-treatment-landscape-in-benin
#7
Cyprien Zinsou, Adjibabi Bello Cherifath
BACKGROUND: Since 2004, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Benin. In 2016, a medicine outlet survey was implemented to investigate the availability, price, and market share of anti-malarial treatment and malaria diagnostics. Results provide a timely and important benchmark to measure future interventions aimed at increasing access to quality malaria case management services. METHODS: Between July 5th to August 6th 2016, a cross sectional, nationally-representative malaria outlet survey was conducted in Benin...
April 26, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438912/effects-of-conservation-management-of-landscapes-and-vertebrate-communities-on-lyme-borreliosis-risk-in-the-united-kingdom
#8
REVIEW
Caroline Millins, Lucy Gilbert, Jolyon Medlock, Kayleigh Hansford, Des Ba Thompson, Roman Biek
Landscape change and altered host abundance are major drivers of zoonotic pathogen emergence. Conservation and biodiversity management of landscapes and vertebrate communities can have secondary effects on vector-borne pathogen transmission that are important to assess. Here we review the potential implications of these activities on the risk of Lyme borreliosis in the United Kingdom. Conservation management activities include woodland expansion, management and restoration, deer management, urban greening and the release and culling of non-native species...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412623/the-urban-heat-island-effect-its-causes-and-mitigation-with-reference-to-the-thermal-properties-of-asphalt-concrete
#9
REVIEW
Abbas Mohajerani, Jason Bakaric, Tristan Jeffrey-Bailey
The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is a phenomenon that affects many millions of people worldwide. The higher temperatures experienced in urban areas compared to the surrounding countryside has enormous consequences for the health and wellbeing of people living in cities. The increased use of manmade materials and increased anthropogenic heat production are the main causes of the UHI. This has led to the understanding that increased urbanisation is the primary cause of the urban heat island. The UHI effect also leads to increased energy needs that further contribute to the heating of our urban landscape, and the associated environmental and public health consequences...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407863/reproductive-characteristics-of-female-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-the-midwestern-usa
#10
Michelle L Green, Amy C Kelly, Damian Satterthwaite-Phillips, Mary Beth Manjerovic, Paul Shelton, Jan Novakofski, Nohra Mateus-Pinilla
Knowledge of reproductive characteristics of wild populations is necessary to inform responsible management decisions that promote herd health. As management, goals, and free-ranging populations change over time and landscapes, updated knowledge of reproductive characteristics are needed to inform responsible management practices. We estimated reproductive characteristics of female white-tailed deer in Illinois, including pregnancy rate, litter size, fetal growth and fetal sex ratio. We found maternal age to have an important influence on several reproductive factors...
May 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407108/realizing-the-promise-of-the-partnership-for-maternal-newborn-and-child-health
#11
Hareya Fassil, John Borrazzo, Richard Greene, Troy Jacobs, Maureen Norton, Mary Ellen Stanton, Nana Taona Kuo, K Rogers, Luwei Pearson, Ted Chaiban, Anshu Banerjee, Shyama Kuruvilla, Marta Seaone, Ann Starrs, Betsy McCallon, Stefan Germann, Anshu Mohan, Flavia Bustreo, Helga Fogstad, C K Mishra
Reflecting on Storeng and Béhague ("Lives in the balance": the politics of integration in the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health. Health Policy and Planning Storeng and Béhague (2016).) historical ethnography of the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (PMNCH), this commentary provides a more current account of PMNCH's trajectory since its inception in 2005. It highlights PMNCH's distinct characteristics and how it is positioned to play an instrumental role in the current global health landscape...
April 12, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403821/defining-the-transcriptomic-landscape-of-the-developing-enteric-nervous-system-and-its-cellular-environment
#12
Sweta Roy-Carson, Kevin Natukunda, Hsien-Chao Chou, Narinder Pal, Caitlin Farris, Stephan Q Schneider, Julie A Kuhlman
BACKGROUND: Motility and the coordination of moving food through the gastrointestinal tract rely on a complex network of neurons known as the enteric nervous system (ENS). Despite its critical function, many of the molecular mechanisms that direct the development of the ENS and the elaboration of neural network connections remain unknown. The goal of this study was to transcriptionally identify molecular pathways and candidate genes that drive specification, differentiation and the neural circuitry of specific neural progenitors, the phox2b expressing ENS cell lineage, during normal enteric nervous system development...
