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Urban forestry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890848/urbanization-alters-communities-of-flying-arthropods-in-parks-and-gardens-of-a-medium-sized-city
#1
Edward Lagucki, Justin D Burdine, Kevin E McCluney
Urbanization transforms undeveloped landscapes into built environments, causing changes in communities and ecological processes. Flying arthropods play important roles in these processes as pollinators, decomposers, and predators, and can be important in structuring food webs. The goal of this study was to identify associations between urbanization and the composition of communities of flying (and floating) arthropods within gardens and parks in a medium-sized mesic city. We predicted that flying arthropod abundance and diversity would respond strongly to percent impervious surface and distance to city center, measurements of urbanization...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857057/health-sector-responses-to-address-the-impacts-of-climate-change-in-nepal
#2
Meghnath Dhimal, Mandira Lamichhane Dhimal, Raja Ram Pote-Shrestha, David A Groneberg, Ulrich Kuch
Nepal is highly vulnerable to global climate change, despite its negligible emission of global greenhouse gases. The vulnerable climate-sensitive sectors identified in Nepal's National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change 2010 include agriculture, forestry, water, energy, public health, urbanization and infrastructure, and climate-induced disasters. In addition, analyses carried out as part of the NAPA process have indicated that the impacts of climate change in Nepal are not gender neutral...
September 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813103/nutrition-facts-and-limits-for-micronutrients-in-tree-species-used-in-urban-forestry
#3
Flávia G K Brun, Eleandro J Brun, Dionatan Gerber, Denise A Szymczak, Eduardo K Londero, Evandro A Meyer, Márcio C Navroski
There is a huge lack of researches that evaluate the nutritional limits in tree species used in urban forestry, especially in terms of micronutrients. This study aimed to establish limits and range of micronutrients levels for the proper development of tree species utilized in urban forestry. The study was conducted in the city of Santa Maria-RS-Brazil. Through forest inventory, 23 forest species present in urban forest were selected, and 05 vegetative branches of each tree were collected, in which the contents of B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were analyzed...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688269/nature-based-solution-for-improving-mental-health-and-well-being-in-urban-areas
#4
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Maja Vujcic, Jelena Tomicevic-Dubljevic, Mihailo Grbic, Dusica Lecic-Tosevski, Olivera Vukovic, Oliver Toskovic
The general disproportion of urban development and the socio-economical crisis in Serbia, followed by a number of acute and chronic stressors, as well as years of accumulated trauma, prevented the parallel physical, mental and social adaptation of society as a whole. These trends certainly affected the quality of mental health and well-being, particularly on the vulnerable urban population, increasing the absolute number of people with depression, stress and psychosomatic disorders. This study was pioneering in Serbia and was conducted in collaboration with the Faculty of Forestry, the Institute of Mental Health and the Botanical Garden in Belgrade, in order to understand how spending time and performing horticulture therapy in specially designed urban green environments can improve mental health...
October 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554660/nanotechnology-in-agriculture-opportunities-toxicological-implications-and-occupational-risks
#5
REVIEW
Ivo Iavicoli, Veruscka Leso, Donald H Beezhold, Anna A Shvedova
Nanotechnology has the potential to make a beneficial impact on several agricultural, forestry, and environmental challenges, such as urbanization, energy constraints, and sustainable use of resources. However, new environmental and human health hazards may emerge from nano-enhanced applications. This raises concerns for agricultural workers who may become primarily exposed to such xenobiotics during their job tasks. The aim of this review is to discuss promising solutions that nanotechnology may provide in agricultural activities, with a specific focus on critical aspects, challenging issues, and research needs for occupational risk assessment and management in this emerging field...
August 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319699/urdaibai-biosphere-reserve-biscay-spain-conservation-against-development
#6
Nekane Castillo-Eguskitza, Alejandro J Rescia, Miren Onaindia
The protected area approach has extended from conserving biodiversity to improving human well-being. However, the relationship between conservation and socioeconomic and cultural development continues to be controversial. This paper combines land use variables with socioeconomic and cultural variables through multivariate ordination analysis and evaluates their evolution in two areas inside and outside a Biosphere Reserve since the approval of the Governance Plan for Use and Management in the Reserve. The results indicate a similar tendency in the two areas, from the abandonment of traditional rural activities and decline in pine plantations to naturalness, urban sprawl and the growth of the tertiary economic sector, welfare indicators and sustainability index...
