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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526842/revealing-genome-scale-transcriptional-regulatory-landscape-of-ompr-highlights-its-expanded-regulatory-roles-under-osmotic-stress-in-escherichia-coli-k-12-mg1655
#1
Sang Woo Seo, Ye Gao, Donghyuk Kim, Richard Szubin, Jina Yang, Byung-Kwan Cho, Bernhard O Palsson
A transcription factor (TF), OmpR, plays a critical role in transcriptional regulation of the osmotic stress response in bacteria. Here, we reveal a genome-scale OmpR regulon in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655. Integrative data analysis reveals that a total of 37 genes in 24 transcription units (TUs) belong to OmpR regulon. Among them, 26 genes show more than two-fold changes in expression level in an OmpR knock-out strain. Specifically, we find that: 1) OmpR regulates mostly membrane-located gene products involved in diverse fundamental biological processes, such as narU (encoding nitrate/nitrite transporter), ompX (encoding outer membrane protein X), and nuoN (encoding NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase); 2) by investigating co-regulation of entire sets of genes regulated by other stress-response TFs, stresses are surprisingly independently regulated among each other; and, 3) a detailed investigation of the physiological roles of the newly discovered OmpR regulon genes reveals that activation of narU represents a novel strategy to significantly improve osmotic stress tolerance of E...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526561/mitochondrial-contact-site-and-cristae-organizing-system-a-central-player-in-membrane-shaping-and-crosstalk
#2
Florian Wollweber, Karina von der Malsburg, Martin van der Laan
Mitochondria are multifunctional metabolic factories and integrative signaling organelles of eukaryotic cells. The structural basis for their numerous functions is a complex and dynamic double-membrane architecture. The outer membrane connects mitochondria to the cytosol and other organelles. The inner membrane is composed of a boundary region and highly folded cristae membranes. The evolutionarily conserved mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) connects the two inner membrane domains via formation and stabilization of crista junction structures...
May 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524836/effect-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibition-on-the-expression-of-multidrug-resistance-associated-protein-2-in-a-human-placental-trophoblast-cell-line
#3
Hong-Yu Duan, Dan Ma, Kai-Yu Zhou, Tao Wang, Yi Zhang, Yi-Fei Li, Jin-Lin Wu, Yi-Min Hua, Chuan Wang
BACKGROUND: Placental multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), encoded by ABCC2 gene in human, plays a significant role in regulating drugs' transplacental transfer rates. Studies on placental MRP2 regulation could provide more therapeutic targets for individualized and safe pharmacotherapy during pregnancy. Currently, the roles of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating placental drug transporters are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibition on MRP2 expression in the placental trophoblast cell line and to explore whether HDAC1/2/3 are preliminarily involved in this process...
June 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522678/cigarette-smoking-associated-alterations-in-serotonin-adrenalin-signaling-pathways-of-platelets
#4
Curtis Lee Lowery, Clay Elliott, Anthonya Cooper, Coedy Hadden, Roberto N Sonon, Parastoo Azadi, D Keith Williams, James D Marsh, Donna S Woulfe, Fusun Kilic
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking plays a major role in cardiovascular diseases. The acute effects of cigarette smoking produce central nervous system-mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous system. The overactive sympathetic nervous system stimulates the secretion of serotonin (5-HT) and catecholamine into blood at supraphysiological levels. The correlation between these pathological conditions induced by smoking and the increased risk of thrombosis has not been thoroughly investigated...
May 18, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521058/enhanced-expression-of-proteins-involved-in-energy-production-and-transfer-in-breast-muscle-of-pedigree-male-broilers-exhibiting-high-feed-efficiency
#5
W G Bottje, K Lassiter, S Dridi, N Hudson, B-W Kong
In cells with fluctuating energy demand (e.g., skeletal muscle), a transfer system of proteins across the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes links mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to cytosolic phosphorylated creatine (PCr) that serves as a phosphate reservoir for rapid repletion of cytosolic adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Crucial proteins of this energy transfer system include several creatine kinase (CK) isoforms found in the cytosol and mitochondria. In a recent proteomic study (Kong et al., 2016), several components of this system were up-regulated in high feed efficiency (FE) compared to low FE breast muscle; notably adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), voltage dependent activated channel (VDAC), the brain isoform of creatine kinase (CK-B), and several proteins of the electron transport chain...
