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Green landscape

Thomas Claßen, Maxie Bunz
Natural spaces and especially urban green and blue spaces have been recognised for a long time as spaces with great potential for protecting and promoting human health and well-being. They may affect human physical, mental and social health and well-being in various ways. On one hand, this comes to pass through reduction and moderation of potential environmental health risks (e. g. noise, particulate matter, heat), psycho-physiological effects of nature experience, as well as physical effects of exposure to natural compounds and elements...
May 16, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Ronaldo A Pilli, Francisco F DE Assis
In this overview, we present our analysis of the future of organic synthesis in Brazil, a highly innovative and strategic area of research which underpins our social and economical progress. Several different topics (automation, catalysis, green chemistry, scalability, methodological studies and total syntheses) were considered to hold promise for the future advance of chemical sciences in Brazil. In order to put it in perspective, contributions from Brazilian laboratories were selected by the citations received and importance for the field and were benchmarked against some of the most important results disclosed by authors worldwide...
2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Jamie G Suski, Christopher M Swan, Christopher J Salice, Charles F Wahl
As urban areas continue expanding, major cities become connected forming megacities. Urban encroachment into natural areas transforms the landscape into a built environment with heterogeneously distributed patches of novel habitat. Community structure within novel habitats is influenced by anthropogenic factors including fragmentation and species interactions. Alterations in complex biodiversity patterns may be used to assess how urban stressors impact community assemblages which, ultimately, may inform sustainable management decisions...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Soichiro Ogi, Charlotte Grzeszkiewicz, Frank Würthner
Whilst bacteriochlorophyll c , d , and e dyes self-assemble into the most efficient light harvesting J-aggregate systems found in nature, their supramolecular packing arrangements are still a matter of debate and a significant number of models have been suggested for their local and long-range ordering. Here we reveal for a synthetic model system based on a zinc chlorin (ZnChl) dye an intriguing interplay of two competing aggregation pathways by kinetic and thermodynamic studies in MeOH/water solvent mixtures: the formation of kinetically controlled off-pathway nanoparticles consisting of excitonically coupled J-dimers versus the formation of thermodynamically more stable one-dimensional helical fibers consisting of J-coupled extended aggregates...
March 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Rongkun Tao, Mei Shi, Yejun Zou, Di Cheng, Qiaohui Wang, Renmei Liu, Aoxue Wang, Jiahuan Zhu, Lei Deng, HanYang Hu, Xianjun Chen, Jiulin Du, Weiping Zhu, Yuzheng Zhao, Yi Yang
Engineered fluorescent indicators for visualizing mercury ion (Hg2+ ) are powerful tools to illustrate the intracellular distribution and serious toxicity of the ion. However, the sensitive and specific detection of Hg2+ in living cells and in vivo is challenging. This paper reported the development of fluorescent indicators for Hg2+ in green or red color by inserting a circularly permuted fluorescent protein into a highly mercury-specific repressor. These sensors provided a rapid, sensitive, specific, and real-time read-out of Hg2+ dynamics in solutions, bacteria, subcellular organelles of mammalian cells, and zebrafish, thereby providing a useful new method for Hg2+ detection and bioimaging...
April 20, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
T V Raudina, S V Loiko, A Lim, R M Manasypov, L S Shirokova, G I Istigechev, D M Kuzmina, S P Kulizhsky, S N Vorobyev, O S Pokrovsky
Soil pore waters are a vital component of the ecosystem as they are efficient tracers of mineral weathering, plant litter leaching, and nutrient uptake by vegetation. In the permafrost environment, maximal hydraulic connectivity and element transport from soils to rivers and lakes occurs via supra-permafrost flow (i.e. water, gases, suspended matter, and solutes migration over the permafrost table). To assess possible consequences of permafrost thaw and climate warming on carbon and Green House gases (GHG) dynamics we used a "substituting space for time" approach in the largest frozen peatland of the world...
April 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jared A M Bard, Ellen A Goodall, Eric R Greene, Erik Jonsson, Ken C Dong, Andreas Martin
As the endpoint for the ubiquitin-proteasome system, the 26S proteasome is the principal proteolytic machine responsible for regulated protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. The proteasome's cellular functions range from general protein homeostasis and stress response to the control of vital processes such as cell division and signal transduction. To reliably process all the proteins presented to it in the complex cellular environment, the proteasome must combine high promiscuity with exceptional substrate selectivity...