March 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168036/edge-responses-are-different-in-edges-under-natural-versus-anthropogenic-influence-a-meta-analysis-using-ground-beetles
#7
Tibor Magura, Gábor L Lövei, Béla Tóthmérész
Most edges are anthropogenic in origin, but are distinguishable by their maintaining processes (natural vs. continued anthropogenic interventions: forestry, agriculture, urbanization). We hypothesized that the dissimilar edge histories will be reflected in the diversity and assemblage composition of inhabitants. Testing this "history-based edge effect" hypothesis, we evaluated published information on a common insect group, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in forest edges. A meta-analysis showed that the diversity-enhancing properties of edges significantly differed according to their history...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143645/microplastics-en-route-field-measurements-in-the-dutch-river-delta-and-amsterdam-canals-wastewater-treatment-plants-north-sea-sediments-and-biota
#8
H A Leslie, S H Brandsma, M J M van Velzen, A D Vethaak
Environmental contamination by plastic particles, also known as 'microplastics', brings synthetic materials that are non-degradable and biologically incompatible into contact with ecosystems. In this paper we present concentration data for this emerging contaminant in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and freshwater and marine systems, reflecting the routes via which these particles can travel and the ecosystems they potentially impact along their path. Raw sewage influents, effluents and sewage sludge from seven municipal WWTPs in the Netherlands contained mean particle concentrations of 68-910L(-1), 51-81L(-1) and 510-760kg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively (particle sizes between 10 and 5000μm)...
April 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013250/ecological-disequilibrium-drives-insect-pest-and-pathogen-accumulation-in-non-native-trees
#9
REVIEW
Casparus J Crous, Treena I Burgess, Johannes J Le Roux, David M Richardson, Bernard Slippers, Michael J Wingfield
Non-native trees have become dominant components of many landscapes, including urban ecosystems, commercial forestry plantations, fruit orchards, and as invasives in natural ecosystems. Often, these trees have been separated from their natural enemies (i.e. insects and pathogens) leading to ecological disequilibrium, that is, the immediate breakdown of historically co-evolved interactions once introduced into novel environments. Long-established, non-native tree plantations provide useful experiments to explore the dimensions of such ecological disequilibria...
December 23, 2016: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610234/diversification-and-use-of-bioenergy-to-maintain-future-grasslands
#10
Iain S Donnison, Mariecia D Fraser
Grassland agriculture is experiencing a number of threats including declining profitability and loss of area to other land uses including expansion of the built environment as well as from cropland and forestry. The use of grassland as a natural resource either in terms of existing vegetation and land cover or planting of new species for bioenergy and other nonfood applications presents an opportunity, and potential solution, to maintain the broader ecosystem services that perennial grasslands provide as well as to improve the options for grassland farmers and their communities...
May 2016: Food and energy security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566934/opportunities-to-enhance-contribution-of-model-forests-in-the-sustainable-forest-resources-management-example-from-yalova-model-forest
#11
Sultan Bekiroğlu, Mehmet Özdemir, Ercan Özyürek, Avni Arslan
Model forests are nongovernmental organizations at local, regional and international level which are mainly focused on reconciling the conflicts between the stakeholders. This is an innovative approach to organization, which has been receiving more and more attraction from increasing number of countries, which gradually increased the number of model forests for the last 25 years. If these organizations reach desired levels of structure, medium, impacts and assets their contribution in sustainable forest resources management will increase ipso facto...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494615/sequencing-and-characterization-of-the-invasive-sycamore-lace-bug-corythucha-ciliata-hemiptera-tingidae-transcriptome
#12
Fengqi Li, Ran Wang, Cheng Qu, Ningning Fu, Chen Luo, Yihua Xu
The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae), is an invasive forestry pest rapidly expanding in many countries. This pest poses a considerable threat to the urban forestry ecosystem, especially to Platanus spp. However, its molecular biology and biochemistry are poorly understood. This study reports the first C. ciliata transcriptome, encompassing three different life stages (Nymphs, adults female (AF) and adults male (AM)). In total, 26.53 GB of clean data and 60,879 unigenes were obtained from three RNA-seq libraries...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27247886/a-measure-for-the-promotion-of-mountain-ecological-villages-in-south-korea-focus-on-the-national-mountain-ecological-village-investigation-of-2014
#13
Soo Im Choi, Hag Mo Kang, Hyun Kim, Chang Heon Lee, Chong Kyu Lee
BACKGROUND: Although South Korean mountain villages occupy 44 and 55 % of land and forest areas, respectively, these villages account for only 3 % of the national population and they suffer from a declining workforce owing to aging, wage inflation, and low forestry productivity. As a result, the South Korean government implemented a mountain ecological village development project from 1995 to 2013 in 312 of the 4972 mountain villages and investigated project performance in 2014. The present study establishes a measure for the promotion of mountain ecological villages by comparing the situation before and after the project...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27203466/characterization-of-anthropogenic-impacts-in-a-large-urban-center-by-examining-the-spatial-distribution-of-halogenated-flame-retardants
#14
Yan-Li Wei, Lian-Jun Bao, Chen-Chou Wu, Eddy Y Zeng
Anthropogenic impacts have continuously intensified in mega urban centers with increasing urbanization and growing population. The spatial distribution pattern of such impacts can be assessed with soil halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) as HFRs are mostly derived from the production and use of various consumer products. In the present study, soil samples were collected from the Pearl River Delta (PRD), a large urbanized region in southern China, and its surrounding areas and analyzed for a group of HFRs, i...