May 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520808/proteomic-analysis-of-biomphalaria-glabrata-plasma-proteins-with-binding-affinity-to-those-expressed-by-early-developing-larval-schistosoma-mansoni
#6
Xiao-Jun Wu, Nathalie Dinguirard, Grzegorz Sabat, Hong-di Lui, Laura Gonzalez, Michael Gehring, Utibe Bickham-Wright, Timothy P Yoshino
Interactions between early developing Schistosoma mansoni larval stages and the hemolymph of its snail intermediate host represent the first molecular encounter with the snail's immune system. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of this early parasite-host interaction, biotinylated sporocyst tegumental membrane (Mem) proteins and larval transformation proteins (LTP) were affixed to streptavidin-agarose beads and used as affinity matrices to enrich for larval-reactive plasma proteins from susceptible (NMRI) and resistant (BS-90) strains of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515319/the-h-region-of-twin-arginine-signal-peptides-supports-productive-binding-of-bacterial-tat-precursor-proteins-to-the-tatbc-receptor-complex
#7
Agnes Ulfig, Julia Fröbel, Frank Lausberg, Anne-Sophie Blümmel, Anna Katharina Heide, Matthias Müller, Roland Freudl
The twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports folded proteins across bacterial membranes. Tat precursor proteins possess a conserved twin-arginine (RR) motif in their signal peptides that is involved in their binding to the Tat translocase, but some facets of this interaction remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of the hydrophobic (h-) region of the Escherichia coli TMAO reductase (TorA) signal peptide in TatBC receptor binding in vivo and in vitro. We show that besides the RR motif, a minimal functional h-region in the signal peptide is required for Tat-dependent export in E...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515233/wntless-sec12-complex-on-er-membrane-regulates-early-wnt-secretory-vesicle-assembly-and-mature-ligand-export
#8
Jiaxin Sun, Shiyan Yu, Xiao Zhang, Catherine Capac, Onyedikachi Aligbe, Timothy Daudelin, Edward M Bonder, Nan Gao
Wntless (Wls) transports Wnt molecules for secretion, however the cellular mechanism underlying the initial assembly of Wnt secretory vesicles is still not fully defined. Using proteomic and mutagenic analyses of the mammalian Wls, we report a mechanism for formation of early Wnt secretory vesicle on ER membrane. Wls forms a complex with SEC12, an ER membrane-localized GEF activator of SAR1 small GTPase. Compared to palmitoylation-deficient Wnt molecules, binding of mature Wnt to Wls increases Wls-SEC12 interaction and promotes Wls association with SAR1, the key activator of the COPII machinery...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514705/a-topologically-diverse-family-of-fluoride-channels
#9
REVIEW
Christian B Macdonald, Randy B Stockbridge
Dual-topology proteins are likely evolutionary antecedents to a common motif in membrane protein structures, the inverted repeat. A family of fluoride channels, the Flucs, which protect microorganisms, fungi, and plants against cytoplasmic fluoride accumulation, has representatives of all topologies along this evolutionary trajectory, including dual-topology homodimers, antiparallel heterodimers, and, in eukaryotes, fused two-domain proteins with an inverted repeat motif. Recent high-resolution crystal structures of dual-topology homodimers, coupled with extensive functional information about both the homodimers and two-domain Flucs, provide a case study of the co-evolution of fold and function...
May 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514167/quantum-dot-peptide-fullerene-bioconjugates-for-visualization-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-cellular-membrane-potential
#10
Okhil Kumar Nag, Michael H Stewart, Jeffrey R Deschamps, Kimihiro Susumu, Eunkeu Oh, Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Qinggong Tang, Alexander L Efros, Roman Vaxenburg, Bryan J Black, Yungchia Chen, Thomas J O'Shaughnessy, Stella H North, Lauren D Field, Philip E Dawson, Joseph J Pancrazio, Igor L Medintz, Yu Chen, Reha S Erzurumlu, Alan L Huston, James B Delehanty
We report the development of a quantum dot (QD)-peptide-fullerene (C60) electron transfer (ET)-based nanobioconjugate for the visualization of membrane potential in living cells. The bioconjugate is comprised of (1) a central QD electron donor, (2) a membrane-inserting peptidyl linker, and (3) a C60 electron acceptor. The photoexcited QD donor engages in ET with the C60 acceptor resulting in quenching of QD photoluminescence (PL) that tracks positively with the number of C60 moieties arrayed around the QD. The nature of the QD-capping ligand also modulates the quenching efficiency; a neutral ligand coating facilitates greater QD quenching than a negatively charged carboxylated ligand...
