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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106419/probing-the-nodal-structure-of-landau-level-wave-functions-in-real-space
#1
J R Bindel, J Ulrich, M Liebmann, M Morgenstern
The inversion layer of p-InSb(110) obtained by Cs adsorption of 1.8% of a monolayer is used to probe the Landau level wave functions within smooth potential valleys by scanning tunneling spectroscopy at 14 T. The nodal structure becomes apparent as a double peak structure of each spin polarized first Landau level, while the zeroth Landau level exhibits a single peak per spin level only. The real space data show single rings of the valley-confined drift states for the zeroth Landau level and double rings for the first Landau level...
January 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091603/repo-man-pp1-regulates-heterochromatin-formation-in-interphase
#2
Inês J de Castro, James Budzak, Maria L Di Giacinto, Lorena Ligammari, Ezgi Gokhan, Christos Spanos, Daniela Moralli, Christine Richardson, Jose I de Las Heras, Silvia Salatino, Eric C Schirmer, Katharine S Ullman, Wendy A Bickmore, Catherine Green, Juri Rappsilber, Sarah Lamble, Martin W Goldberg, Veronica Vinciotti, Paola Vagnarelli
Repo-Man is a protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) targeting subunit that regulates mitotic progression and chromatin remodelling. After mitosis, Repo-Man/PP1 remains associated with chromatin but its function in interphase is not known. Here we show that Repo-Man, via Nup153, is enriched on condensed chromatin at the nuclear periphery and at the edge of the nucleopore basket. Repo-Man/PP1 regulates the formation of heterochromatin, dephosphorylates H3S28 and it is necessary and sufficient for heterochromatin protein 1 binding and H3K27me3 recruitment...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074648/mispacking-and-the-fitness-landscape-of-the-green-fluorescent-protein-chromophore-milieu
#3
Shounak Banerjee, Christian D Schenkelberg, Thomas B Jordan, Julia M Reimertz, Emily E Crone, Donna E Crone, Christopher Bystroff
The auto-catalytic maturation of the chromophore in green fluorescent protein (GFP) was thought to require the precise positioning of the side chains surrounding it in the core of the protein, many of which are strongly conserved among homologous fluorescent proteins. In this study, we screened for green fluorescence in an exhaustive set of point mutations of seven residues that make up the chromophore microenvironment, excluding R96 and E222 because mutations of these positions have been previously characterized...
January 11, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073389/the-distribution-of-echinostome-parasites-in-ponds-and-implications-for-larval-anuran-survival
#4
John A Marino, Manja P Holland, Earl E Werner
Parasites can influence host population dynamics, community composition and evolution. Prediction of these effects, however, requires an understanding of the influence of ecological context on parasite distributions and the consequences of infection for host fitness. We address these issues with an amphibian - trematode (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) host-parasite system. We initially performed a field survey of trematode infection in first (snail) and second (larval green frog, Rana clamitans) intermediate hosts over 5 years across a landscape of 23 ponds in southeastern Michigan...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039785/visible-light-neutralizes-the-effect-produced-by-ultraviolet-radiation-in%C3%A2-proteins
#5
J Horacio Espinoza, Hilda Mercado-Uribe
The damage produced by UV-C radiation (100-280nm) in organisms and cells is a well known fact. The main reactions of proteins to UV-C radiation consist in the alteration of their secondary structures, exposure of hydrophobic residues, unfolding and aggregation. Furthermore, it has been found that electromagnetic radiation of lower energy (visible light, where wavelengths are between 400 and 750nm) also induces different disturbances in biomolecules. For instance, it has been observed that blue visible light from emitting diodes (LEDs) produces severe damage in murine cone photoreceptor-derived cells, and it can be even more harmful for some organisms than UV radiation...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038875/scaling-green-rubber-cultivation-in-southwest-china-an-integrative-analysis-of-stakeholder-perspectives
#6
Seerp Wigboldus, Jim Hammond, Jianchu Xu, Zhuang-Fang Yi, Jun He, Laurens Klerkx, Cees Leeuwis
The rubber boom across much of Southeast Asia has led to environmental destruction, and the resultant crash in the price of rubber has destabilised livelihoods. We investigated the necessary factors required to enable a transition towards a more sustainable model for rubber cultivation in Southwest China (i.e. the 'greening' of rubber cultivation), using a framework for the integrative study of multiple aspects in complex land use issues. We present findings from stakeholder interviews and a stakeholder workshop, and discuss their relevance within and beyond Southwest China...
December 27, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960340/spectroscopic-investigations-of-catalase-compound-ii-characterization-of-an-iron-iv-hydroxide-intermediate-in-a-non-thiolate-ligated-heme-enzyme
#7
Timothy H Yosca, Matthew C Langston, Courtney M Krest, Elizabeth L Onderko, Tyler L Grove, Jovan Livada, Michael T Green
We report on the protonation state of Helicobacter pylori catalase compound II. UV/visible, Mössbauer, and X-ray absorption spectroscopies have been used to examine the intermediate from pH 5 to 14. We have determined that HPC-II exists in an iron(IV) hydroxide state up to pH 11. Above this pH, the iron(IV) hydroxide complex transitions to a new species (pKa = 13.1) with Mössbauer parameters that are indicative of an iron(IV)-oxo intermediate. Recently, we discussed a role for an elevated compound II pKa in diminishing the compound I reduction potential...
