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Green landscape

Chao-Chen Lin, Hsin-Fang Hsu, Peter Jomo Walla
The fusion of two opposing membranes is essential in biological functions such as fertilization, viral entry, membrane trafficking and synaptic transmission. Before the membrane bilayers are fully connected, at some stage a hemifusion intermediate-when the outer leaflets are merged but not the inner leaflets-is formed. However, the position of hemifusion in the energy landscape and the duration of it vary and have not been fully mapped out. To date, there has not been a way to differentiate lipid mixing of the two leaflets directly in a single experiment...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Antônio Márcio Tavares Thomé, Paula Santos Ceryno, Annibal Scavarda, Arne Remmen
This paper proposes a taxonomy of themes and a research agenda on sustainable infrastructure, with a focus on sustainable buildings (SB) and green infrastructure (GI). The citation databases of Web of Science formed the basis for a novel strategic thematic analysis of co-citation and co-occurrence of keywords with a longitudinal identification of themes during the last two decades (from 1995 to 2015) of an emerging and ever growing research area. SI is a multidisciplinary endeavour, including a diversified array of disciplines as general engineering, environmental ecology, construction, architecture, urban planning, and geography...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Elsa Y León Marroquin, José A Herrera González, Miguel A Camacho López, José E Villarreal Barajas, Olivia A García-Garduño
Radiochromic film has become an important tool to verify dose distributions for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and quality assurance (QA) procedures. A new radiochromic film model, EBT3, has recently become available, whose composition and thickness of the sensitive layer are the same as those of previous EBT2 films. However, a matte polyester layer was added to EBT3 to prevent the formation of Newton's rings. Furthermore, the symmetrical design of EBT3 allows the user to eliminate side-orientation dependence...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Anabela Rebelo, Isabel Ferra, Albertina Marques, Manuela Moreira Silva
The chloroform is a substance that presents a significant risk to or via the aquatic environment. Thus, the emissions, discharges and losses of this substance need to be controlled during wastewater disinfection for reclamation and reuse purposes. Due to its carcinogenetic potential, multiple studies have been carried out on drinking and surface/natural waters but less consideration has been directed to the wastewater disinfection. The focus of this work studied the formation of chloroform during chlorination in prepared waters or artificial matrices that intended to simulate wastewaters stored in landscape ponds for green areas irrigation...
September 28, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Orla Shortall, Annmarie Ruston, Martin Green, Marnie Brennan, Wendela Wapenaar, Jasmeet Kaler
There is seen to be a need for better biosecurity - the control of disease spread on and off farm - in the dairy sector. Veterinarians play a key role in communicating and implementing biosecurity measures on farm, and little research has been carried out on how veterinarians see their own and farmers' roles in improving biosecurity. In order to help address this gap, qualitative interviews were carried out with 28 veterinarians from Royal College of Veterinary Surgeon farm accredited practices in England. The results were analysed using a social ecology framework and frame analysis to explore not only what barriers vets identified, but also how vets saw the problem of inadequate biosecurity as being located...
September 15, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Marco Natali, Augusto Zanella, Aleksandar Rankovic, Damien Banas, Chiara Cantaluppi, Luc Abbadie, Jean -Christophe Lata
Mosses are useful, ubiquitous accumulation biomonitors and as such can be used for biomonitoring surveys. However, the biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution can be compromised in urban contexts if the targeted biomonitors are regularly disturbed, irregularly distributed, or are difficult to access. Here, we test the hypothesis that cemeteries are appropriate moss sampling sites for the evaluation of air pollution in urban areas. We sampled mosses growing on gravestones in 21 urban and peri-urban cemeteries in the Paris metropolitan area...