April 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393900/multi-scale-comparison-of-the-fine-particle-removal-capacity-of-urban-forests-and-wetlands
#13
Zhenming Zhang, Jiakai Liu, Yanan Wu, Guoxin Yan, Lijuan Zhu, Xinxiao Yu
As fine particle (FP) pollution is harmful to humans, previous studies have focused on the mechanisms of FP removal by forests. The current study aims to compare the FP removal capacities of urban forests and wetlands on the leaf, canopy, and landscape scales. Water washing and scanning electron microscopy are used to calculate particle accumulation on leaves, and models are used to estimate vegetation collection, sedimentation, and dry deposition. Results showed that, on the leaf scale, forest species are able to accumulate more FP on their leaf surface than aquatic species in wetlands...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387527/quantitative-shedding-of-multiple-genotypes-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-by-deer-mice-peromyscus-maniculatus-in-a-major-agricultural-region-on-the-california-central-coast
#14
Christopher Kilonzo, Xunde Li, Tamara Vodoz, Chengling Xiao, Jennifer A Chase, Michele T Jay-Russell, Eduardo J Vivas, Edward R Atwill
Deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus ) are abundant and widely distributed rodents in North America that occupy diverse habitats, including agricultural landscapes. Giardia and Cryptosporidium are common parasites in wildlife including deer mice, which may play a role in on-farm contamination of produce. An important step in assessing the risk of produce contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia shed by deer mice is to determine the prevalence, levels, and genotypes of (oo)cysts in mouse feces. A total of 63 (30...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383758/applying-network-theory-to-prioritize-multi-species-habitat-networks-that-are-robust-to-climate-and-land-use-change
#15
Cécile H Albert, Bronwyn Rayfield, Maria Dumitru, Andrew Gonzalez
Designing connected landscapes is among the most widespread strategies for achieving biodiversity conservation targets. The challenge lies in simultaneously satisfying the connectivity needs of multiple species at multiple spatial scales under uncertain climate and land-use change. To evaluate the contribution of remnant habitat fragments to the connectivity of regional habitat networks, we develop a framework integrating uncertainty in climate and land-use change projections with the latest developments in network connectivity research and spatial, multi-purpose conservation prioritization...
April 6, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382936/ecological-connectivity-in-the-three-dimensional-urban-green-volume-using-waveform-airborne-lidar
#16
Stefano Casalegno, Karen Anderson, Daniel T C Cox, Steven Hancock, Kevin J Gaston
The movements of organisms and the resultant flows of ecosystem services are strongly shaped by landscape connectivity. Studies of urban ecosystems have relied on two-dimensional (2D) measures of greenspace structure to calculate connectivity. It is now possible to explore three-dimensional (3D) connectivity in urban vegetation using waveform lidar technology that measures the full 3D structure of the canopy. Making use of this technology, here we evaluate urban greenspace 3D connectivity, taking into account the full vertical stratification of the vegetation...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371756/nature-based-solutions-for-urban-landscapes-under-post-industrialization-and-globalization-barcelona-versus-shanghai
#17
Peilei Fan, Zutao Ouyang, Corina Basnou, Joan Pino, Hogeun Park, Jiquan Chen
Using Barcelona and Shanghai as case studies, we examined the nature-based solutions (NBS) in urban settings-specifically within cities experiencing post-industrialization and globalization. Our specific research questions are: (1) What are the spatiotemporal changes in urban built-up land and green space in Barcelona and Shanghai? (2) What are the relationships between economic development, exemplified by post-industrialization, globalization, and urban green space? Urban land use and green space change were evaluated using data derived from a variety of sources, including satellite images, landscape matrix indicators, and a land conversion matrix...
March 31, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369950/possible-effect-of-landscape-design-on-ige-recognition-profiles-of-two-generations-revealed-with-micro-arrayed-allergens
#18
V Garib, E Wollmann, G Djambekova, P Lemell, M Kmenta, U Berger, P Zieglmayer, R Valenta
The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of landscape design on the IgE sensitization profile toward inhalant allergens in patients with respiratory allergy from Uzbekistan where green areas have been changed during the last two decades by a State program. Sera from two different generations of Uzbek (n=58) and, for control purposes, from two generations of Austrian (n=58) patients were analyzed for IgE reactivity to 112 different micro-arrayed allergen molecules by ImmunoCAP ISAC technology...
March 29, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350247/the-transgenic-zebrafish-display-fluorescence-reflecting-the-expressional-dynamics-of-dihydrofolate-reductase
#19
Wen-Ni Chang, Wan-Yu Chi, Tseng-Ting Kao, Jen-Ning Tsai, Wangta Liu, Shih-Shin Liang, Chien-Chih Chiu, Bing-Hung Chen, Tzu-Fun Fu
Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) reduces folic acid and recycles dihydrofolate generated during dTMP biosynthesis to tetrahydrofolate. DHFR is upregulated in rapidly proliferating cells and hence a favored target of antifolate drug against cancers, autoimmune diseases, and microbial infections. However, increased expression of dhfr contributed to the often emerging drug resistance and impeded the therapeutic efficacy of antifolate drugs. Therefore, comprehensive knowledge on the expressional control of dhfr becomes crucial...
March 28, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319704/assessing-the-drivers-shaping-global-patterns-of-urban-vegetation-landscape-structure
#20
C Dobbs, C Nitschke, D Kendal
Vegetation is one of the main resources involve in ecosystem functioning and providing ecosystem services in urban areas. Little is known on the landscape structure patterns of vegetation existing in urban areas at the global scale and the drivers of these patterns. We studied the landscape structure of one hundred cities around the globe, and their relation to demography (population), socioeconomic factors (GDP, Gini Index), climate factors (temperature and rain) and topographic characteristics (altitude, variation in altitude)...
March 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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