December 14, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941984/tropical-forest-fragmentation-limits-movements-but-not-occurrence-of-a-generalist-pollinator-species
#8
Noelia L Volpe, W Douglas Robinson, Sarah J K Frey, Adam S Hadley, Matthew G Betts
Habitat loss and fragmentation influence species distributions and therefore ecological processes that depend upon them. Pollination may be particularly susceptible to fragmentation, as it depends on frequent pollinator movement. Unfortunately, most pollinators are too small to track efficiently which has precluded testing the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation reduces or eliminates pollen flow by disrupting pollinator movement. We used radio-telemetry to examine space use of the green hermit hummingbird (Phaethornis guy), an important 'hub' pollinator of understory flowering plants across substantial portions of the neotropics and the primary pollinator of a keystone plant which shows reduced pollination success in fragmented landscapes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907260/ten-year-responses-of-ground-dwelling-spiders-to-retention-harvest-in-the-boreal-forest
#9
Jaime Pinzon, John R Spence, David W Langor, David P Shorthouse
The Ecosystem Management Emulating Natural Disturbances (EMEND) project tests the hypothesis that varying levels of green tree retention maintain and retain forest biodiversity better than conventional clear-cutting. We studied epigaeic spiders to assess biodiversity changes 2, 5, and 10 yr following a range of partial retention harvests (clear-cut, 10-75% retention) and unharvested controls in four boreal mixedwood cover types. A total of 56 371 adult spiders representing 220 species was collected using pitfall traps...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907252/residential-yards-as-designer-ecosystems-effects-of-yard%C3%A2-management-on-land-snail-species-composition
#10
Elizabeth A Bergey, Laura L Figueroa
Residential yards comprise the majority of green space in urban landscapes, yet are an understudied system because of access issues and because yards may be considered biologically depauperate. Yards are purposely created and managed and, hence, qualify as designer ecosystems, a term borrowed from restoration ecology. We investigated whether yard management (watering regime, mulching, and chemical use) or dog presence affected land snail assemblage composition and described the pattern of native vs. nonnative species among yards...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878085/stable-isotope-based-trophic-structure-of-pelagic-fish-and-jellyfish-across-natural-and-anthropogenic-landscape-gradients-in-a-fjord-estuary
#11
Sean M Naman, Correigh M Greene, Casimir A Rice, Joshua Chamberlin, Letitia Conway-Cranos, Jeffery R Cordell, Jason E Hall, Linda D Rhodes
Identifying causes of structural ecosystem shifts often requires understanding trophic structure, an important determinant of energy flow in ecological communities. In coastal pelagic ecosystems worldwide, increasing jellyfish (Cnidaria and Ctenophora) at the expense of small fish has been linked to anthropogenic alteration of basal trophic pathways. However, this hypothesis remains untested in part because baseline description of fish-jellyfish trophic dynamics, and the environmental features that influence them are lacking...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832866/effects-of-landscape-composition-and-pattern-on-land-surface-temperature-an-urban-heat-island-study-in-the-megacities-of-southeast-asia
#12
Ronald C Estoque, Yuji Murayama, Soe W Myint
Due to its adverse impacts on urban ecological environment and the overall livability of cities, the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon has become a major research focus in various interrelated fields, including urban climatology, urban ecology, urban planning, and urban geography. This study sought to examine the relationship between land surface temperature (LST) and the abundance and spatial pattern of impervious surface and green space in the metropolitan areas of Bangkok (Thailand), Jakarta (Indonesia), and Manila (Philippines)...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762543/a-one-donor-two-acceptor-lipid-bilayer-fret-assay-based-on-asymmetrically-labeled-liposomes
#13
Chao-Chen Lin, Hsin-Fang Hsu, Peter Jomo Walla
The fusion of two opposing membranes is essential in biological functions such as fertilization, viral entry, membrane trafficking and synaptic transmission. Before the membrane bilayers are fully connected, at some stage a hemifusion intermediate-when the outer leaflets are merged but not the inner leaflets-is formed. However, the position of hemifusion in the energy landscape and the duration of it vary and have not been fully mapped out. To date, there has not been a way to differentiate lipid mixing of the two leaflets directly in a single experiment...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692891/sustainable-infrastructure-a-review-and-a-research-agenda
#14
Antônio Márcio Tavares Thomé, Paula Santos Ceryno, Annibal Scavarda, Arne Remmen
This paper proposes a taxonomy of themes and a research agenda on sustainable infrastructure, with a focus on sustainable buildings (SB) and green infrastructure (GI). The citation databases of Web of Science formed the basis for a novel strategic thematic analysis of co-citation and co-occurrence of keywords with a longitudinal identification of themes during the last two decades (from 1995 to 2015) of an emerging and ever growing research area. SI is a multidisciplinary endeavour, including a diversified array of disciplines as general engineering, environmental ecology, construction, architecture, urban planning, and geography...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685125/evaluation-of-the-uncertainty-in-an-ebt3-film-dosimetry-system-utilizing-net-optical-density
