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membrane protein folding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635493/the-structure-of-lamin-filaments-in-somatic-cells-as-revealed-by-cryo-electron-tomography
#1
Y Turgay, O Medalia
Metazoan nuclei are equipped with nuclear lamina - a thin layer of intermediate filaments (IFs) mostly built of nuclear lamins facing the inner nuclear membrane (INM). The nuclear lamina serves as an interaction hub for INM-proteins, soluble nuclear factors and DNA. It confers structural and mechanical stability to the nucleus, transduces mechanical forces and biochemical signals across the nuclear envelope (NE) and regulates the organization of chromatin. By utilizing cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET), we recently provided an unprecedented view into the 3D organization of lamin filaments within the lamina meshwork in mammalian somatic cells...
June 21, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632484/rab-gtpases-and-their-interacting-protein-partners-structural-insights-into-rab-functional-diversity
#2
Olena Pylypenko, Hussein Hammich, I-Mei Yu, Anne Houdusse
Rab molecular switches are key players in defining membrane identity and regulating intracellular trafficking events in eukaryotic cells. In spite of their global structural similarity, Rab-family members acquired particular features that allow them to perform specific cellular functions. The overall fold and local sequence conservations enable them to utilize a common machinery for prenylation and recycling; while individual Rab structural differences determine interactions with specific partners such as GEFs, GAPs and effector proteins...
June 20, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632179/the-antiproliferative-effect-of-cyclodipeptides-from-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1-on-hela-cells-involves-inhibition-of-phosphorylation-of-akt-and-s6k-kinases
#3
Laura Hernández-Padilla, Dolores Vázquez-Rivera, Luis A Sánchez-Briones, Alma L Díaz-Pérez, José Moreno-Rodríguez, Mario A Moreno-Eutimio, Victor Meza-Carmen, Homero Reyes-De la Cruz, Jesús Campos-García
Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, a potential pathogen of plants and animals, produces the cyclodipeptides cyclo(l-Pro-l-Tyr), cyclo(l-Pro-l-Phe), and cyclo(l-Pro-l-Val) (PAO1-CDPs), whose effects have been implicated in inhibition of human tumor cell line proliferation. Our purpose was to investigate in depth in the mechanisms of HeLa cell proliferation inhibition by the PAO1-CDPs. The results indicate that PAO1-CDPs, both purified individually and in mixtures, inhibited HeLa cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at the G0-G1 transition...
June 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631300/a-bacterial-chloroform-reductive-dehalogenase-purification-and-biochemical-characterization
#4
Bat-Erdene Jugder, Susanne Bohl, Helene Lebhar, Robert D Healey, Mike Manefield, Christopher P Marquis, Matthew Lee
We report herein the purification of a chloroform (CF)-reducing enzyme, TmrA, from the membrane fraction of a strict anaerobe Dehalobacter sp. strain UNSWDHB to apparent homogeneity with an approximate 23-fold increase in relative purity compared to crude lysate. The membrane fraction obtained by ultracentrifugation was solubilized in Triton X-100 in the presence of glycerol, followed by purification by anion exchange chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified TmrA was determined to be 44.5 kDa by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF...
June 20, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630166/deficiency-of-phb-complex-impairs-respiratory-supercomplex-formation-and-activates-mitochondrial-flashes
#5
Chongshu Jian, Fengli Xu, Tingting Hou, Tao Sun, Li Jinghang, Heping Cheng, Xianhua Wang
Prohibitins (prohibitin 1, PHB1, and prohibitin 2, PHB2) are evolutionally conserved and ubiquitously expressed mitochondrial protein. PHBs form multimeric ring complexes acting as scaffolds in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are newly discovered mitochondrial signaling events which reflect electrical and chemical excitations of the organelle. Here we investigate possible roles of PHBs in the regulation of mitoflash signaling. Down-regulation of PHBs increases mitoflash frequency by up to 5...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630155/haemolytic-actinoporins-interact-with-carbohydrates-using-their-lipid-binding-module
#6
Koji Tanaka, Jose M M Caaveiro, Koldo Morante, Kouhei Tsumoto
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are proteins endowed with metamorphic properties that enable them to stably fold in water solutions as well as in cellular membranes. PFTs produce lytic pores on the plasma membranes of target cells conducive to lesions, playing key roles in the defensive and offensive molecular systems of living organisms. Actinoporins are a family of potent haemolytic toxins produced by sea anemones vigorously studied as a paradigm of α-helical PFTs, in the context of lipid-protein interactions, and in connection with nanopore technologies...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630154/design-of-self-assembling-transmembrane-helical-bundles-to-elucidate-principles-required-for-membrane-protein-folding-and-ion-transport
#7
REVIEW
Nathan H Joh, Gevorg Grigoryan, Yibing Wu, William F DeGrado
Ion transporters and channels are able to identify and act on specific substrates among myriads of ions and molecules critical to cellular processes, such as homeostasis, cell signalling, nutrient influx and drug efflux. Recently, we designed Rocker, a minimalist model for Zn(2+)/H(+) co-transport. The success of this effort suggests that de novo membrane protein design has now come of age so as to serve a key approach towards probing the determinants of membrane protein folding, assembly and function. Here, we review general principles that can be used to design membrane proteins, with particular reference to helical assemblies with transport function...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629619/slow-interconversion-in-a-heterogeneous-unfolded-state-ensemble-of-outer-membrane-phospholipase-a
#8
Georg Krainer, Pablo Gracia, Erik Frotscher, Andreas Hartmann, Philip Gröger, Sandro Keller, Michael Schlierf
Structural and dynamic investigations of unfolded proteins are important for understanding protein-folding mechanisms as well as the interactions of unfolded polypeptide chains with other cell components. In the case of outer-membrane proteins (OMPs), unfolded-state properties are of particular physiological relevance, because these proteins remain unfolded for extended periods of time during their biogenesis and rely on interactions with binding partners to support proper folding. Using a combination of ensemble and single-molecule spectroscopy, we have scrutinized the unfolded state of outer-membrane phospholipase A (OmpLA) to provide a detailed view of its structural dynamics on timescales from nanoseconds to milliseconds...