May 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513458/cofilin-a-protein-controlling-dynamics-of-actin-filaments
#11
Zofia Ostrowska, Joanna Moraczewska
Cofilins are evolutionary conserved proteins present in all Eukaryotic cells. Their primary function is dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton. Two cofilin isoforms are known: cofilin 1, present in all studied non-muscle cells and in embryonic muscle cells, and cofilin 2, which dominates in mature skeletal and cardiac muscles. Polypeptide chains of both isoforms fold into a structure homological to a conservative ADF (actin depolymerizing factor) domain, which is characteristic of actin depolymerizing factor...
May 5, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512095/structure-based-mutations-in-the-herpes-simplex-virus-1-glycoprotein-b-ectodomain-arm-impart-a-slow-entry-phenotype
#12
Qing Fan, Sarah J Kopp, Sarah A Connolly, Richard Longnecker
Glycoprotein B (gB) is the conserved herpesvirus fusion protein, and it is required for the entry of herpesviruses. The structure of the postfusion conformation of gB has been solved for several herpesviruses; however, the gB prefusion crystal structure and the details of how the protein refolds from a prefusion to a postfusion form to mediate fusion have not been determined. Using structure-based mutagenesis, we previously reported that three mutations (I671A, H681A, and F683A) in the C-terminal arm of the gB ectodomain greatly reduced cell-cell fusion...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511148/computational-studies-of-membrane-proteins-from-sequence-to-structure-to-simulation
#13
REVIEW
Phillip J Stansfeld
In this review, I discuss the recent advances in computational approaches to studying membrane protein structures, covering the latest methods for predicting a protein structure from its amino acid sequence, through to methods for assessing the structural dynamics and lipid interactions within molecular simulations of complex biological membranes. These approaches have not only benefited from advances in the computational software and architectures, but have also been assisted by a prodigious rise in the number of both the molecular sequences and experimentally determined membrane protein structures...
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505457/molecular-and-biocompatibility-characterization-of-red-blood-cell-membrane-targeted-and-cell-penetrating-peptide-modified-polymeric-nanoparticles
#14
Kaustuv Sahoo, Sriharsha Karumuri, Rangika S Hikkaduwa Koralege, Nicholas H Flynn, Steve Hartson, Jing Liu, Joshua D Ramsey, Kaan Kalkan, Carey Pope, Ashish Ranjan
Red blood cells (RBCs) express a variety of immunomodulatory markers that enable the body to recognize them as self. We have shown that RBC membrane glycophorin A (GPA) receptor can mediate membrane attachment of protein therapeutics. A critical knowledge gap is whether attaching drug encapsulated nanoparticles (NPs) to GPA, and modification with cell penetration peptide (CPP) will impact binding, oxygenation and induce cellular stress. The objective of this study was to formulate copolymer-based NPs containing model fluorescent tagged bovine serum albumin (BSA) with GPA-specific targeting ligands such as ERY1 (ENPs), single chain variable antibody (scFv TER-119, SNPs), and low molecular weight protamine based CPP (LNPs) and determine their biocompatibility using a variety of complementary high-throughput in vitro assays...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503153/investigating-engineered-ribonucleoprotein-particles-to-improve-oral-rnai-delivery-in-crop-insect-pests
#15
François-Xavier Gillet, Rayssa A Garcia, Leonardo L P Macedo, Erika V S Albuquerque, Maria C M Silva, Maria F Grossi-de-Sa
Genetically modified (GM) crops producing double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) are being investigated largely as an RNA interference (RNAi)-based resistance strategy against crop insect pests. However, limitations of this strategy include the sensitivity of dsRNA to insect gut nucleases and its poor insect cell membrane penetration. Working with the insect pest cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis), we showed that the chimeric protein PTD-DRBD (peptide transduction domain-dsRNA binding domain) combined with dsRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) that improves the effectiveness of the RNAi mechanism in the insect...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500528/bacterial-actins
