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Urban forestry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610234/diversification-and-use-of-bioenergy-to-maintain-future-grasslands
#1
Iain S Donnison, Mariecia D Fraser
Grassland agriculture is experiencing a number of threats including declining profitability and loss of area to other land uses including expansion of the built environment as well as from cropland and forestry. The use of grassland as a natural resource either in terms of existing vegetation and land cover or planting of new species for bioenergy and other nonfood applications presents an opportunity, and potential solution, to maintain the broader ecosystem services that perennial grasslands provide as well as to improve the options for grassland farmers and their communities...
May 2016: Food and energy security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566934/opportunities-to-enhance-contribution-of-model-forests-in-the-sustainable-forest-resources-management-example-from-yalova-model-forest
#2
Sultan Bekiroğlu, Mehmet Özdemir, Ercan Özyürek, Avni Arslan
Model forests are nongovernmental organizations at local, regional and international level which are mainly focused on reconciling the conflicts between the stakeholders. This is an innovative approach to organization, which has been receiving more and more attraction from increasing number of countries, which gradually increased the number of model forests for the last 25 years. If these organizations reach desired levels of structure, medium, impacts and assets their contribution in sustainable forest resources management will increase ipso facto...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494615/sequencing-and-characterization-of-the-invasive-sycamore-lace-bug-corythucha-ciliata-hemiptera-tingidae-transcriptome
#3
Fengqi Li, Ran Wang, Cheng Qu, Ningning Fu, Chen Luo, Yihua Xu
The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae), is an invasive forestry pest rapidly expanding in many countries. This pest poses a considerable threat to the urban forestry ecosystem, especially to Platanus spp. However, its molecular biology and biochemistry are poorly understood. This study reports the first C. ciliata transcriptome, encompassing three different life stages (Nymphs, adults female (AF) and adults male (AM)). In total, 26.53 GB of clean data and 60,879 unigenes were obtained from three RNA-seq libraries...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27247886/a-measure-for-the-promotion-of-mountain-ecological-villages-in-south-korea-focus-on-the-national-mountain-ecological-village-investigation-of-2014
#4
Soo Im Choi, Hag Mo Kang, Hyun Kim, Chang Heon Lee, Chong Kyu Lee
BACKGROUND: Although South Korean mountain villages occupy 44 and 55 % of land and forest areas, respectively, these villages account for only 3 % of the national population and they suffer from a declining workforce owing to aging, wage inflation, and low forestry productivity. As a result, the South Korean government implemented a mountain ecological village development project from 1995 to 2013 in 312 of the 4972 mountain villages and investigated project performance in 2014. The present study establishes a measure for the promotion of mountain ecological villages by comparing the situation before and after the project...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27203466/characterization-of-anthropogenic-impacts-in-a-large-urban-center-by-examining-the-spatial-distribution-of-halogenated-flame-retardants
#5
Yan-Li Wei, Lian-Jun Bao, Chen-Chou Wu, Eddy Y Zeng
Anthropogenic impacts have continuously intensified in mega urban centers with increasing urbanization and growing population. The spatial distribution pattern of such impacts can be assessed with soil halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) as HFRs are mostly derived from the production and use of various consumer products. In the present study, soil samples were collected from the Pearl River Delta (PRD), a large urbanized region in southern China, and its surrounding areas and analyzed for a group of HFRs, i...
August 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097087/public-green-areas-and-urban-environmental-quality-of-the-city-of-s%C3%A3-o-carlos-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#6
M A Bertini, R R Rufino, A T Fushita, M I S Lima
Assess the state of public green areas, their importance and influence on environmental quality and living in urban centers is an arduous task considering the conceptual and scientific regarding quantification and data analysis methods divergence. In this study, we aimed to determine two indicators of public green areas relative to the percentage of public green areas (PPGA) and the public green areas index (PGAI) in the urban area of São Carlos, SP. The study area was organized into administrative regions (ARs), using satellite images, topographical maps of 1:10,000 Geographic and Cartographic Institute (1990) and data provided by the Municipality of São Carlos...
April 19, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27085962/organic-micropollutants-omps-in-natural-waters-oxidation-by-uv-h2o2-treatment-and-toxicity-assessment
#7
Oscar Rozas, Cristiane Vidal, Carolina Baeza, Wilson F Jardim, Alfred Rossner, Héctor D Mansilla
Organic micropollutants (OMPs) are ubiquitous in natural waters even in places where the human activity is limited. The presence of OMPs in natural water sources for human consumption encourages the evaluation of different water purification technologies to ensure water quality. In this study, the Biobío river (Chile) was selected since the watershed includes urban settlements and economic activities (i.e. agriculture, forestry) that incorporate a variety of OMPs into the aquatic environment, such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products...