August 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097087/public-green-areas-and-urban-environmental-quality-of-the-city-of-s%C3%A3-o-carlos-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#15
M A Bertini, R R Rufino, A T Fushita, M I S Lima
Assess the state of public green areas, their importance and influence on environmental quality and living in urban centers is an arduous task considering the conceptual and scientific regarding quantification and data analysis methods divergence. In this study, we aimed to determine two indicators of public green areas relative to the percentage of public green areas (PPGA) and the public green areas index (PGAI) in the urban area of São Carlos, SP. The study area was organized into administrative regions (ARs), using satellite images, topographical maps of 1:10,000 Geographic and Cartographic Institute (1990) and data provided by the Municipality of São Carlos...
April 19, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27085962/organic-micropollutants-omps-in-natural-waters-oxidation-by-uv-h2o2-treatment-and-toxicity-assessment
#16
Oscar Rozas, Cristiane Vidal, Carolina Baeza, Wilson F Jardim, Alfred Rossner, Héctor D Mansilla
Organic micropollutants (OMPs) are ubiquitous in natural waters even in places where the human activity is limited. The presence of OMPs in natural water sources for human consumption encourages the evaluation of different water purification technologies to ensure water quality. In this study, the Biobío river (Chile) was selected since the watershed includes urban settlements and economic activities (i.e. agriculture, forestry) that incorporate a variety of OMPs into the aquatic environment, such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products...
July 1, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27084996/spatial-and-temporal-variability-of-contaminants-within-estuarine-sediments-and-native-olympia-oysters-a-contrast-between-a-developed-and-an-undeveloped-estuary
#17
Elise F Granek, Kathleen E Conn, Elena B Nilsen, Lori Pillsbury, Angela L Strecker, Steve S Rumrill, William Fish
Chemical contaminants can be introduced into estuarine and marine ecosystems from a variety of sources including wastewater, agriculture and forestry practices, point and non-point discharges, runoff from industrial, municipal, and urban lands, accidental spills, and atmospheric deposition. The diversity of potential sources contributes to the likelihood of contaminated marine waters and sediments and increases the probability of uptake by marine organisms. Despite widespread recognition of direct and indirect pathways for contaminant deposition and organismal exposure in coastal systems, spatial and temporal variability in contaminant composition, deposition, and uptake patterns are still poorly known...
July 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26966659/identifying-key-conservation-threats-to-alpine-birds-through-expert-knowledge
#18
Dan E Chamberlain, Paolo Pedrini, Mattia Brambilla, Antonio Rolando, Marco Girardello
Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26902482/knowledge-co-production-at-the-research-practice-interface-embedded-case-studies-from-urban-forestry
#19
Lindsay K Campbell, Erika S Svendsen, Lara A Roman
Cities are increasingly engaging in sustainability efforts and investment in green infrastructure, including large-scale urban tree planting campaigns. In this context, researchers and practitioners are working jointly to develop applicable knowledge for planning and managing the urban forest. This paper presents three case studies of knowledge co-production in the field of urban forestry in the United States. These cases were selected to span a range of geographic scales and topical scopes; all three are examples of urban researcher-practitioner networks in which the authors are situated to comment on reflexively...
June 2016: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26853539/development-of-oligonucleotide-microarrays-for-simultaneous-multi-species-identification-of-phellinus-tree-pathogenic-fungi
#20
Yuh Tzean, Po-Yao Shu, Ruey-Fen Liou, Shean-Shong Tzean
Polyporoid Phellinus fungi are ubiquitously present in the environment and play an important role in shaping forest ecology. Several species of Phellinus are notorious pathogens that can affect a broad variety of tree species in forest, plantation, orchard and urban habitats; however, current detection methods are overly complex and lack the sensitivity required to identify these pathogens at the species level in a timely fashion for effective infestation control. Here, we describe eight oligonucleotide microarray platforms for the simultaneous and specific detection of 17 important Phellinus species, using probes generated from the internal transcribed spacer regions unique to each species...
March 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
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