#16
Izoré, Fusinita van den Ent
A diverse set of protein polymers, structurally related to actin filaments contributes to the organization of bacterial cells as cytomotive or cytoskeletal filaments. This chapter describes actin homologs encoded by bacterial chromosomes. MamK filaments, unique to magnetotactic bacteria, help establishing magnetic biological compasses by interacting with magnetosomes. Magnetosomes are intracellular membrane invaginations containing biomineralized crystals of iron oxide that are positioned by MamK along the long-axis of the cell...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500182/upr-transducer-bbf2h7-allows-export-of-type-ii-collagen-in-a-cargo-and-developmental-stage-specific-manner
#17
Tokiro Ishikawa, Takuya Toyama, Yuki Nakamura, Kentaro Tamada, Hitomi Shimizu, Satoshi Ninagawa, Tetsuya Okada, Yasuhiro Kamei, Tomoko Ishikawa-Fujiwara, Takeshi Todo, Eriko Aoyama, Masaharu Takigawa, Akihiro Harada, Kazutoshi Mori
The unfolded protein response (UPR) handles unfolded/misfolded proteins accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, it is unclear how vertebrates correctly use the total of ten UPR transducers. We have found that ER stress occurs physiologically during early embryonic development in medaka fish and that the smooth alignment of notochord cells requires ATF6 as a UPR transducer, which induces ER chaperones for folding of type VIII (short-chain) collagen. After secretion of hedgehog for tissue patterning, notochord cells differentiate into sheath cells, which synthesize type II collagen...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497697/synthetic-protein-scaffolds-for-biosynthetic-pathway-co-localization-on-lipid-droplet-membranes
#18
Jyun-Liang Lin, Jie Zhu, Ian Wheeldon
Eukaryotic biochemistry is organized throughout the cell in and on membrane-bound organelles. When engineering metabolic pathways this organization is often lost, resulting in flux imbalance and a loss of kinetic advantages from enzyme co-localization and substrate channeling. Here, we develop a protein-based scaffold for co-localizing multienzyme pathways on the membranes of intracellular lipid droplets. Scaffolds based on the plant lipid droplet protein oleosin and cohesin-dockerin interaction pairs recruited upstream enzymes in yeast ester biosynthesis to the native localization of the terminal reaction step, alcohol-O-acetyltransferase (Atf1)...
May 12, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497288/novel-signal-peptides-improve-the-secretion-of-recombinant-staphylococcus-aureus-alpha-toxinh35l-in-escherichia-coli
#19
SooJin Han, Shushil Machhi, Mark Berge, Guoling Xi, Thomas Linke, Ronald Schoner
Secretion of heterologous proteins into Escherichia coli cell culture medium offers significant advantages for downstream processing over production as inclusion bodies; including cost and time savings, and reduction of endotoxin. Signal peptides play an important role in targeting proteins for translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane to the periplasmic space and release into culture medium during the secretion process. Alpha toxinH35L (ATH35L) was selected as an antigen for vaccine development against Staphylococcus aureus infections...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493835/expression-and-release-of-glucose-regulated-protein-78-grp78-in-multiple-myeloma
#20
Normann Steiner, Bojana Borjan, Roman Hajek, Karin Jöhrer, Georg Göbel, Wolfgang Willenbacher, Johann Kern, Eberhard Gunsilius, Gerold Untergasser
INTRODUCTION: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell neoplasm that is mostly incurable due to acquired resistance during the treatment course. Thus, we evaluated expression and release of glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78/BiP), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) based pro-survival chaperone involved in immunoglobulin folding and unfolded protein responses. RESULTS: GRP78 protein expression in the ER and on the cell surface did not significantly differ between MGUS, NDMM and RRMM patients although there was a trend to higher surface expression in RRMM...
April 21, 2017: Oncotarget
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