April 13, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Francisco Sanchez-Vega, Marco Mina, Joshua Armenia, Walid K Chatila, Augustin Luna, Konnor C La, Sofia Dimitriadoy, David L Liu, Havish S Kantheti, Sadegh Saghafinia, Debyani Chakravarty, Foysal Daian, Qingsong Gao, Matthew H Bailey, Wen-Wei Liang, Steven M Foltz, Ilya Shmulevich, Li Ding, Zachary Heins, Angelica Ochoa, Benjamin Gross, Jianjiong Gao, Hongxin Zhang, Ritika Kundra, Cyriac Kandoth, Istemi Bahceci, Leonard Dervishi, Ugur Dogrusoz, Wanding Zhou, Hui Shen, Peter W Laird, Gregory P Way, Casey S Greene, Han Liang, Yonghong Xiao, Chen Wang, Antonio Iavarone, Alice H Berger, Trever G Bivona, Alexander J Lazar, Gary D Hammer, Thomas Giordano, Lawrence N Kwong, Grant McArthur, Chenfei Huang, Aaron D Tward, Mitchell J Frederick, Frank McCormick, Matthew Meyerson, Eliezer M Van Allen, Andrew D Cherniack, Giovanni Ciriello, Chris Sander, Nikolaus Schultz
Genetic alterations in signaling pathways that control cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, and cell growth are common hallmarks of cancer, but the extent, mechanisms, and co-occurrence of alterations in these pathways differ between individual tumors and tumor types. Using mutations, copy-number changes, mRNA expression, gene fusions and DNA methylation in 9,125 tumors profiled by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we analyzed the mechanisms and patterns of somatic alterations in ten canonical pathways: cell cycle, Hippo, Myc, Notch, Nrf2, PI-3-Kinase/Akt, RTK-RAS, TGFβ signaling, p53 and β-catenin/Wnt...
April 5, 2018: Cell
Theo A Knijnenburg, Linghua Wang, Michael T Zimmermann, Nyasha Chambwe, Galen F Gao, Andrew D Cherniack, Huihui Fan, Hui Shen, Gregory P Way, Casey S Greene, Yuexin Liu, Rehan Akbani, Bin Feng, Lawrence A Donehower, Chase Miller, Yang Shen, Mostafa Karimi, Haoran Chen, Pora Kim, Peilin Jia, Eve Shinbrot, Shaojun Zhang, Jianfang Liu, Hai Hu, Matthew H Bailey, Christina Yau, Denise Wolf, Zhongming Zhao, John N Weinstein, Lei Li, Li Ding, Gordon B Mills, Peter W Laird, David A Wheeler, Ilya Shmulevich, Raymond J Monnat, Yonghong Xiao, Chen Wang
DNA damage repair (DDR) pathways modulate cancer risk, progression, and therapeutic response. We systematically analyzed somatic alterations to provide a comprehensive view of DDR deficiency across 33 cancer types. Mutations with accompanying loss of heterozygosity were observed in over 1/3 of DDR genes, including TP53 and BRCA1/2. Other prevalent alterations included epigenetic silencing of the direct repair genes EXO5, MGMT, and ALKBH3 in ∼20% of samples. Homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) was present at varying frequency in many cancer types, most notably ovarian cancer...
April 3, 2018: Cell Reports
Juliano André Bogoni, Maurício Eduardo Graipel, Nivaldo Peroni
Past and contemporary human actions are causing numerous changes in patterns and processes at various ecosystem scales and trophic levels, including unintended downstream changes, such as species interactions. In its native range Acca sellowiana (Feijoa) combines some characteristics of human interactions: incipient domestication, restricted to subtropical Atlantic Forest highlands, associated with the threatened conifer Araucaria angustifolia (Araucaria), within a domesticated landscape with anthropogenic forest patches, and provides fruit at a time of resource shortage (Araucaria seeds-pinhão)...
2018: PloS One
Mahsa Bozorgi, Farhad Nejadkoorki, Mohammad Bagher Mousavi
Scenario-based land surface temperature (LST) modeling is a powerful tool for adopting proper urban land use planning policies. In this study, using greater Isfahan as a case study, the artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm was utilized to explore the non-linear relationships between urban LST and green cover spatial patterns derived from Landsat 8 OLI imagery. The model was calibrated using two sets of variables: Normalized Difference Built Index (NDBI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)...
March 26, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
L A Schifman, D L Herrmann, W D Shuster, A Ossola, A Garmestani, M E Hopton
Management of urban hydrologic processes using green infrastructure (GI) has largely focused on stormwater management. Thus, design and implementation of GI usually rely on physical site characteristics and local rainfall patterns, and do not typically account for human or social dimensions. This traditional approach leads to highly centralized stormwater management in a disconnected urban landscape, and can deemphasize additional benefits that GI offers, such as increased property value, greenspace aesthetics, heat island amelioration, carbon sequestration, and habitat for biodiversity...