#15
Elsa Y León Marroquin, José A Herrera González, Miguel A Camacho López, José E Villarreal Barajas, Olivia A García-Garduño
Radiochromic film has become an important tool to verify dose distributions for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and quality assurance (QA) procedures. A new radiochromic film model, EBT3, has recently become available, whose composition and thickness of the sensitive layer are the same as those of previous EBT2 films. However, a matte polyester layer was added to EBT3 to prevent the formation of Newton's rings. Furthermore, the symmetrical design of EBT3 allows the user to eliminate side-orientation dependence...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680004/wastewater-reuse-modeling-chloroform-formation
#16
Anabela Rebelo, Isabel Ferra, Albertina Marques, Manuela Moreira Silva
The chloroform is a substance that presents a significant risk to or via the aquatic environment. Thus, the emissions, discharges and losses of this substance need to be controlled during wastewater disinfection for reclamation and reuse purposes. Due to its carcinogenetic potential, multiple studies have been carried out on drinking and surface/natural waters but less consideration has been directed to the wastewater disinfection. The focus of this work studied the formation of chloroform during chlorination in prepared waters or artificial matrices that intended to simulate wastewaters stored in landscape ponds for green areas irrigation...
September 28, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664445/broken-biosecurity-veterinarians-framing-of-biosecurity-on-dairy-farms-in-england
#17
Orla Shortall, Annmarie Ruston, Martin Green, Marnie Brennan, Wendela Wapenaar, Jasmeet Kaler
There is seen to be a need for better biosecurity - the control of disease spread on and off farm - in the dairy sector. Veterinarians play a key role in communicating and implementing biosecurity measures on farm, and little research has been carried out on how veterinarians see their own and farmers' roles in improving biosecurity. In order to help address this gap, qualitative interviews were carried out with 28 veterinarians from Royal College of Veterinary Surgeon farm accredited practices in England. The results were analysed using a social ecology framework and frame analysis to explore not only what barriers vets identified, but also how vets saw the problem of inadequate biosecurity as being located...
September 15, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614637/assessment-of-trace-metal-air-pollution-in-paris-using-slurry-txrf-analysis-on-cemetery-mosses
#18
Marco Natali, Augusto Zanella, Aleksandar Rankovic, Damien Banas, Chiara Cantaluppi, Luc Abbadie, Jean -Christophe Lata
Mosses are useful, ubiquitous accumulation biomonitors and as such can be used for biomonitoring surveys. However, the biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution can be compromised in urban contexts if the targeted biomonitors are regularly disturbed, irregularly distributed, or are difficult to access. Here, we test the hypothesis that cemeteries are appropriate moss sampling sites for the evaluation of air pollution in urban areas. We sampled mosses growing on gravestones in 21 urban and peri-urban cemeteries in the Paris metropolitan area...
December 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605927/visual-comparative-omics-of-fungi-for-plant-biomass-deconstruction
#19
Shingo Miyauchi, David Navarro, Igor V Grigoriev, Anna Lipzen, Robert Riley, Didier Chevret, Sacha Grisel, Jean-Guy Berrin, Bernard Henrissat, Marie-Noëlle Rosso
Wood-decay fungi contain the cellular mechanisms to decompose such plant cell wall components as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. A multi-omics approach to the comparative analysis of wood-decay fungi gives not only new insights into their strategies for decomposing recalcitrant plant biomass, but also an understanding of how to exploit these mechanisms for biotechnological applications. We have developed an analytical workflow, Applied Biomass Conversion Design for Efficient Fungal Green Technology (ABCDEFGT), to simplify the analysis and interpretation of transcriptomic and secretomic data...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603153/record-low-thermal-conductivity-of-polycrystalline-si-nanowire-breaking-the-casimir-limit-by-severe-suppression-of-propagons
#20
Yanguang Zhou, Ming Hu
Thermoelectrics offer an attractive pathway for addressing an important niche in the globally growing landscape of energy demand. Nanoengineering existing low-dimensional thermoelectric materials pertaining to realizing fundamentally low thermal conductivity has emerged as an efficient route to achieve high energy conversion performance for advanced thermoelectrics. In this paper, by performing nonequilibrium and Green-Kubo equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations we report that the thermal conductivity of Si nanowires (NWs) in polycrystalline form can reach a record low value substantially below the Casimir limit, a theory of diffusive boundary limit that regards the direction-averaged mean free path is limited by the characteristic size of the nanostructures...
October 12, 2016: Nano Letters
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