July 1, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27084996/spatial-and-temporal-variability-of-contaminants-within-estuarine-sediments-and-native-olympia-oysters-a-contrast-between-a-developed-and-an-undeveloped-estuary
#8
Elise F Granek, Kathleen E Conn, Elena B Nilsen, Lori Pillsbury, Angela L Strecker, Steve S Rumrill, William Fish
Chemical contaminants can be introduced into estuarine and marine ecosystems from a variety of sources including wastewater, agriculture and forestry practices, point and non-point discharges, runoff from industrial, municipal, and urban lands, accidental spills, and atmospheric deposition. The diversity of potential sources contributes to the likelihood of contaminated marine waters and sediments and increases the probability of uptake by marine organisms. Despite widespread recognition of direct and indirect pathways for contaminant deposition and organismal exposure in coastal systems, spatial and temporal variability in contaminant composition, deposition, and uptake patterns are still poorly known...
July 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26966659/identifying-key-conservation-threats-to-alpine-birds-through-expert-knowledge
#9
Dan E Chamberlain, Paolo Pedrini, Mattia Brambilla, Antonio Rolando, Marco Girardello
Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26902482/knowledge-co-production-at-the-research-practice-interface-embedded-case-studies-from-urban-forestry
#10
Lindsay K Campbell, Erika S Svendsen, Lara A Roman
Cities are increasingly engaging in sustainability efforts and investment in green infrastructure, including large-scale urban tree planting campaigns. In this context, researchers and practitioners are working jointly to develop applicable knowledge for planning and managing the urban forest. This paper presents three case studies of knowledge co-production in the field of urban forestry in the United States. These cases were selected to span a range of geographic scales and topical scopes; all three are examples of urban researcher-practitioner networks in which the authors are situated to comment on reflexively...
June 2016: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26853539/development-of-oligonucleotide-microarrays-for-simultaneous-multi-species-identification-of-phellinus-tree-pathogenic-fungi
#11
Yuh Tzean, Po-Yao Shu, Ruey-Fen Liou, Shean-Shong Tzean
Polyporoid Phellinus fungi are ubiquitously present in the environment and play an important role in shaping forest ecology. Several species of Phellinus are notorious pathogens that can affect a broad variety of tree species in forest, plantation, orchard and urban habitats; however, current detection methods are overly complex and lack the sensitivity required to identify these pathogens at the species level in a timely fashion for effective infestation control. Here, we describe eight oligonucleotide microarray platforms for the simultaneous and specific detection of 17 important Phellinus species, using probes generated from the internal transcribed spacer regions unique to each species...
March 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26828174/surface-water-storage-capacity-of-twenty-tree-species-in-davis-california
#12
Qingfu Xiao, E Gregory McPherson
Urban forestry is an important green infrastructure strategy because healthy trees can intercept rainfall, reducing stormwater runoff and pollutant loading. Surface saturation storage capacity, defined as the thin film of water that must wet tree surfaces before flow begins, is the most important variable influencing rainfall interception processes. Surface storage capacity is known to vary widely among tree species, but it is little studied. This research measured surface storage capacities of 20 urban tree species in a rainfall simulator...
January 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26628241/physical-characterization-of-a-watershed-through-gis-a-study-in-the-schmidt-stream-brazil
#13
D R Reis, R Plangg, J G Tundisi, D M Quevedo
Remote sensing and geoprocessing are essential tools for obtaining and maintaining records of human actions on space over the course of time; these tools offer the basis for diagnoses of land use, environmental interference and local development. The Schmidt stream watershed, located in the Sinos River basin, in southern Brazil, has an environmental situation similar to that of the majority of small streams draining rural and urban areas in southern Brazil: agricultural and urbanization practices do not recognize the riparian area and there is removal of original vegetation, disregarding the suitability of land use; removal of wetlands; intensive water use for various activities; and lack of control and monitoring in the discharge of wastewater, among other factors, deteriorate the quality of this important environment...