September 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shingo Miyauchi, David Navarro, Igor V Grigoriev, Anna Lipzen, Robert Riley, Didier Chevret, Sacha Grisel, Jean-Guy Berrin, Bernard Henrissat, Marie-Noëlle Rosso
Wood-decay fungi contain the cellular mechanisms to decompose such plant cell wall components as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. A multi-omics approach to the comparative analysis of wood-decay fungi gives not only new insights into their strategies for decomposing recalcitrant plant biomass, but also an understanding of how to exploit these mechanisms for biotechnological applications. We have developed an analytical workflow, Applied Biomass Conversion Design for Efficient Fungal Green Technology (ABCDEFGT), to simplify the analysis and interpretation of transcriptomic and secretomic data...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yanguang Zhou, Ming Hu
Thermoelectrics offer an attractive pathway for addressing an important niche in the globally growing landscape of energy demand. Nanoengineering existing low-dimensional thermoelectric materials pertaining to realizing fundamentally low thermal conductivity has emerged as an efficient route to achieve high energy conversion performance for advanced thermoelectrics. In this paper, by performing nonequilibrium and Green-Kubo equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations we report that the thermal conductivity of Si nanowires (NWs) in polycrystalline form can reach a record low value substantially below the Casimir limit, a theory of diffusive boundary limit that regards the direction-averaged mean free path is limited by the characteristic size of the nanostructures...
October 12, 2016: Nano Letters
Jiquan Chen, Liuyan Zhu, Peilei Fan, Li Tian, Raffaele Lafortezza
INTRODUCTION: Among the most dangerous pollutants is PM2.5, which can directly pass through human lungs and move into the blood system. The use of nature-based solutions, such as increased vegetation cover in an urban landscape, is one of the possible solutions for reducing PM2.5 concentration. Our study objective was to understand the importance of green spaces in pollution reduction. METHODS: Daily PM2.5 concentrations were manually collected at nine monitoring stations in Nanjing over a 534-day period from the air quality report of the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) to quantify the spatiotemporal change of PM2...
2016: Ecological Processes
Gwendolyn K L Wong, C Y Jim
Green roof, an increasingly common constituent of urban green infrastructure, can provide multiple ecosystem services and mitigate climate-change and urban-heat-island challenges. Its adoption has been beset by a longstanding preconception of attracting urban pests like mosquitoes. As more cities may become vulnerable to emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases, the knowledge gap needs to be filled. This study gauges the habitat preference of vector mosquitoes for extensive green roofs vis-à-vis positive and negative control sites in an urban setting...
August 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Haneen Khreis, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Mireia Gascon, Payam Dadvand
Currently half the world population lives in cities, and this proportion is expected to increase rapidly to 70% over the next years. Over the years we have created large, mostly grey cities with many high-rise buildings and little green space. Disease rates tend to be higher in urban areas than in rural areas. More green space in cities could reduce these rates. Here, we describe the importance of green space for health, and make recommendations for further research.Green space has been associated with many beneficial health effects, including reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and improved mental health, possibly through mediators such as reduced air pollution, temperature and stress and increased physical activity, social contacts and restoration...
August 12, 2016: Epidemiology
Pablo Aguilar, Eduardo Acosta, Cristina Dorador, Ruben Sommaruga
The high Andean plateau or Altiplano contains different waterbodies that are subjected to extreme fluctuations in abiotic conditions on a daily and an annual scale. The bacterial diversity and community composition of those shallow waterbodies is largely unexplored, particularly, of the ponds embedded within the peatland landscape (i.e., Bofedales). Here we compare the small-scale spatial variability (<1 m) in bacterial diversity and community composition between two of those ponds with contrasting apparent color, using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ross W F Cameron, Tijana Blanuša
BACKGROUND: Green infrastructure is a strategic network of green spaces designed to deliver ecosystem services to human communities. Green infrastructure is a convenient concept for urban policy makers, but the term is used too generically and with limited understanding of the relative values or benefits of different types of green space and how these complement one another. At a finer scale/more practical level, little consideration is given to the composition of the plant communities, yet this is what ultimately defines the extent of service provision...