December 1, 2017: Water Resources Research
Anton Khmelnitskiy, Rafael G Saer, Robert E Blankenship, Ryszard J Jankowiak
We report high-resolution (low-temperature) absorption, emission and nonresonant/resonant hole-burned (HB) spectra and results of excitonic calculations using a non-Markovian reduced density matrix theory (with an improved algorithm for parameter optimization in heterogeneous samples) obtained for the Y16F mutant of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) trimer from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum. We show that the Y16F mutant is a mixture of FMO complexes with three independent low-energy traps (located near 817, 821, and 826 nm), in agreement with measured composite emission and HB spectra...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Alisa L Gallant, Walt Sadinski, Jesslyn F Brown, Gabriel B Senay, Mark F Roth
Assessing climate-related ecological changes across spatiotemporal scales meaningful to resource managers is challenging because no one method reliably produces essential data at both fine and broad scales. We recently confronted such challenges while integrating data from ground- and satellite-based sensors for an assessment of four wetland-rich study areas in the U.S. Midwest. We examined relations between temperature and precipitation and a set of variables measured on the ground at individual wetlands and another set measured via satellite sensors within surrounding 4 km² landscape blocks...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Galen P Dively, P Dilip Venugopal, Dick Bean, Joanne Whalen, Kristian Holmstrom, Thomas P Kuhar, Hélène B Doughty, Terry Patton, William Cissel, William D Hutchison
Transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes reduce pests and insecticide usage, promote biocontrol services, and economically benefit growers. Area-wide Bt adoption suppresses pests regionally, with declines expanding beyond the planted Bt crops into other non-Bt crop fields. However, the offsite benefits to growers of other crops from such regional suppression remain uncertain. With data spanning 1976-2016, we demonstrate that vegetable growers benefit via decreased crop damage and insecticide applications in relation to pest suppression in the Mid-Atlantic United States...
March 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Carly Ziter, Monica G Turner
Urban landscapes are increasingly recognized as providing important ecosystem services (ES) to their occupants. Yet, urban ES assessments often ignore the complex spatial heterogeneity and land-use history of cities. Soil-based services may be particularly susceptible to land-use legacy effects. We studied indicators of three soil-based ES, carbon storage, water quality regulation, and runoff regulation, in a historically agricultural urban landscape and asked (1) How do ES indicators vary with contemporary land cover and time since development? (2) Do ES indicators vary primarily among land-cover classes, within land-cover classes, or within sites? (3) What is the relative contribution of urban land-cover classes to potential citywide ES provision? We measured biophysical indicators (soil carbon [C], available phosphorus [P], and saturated hydraulic conductivity [Ks ]) in 100 sites across five land-cover classes, spanning an ~125-year gradient of time since development within each land-cover class...
April 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Hoang Chinh Nguyen, Kuan-Hung Lin, Tung-Chuan Hsiung, Meng-Yuan Huang, Chi-Ming Yang, Jen-Hsien Weng, Ming-Huang Hsu, Po-Yen Chen, Kai-Chieh Chang
Plants of the genus Calathea possess many leaf colors, and they are economically important because they are widely used as ornamentals for interior landscaping. Physiological performances and photosynthetic capacities of C. insignis and C. makoyana were investigated. The photosynthetic efficiencies of C. insignis and C. makoyana were significantly increased when the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) increased from 0 to 600 μmol photons·m-2 ·s-1 and became saturated with a further increase in the PPFD...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Howard Casey Cromwell
Presents an obituary for Jaak Panksepp, who died April 18, 2017. Panksepp reshaped the landscape of psychology by highlighting emotions and coincident feelings in basic and clinical research. Most of his career was spent convincing others that the key to understanding human mental illness was the understanding of primal emotional operating systems in conserved neural circuitry. His framework was carefully laid out in his book Affective Neuroscience: The Foundation of Human and Animal Emotions (1998). His controversial writings vigorously pushed for the acceptance of nonhuman animal feelings as primary states that link to motivated action and emotional expression...
February 2018: American Psychologist
Simona Volpi, Carol J Bult, Rex L Chisholm, Patricia A Deverka, Geoffrey S Ginsburg, Howard J Jacob, Melpomeni Kasapi, Howard L McLeod, Dan M Roden, Marc S Williams, Eric D Green, Laura Lyman Rodriguez, Samuel Aronson, Larisa H Cavallari, Joshua C Denny, Lynn G Dressler, Julie A Johnson, Teri E Klein, J Steven Leeder, Micheline Piquette-Miller, Minoli Perera, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Heidi L Rehm, Marylyn D Ritchie, Todd C Skaar, Nikhil Wagle, Richard Weinshilboum, Kristin W Weitzel, Robert Wildin, John Wilson, Teri A Manolio, Mary V Relling
Response to a drug often differs widely among individual patients. This variability is frequently observed not only with respect to effective responses but also with adverse drug reactions. Matching patients to the drugs that are most likely to be effective and least likely to cause harm is the goal of effective therapeutics. Pharmacogenomics (PGx) holds the promise of precision medicine through elucidating the genetic determinants responsible for pharmacological outcomes and using them to guide drug selection and dosing...
May 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Wei-Lun Tsai, Melissa R McHale, Viniece Jennings, Oriol Marquet, J Aaron Hipp, Yu-Fai Leung, Myron F Floyd
Urbanization increases risk for depression and other mental disorders. A growing body of research indicates the natural environment confers numerous psychological benefits including alleviation of mental distress. This study examined land cover types and landscape metrics in relation to mental health for 276 U.S. counties within metropolitan areas having a population of 1 million or more. County Health Rankings and Behavioral Risk and Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) provided a measure of mental health. The 2011 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) provided data on green land cover types, from which seven landscape metrics were generated to characterize landscape patterns...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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