December 2015: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26562303/decadal-trend-in-agricultural-abandonment-and-woodland-expansion-in-an-agro-pastoral-transition-band-in-northern-china
#14
Chao Wang, Qiong Gao, Xian Wang, Mei Yu
Land use land cover (LULC) changes frequently in ecotones due to the large climate and soil gradients, and complex landscape composition and configuration. Accurate mapping of LULC changes in ecotones is of great importance for assessment of ecosystem functions/services and policy-decision support. Decadal or sub-decadal mapping of LULC provides scenarios for modeling biogeochemical processes and their feedbacks to climate, and evaluating effectiveness of land-use policies, e.g. forest conversion. However, it remains a great challenge to produce reliable LULC maps in moderate resolution and to evaluate their uncertainties over large areas with complex landscapes...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26554376/a-qualitative-study-of-environmental-factors-important-for-physical-activity-in-rural-adults
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Verity Cleland, Clarissa Hughes, Lukar Thornton, Alison Venn, Kathryn Squibb, Kylie Ball
PURPOSE: Despite increasing evidence that the physical environment impacts on physical activity among urban-dwellers, little attention has been devoted to understanding this relationship in rural populations. Work in this area is further hindered by a lack of environmental measures specifically designed for rural settings. This qualitative study aimed to explore the salience of urban physical activity environment constructs among rural adults. METHODS: In 2011, 49 rural men and women from three distinct areas (coastal, animal-based farming, forestry/plant-based farming) of rural Tasmania, Australia, were purposively recruited to participate in semi-structured interviews...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26457737/roadside-vegetation-barrier-designs-to-mitigate-near-road-air-pollution-impacts
#16
Zheming Tong, Richard W Baldauf, Vlad Isakov, Parikshit Deshmukh, K Max Zhang
With increasing evidence that exposures to air pollution near large roadways increases risks of a number of adverse human health effects, identifying methods to reduce these exposures has become a public health priority. Roadside vegetation barriers have shown the potential to reduce near-road air pollution concentrations; however, the characteristics of these barriers needed to ensure pollution reductions are not well understood. Designing vegetation barriers to mitigate near-road air pollution requires a mechanistic understanding of how barrier configurations affect the transport of traffic-related air pollutants...
January 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26013137/subterranean-termites-in-urban-forestry-tree-preference-and-management
#17
F J Zorzenon, A E C Campos
Urban tree deterioration is a common problem all over the world. Inappropriate plant species choice and inadequate planting may lead to micro and macro organism attacks, such as pests and diseases. Subterranean termite damage is common and may promote tree falls. In order to help urban forestry planning, this work was carried out for 9 years on 1477 street trees in a neighborhood in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Plants were identified to species, grouped as native, exotic plants, and palm trees, and their measures of circumference at breast height (CBH) were taken, in order to evaluate if subterranean termite damages are related to tree size and plant group...
April 2015: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25993505/atlas-of-mexican-triatominae-reduviidae-hemiptera-and-vector-transmission-of-chagas-disease
#18
Janine M Ramsey, A Townsend Peterson, Oscar Carmona-Castro, David A Moo-Llanes, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Morgan Butrick, Ezequiel Tun-Ku, Keynes de la Cruz-Félix, Carlos N Ibarra-Cerdeña
Chagas disease is one of the most important yet neglected parasitic diseases in Mexico and is transmitted by Triatominae. Nineteen of the 31 Mexican triatomine species have been consistently found to invade human houses and all have been found to be naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The present paper aims to produce a state-of-knowledge atlas of Mexican triatomines and analyse their geographic associations with T. cruzi, human demographics and landscape modification. Ecological niche models (ENMs) were constructed for the 19 species with more than 10 records in North America, as well as for T...
May 2015: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25796906/-land-use-change-dynamics-and-driving-forces-of-the-vulnerable-ecological-region-in-northwestern-shanxi-province-china
#19
Xiu-Fen Li, Li-Min Liu, Xin Qi, Jin-Xin Zhang, Tong-Bin Zhao, Yi Wang, Xue-Fen Liu, Yong-Bin Zhou
By using remote sensing and GIS technology, this paper collected land use information of 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 and the relevant statistical data, and analyzed the characteristics of land use change and its driving forces in northwestern Shanxi Province, the typical ecological fragile area. The results showed that there were significant changes in land use patterns in the past 30 years. During 1980-1990, 1990-2000 and 2000-2010 periods, the area of farmland decreased continuously, while the areas of grassland and woodland experienced increase-decrease-increase and decrease-increase-decrease patterns of change, respectively...
October 2014: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25655130/mortality-rates-associated-with-crown-health-for-eastern-forest-tree-species
#20
Randall S Morin, KaDonna C Randolph, Jim Steinman
The condition of tree crowns is an important indicator of tree and forest health. Crown conditions have been evaluated during inventories of the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program since 1999. In this study, remeasured data from 55,013 trees on 2616 FIA plots in the eastern USA were used to assess the probability of survival among various tree species using the suite of FIA crown condition variables. Logistic regression procedures were employed to develop models for predicting tree survival...
March 2015: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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