September 2016: Annals of Botany
Lori R Spears, Chris Looney, Harold Ikerd, Jonathan B Koch, Terry Griswold, James P Strange, Ricardo A Ramirez
Aerial traps, using combinations of color and attractive lures, are a critical tool for detecting and managing insect pest populations. Yet, despite improvements in trap efficacy, collection of nontarget species ("bycatch") plagues many insect pest surveys. Bycatch can influence survey effectiveness by reducing the available space for target species and increasing trap screening time, especially in areas where thousands of insects are captured as bycatch in a given season. Additionally, bycatch may negatively impact local nontarget insect populations, including beneficial predators and pollinators...
August 2016: Environmental Entomology
Akira Gokoolparsadh, Gavin J Sutton, Alexiy Charamko, Nicole F Oldham Green, Christopher J Pardy, Irina Voineagu
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most heritable neuropsychiatric conditions. The complex genetic landscape of the disorder includes both common and rare variants at hundreds of genetic loci. This marked heterogeneity has thus far hampered efforts to develop genetic diagnostic panels and targeted pharmacological therapies. Here, we give an overview of the current literature on the genetic basis of ASD, and review recent human brain transcriptome studies and their role in identifying convergent pathways downstream of the heterogeneous genetic variants...
July 12, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Fabian Erdel, Eric C Greene
Histone modifications can redistribute along the genome in a sequence-independent manner, giving rise to chromatin position effects and epigenetic memory. The underlying mechanisms shape the endogenous chromatin landscape and determine its response to ectopically targeted histone modifiers. Here, we simulate linear and looping-driven spreading of histone modifications and compare both models to recent experiments on histone methylation in fission yeast. We find that a generalized nucleation-and-looping mechanism describes key observations on engineered and endogenous methylation domains including intrinsic spatial confinement, independent regulation of domain size and memory, variegation in the absence of antagonists, and coexistence of short- and long-term memory at loci with weak and strong constitutive nucleation...
July 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yiyong Chen, Tao Liu, Xiaohuan Xie, Barbara Goličnik Marušić
A well-designed open space that encourages outdoor activity and social communication is a community asset that could potentially contribute to the health of local residents and social harmony of the community. Numerous factors may influence the use of each single space and may result in a variety of visitors. Compared with previous studies that focused on accessibility, this study highlights the relationship between the utilization and characteristics of community open spaces in China. The Overseas Chinese Town community in Shenzhen is regarded as an example...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kathrin Ward, Steffen Lauf, Birgit Kleinschmit, Wilfried Endlicher
The climate change and the proceeding urbanization create future health challenges. Consequently, more people around the globe will be impaired by extreme weather events, such as heat waves. This study investigates the causes for the emergence of surface urban heat islands and its change during heat waves in 70 European cities. A newly created climate class indicator, a set of meaningful landscape metrics, and two population-related parameters were applied to describe the Surface Urban Heat Island Magnitude (SUHIM) - the mean temperature increase within the urban heat island compared to its surrounding, as well as the Heat Magnitude (HM) - the extra heat load added to the average summer SUHIM during heat waves...
November 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Peng-cheng Luo, Hang Li, Shu-guang Wang
Hygrophytes are planted more and more in landscaping and greening in many cities, but they often encounter threat from environmental pollution. Arbuscular mycorrhiza ( AM ) have been confirmed to enhance the tolerance of terrestrial plants to environmental pollution in many previous studies, but it is unclear how they affect hygrophytes. In the present study, a hydroponic culture experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of AM fungi (Glomus etunicatum) inoculation on the tolerance of cattail (Typha latifolia) to different concentrations Cd2+ (0, 2...
February 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Peng-Qian Zhang, Yan-Ju Liu, Xing Chen, Zheng Yang, Ming-Hao Zhu, Yi-Ping Li
Various plant species of green belt in urban traffic area help to reduce air pollution and beautify the city environment. Those plant species growing healthily under long-term atmospheric pollution environment are considered to be resilient. This study aims to identify plant species that are more tolerant to air pollution from traffic and to give recommendations for future green belt development in urban areas. Leaf samples of 47 plant species were collected from two heavy traffic roadside sites and one suburban site in Beijing during summer 2014...
October 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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