June 16, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627654/bioinformatics-analysis-of-transcription-profiling-of-solid-pseudopapillary-neoplasm-of-the-pancreas
#9
Yongping Zhang, Xu Han, Hao Wu, Yifeng Zhou
Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas is a low-grade malignant neoplasm that accounts for ~5% of cystic pancreatic tumors and ~0.9‑2.7% of exocrine pancreatic tumors. The transcription profiling data (GSE43795) of 14 SPN and 6 control samples were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Using the Limma package, Student's t‑tests were performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between SPN and control samples [with the following criterion: False discovery rate (FDR)<0...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627175/pull-and-paste-of-single-transmembrane-proteins
#10
Tetiana Serdiuk, Stefania Anna Mari, Daniel J Müller
How complex cytoplasmic membrane proteins insert and fold into cellular membranes is not fully understood.  One problem is the lack of suitable approaches that allow investigating the process by which polypeptides insert and fold into membranes.  Here, we introduce a method to mechanically unfold and extract a single polytopic -helical membrane protein, the lactose permease (LacY), from a phospholipid membrane, transport the fully unfolded polypeptide to another membrane and insert and refold the polypeptide into the native structure...
June 19, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626043/the-diverse-roles-of-arrestin-scaffolds-in-g-protein-coupled-receptor-signaling
#11
REVIEW
Yuri K Peterson, Louis M Luttrell
The visual/β-arrestins, a small family of proteins originally described for their role in the desensitization and intracellular trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), have emerged as key regulators of multiple signaling pathways. Evolutionarily related to a larger group of regulatory scaffolds that share a common arrestin fold, the visual/β-arrestins acquired the capacity to detect and bind activated GPCRs on the plasma membrane, which enables them to control GPCR desensitization, internalization, and intracellular trafficking...
July 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623080/increased-constitutive-nitric-oxide-production-by-whole-body-periodic-acceleration-ameliorates-alterations-in-cardiomyocytes-associated-with-utrophin-dystrophin-deficiency
#12
Jose R Lopez, Juan Kolster, Rui Zhang, Jose Adams
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) cardiomyopathy is a progressive lethal disease caused by the lack of the dystrophin protein in the heart. The most widely used animal model of DMD is the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse; however, these mice exhibit a mild dystrophic phenotype with heart failure only late in life. In contrast, mice deficient for both dystrophin and utrophin (mdx/utrn(-/-), or dKO) can be used to model severe DMD cardiomyopathy where pathophysiological indicators of heart failure are detectable by 8-10weeks of age...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622544/conformational-transition-of-%C3%AE%C2%BA-casein-in-micellar-environment-insight-from-the-tryptophan-fluorescence
#13
Smruti Mishra, Geetanjali Meher, Hirak Chakraborty
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are under intense analysis due to their structural flexibility and importance in biological functions. Minuscule modulation in the microenvironment induces significant conformational changes in IDPs, and these non-native conformations of the IDPs often induce aggregation and cause cell death. Changes in the membrane composition often change the microenvironment, which promote conformational change and aggregation of IDPs. κ-Casein, an important milk protein, belongs to the class of IDPs containing net negative charges...
June 8, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622369/comparative-sequence-analysis-reveals-regulation-of-genes-in-developing-schistosomula-of-schistosoma-mansoni-exposed-to-host-portal-serum
#14
Wander de Jesus Jeremias, Flávio Marcos Gomes Araújo, Fábio Ribeiro Queiroz, Fabiano Sviatopolk Mirsky Pais, Ana Carolina Alves de Mattos, Anna Christina de Matos Salim, Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho, Guilherme Correa Oliveira, John Robert Kusel, Renata Guerra-Sá, Roney Santos Coimbra, Élio Hideo Babá
Once inside a vertebrate host after infection, individual schistosomula of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni find a new and complex environment, which requires quick adjustments for survival, such as those that allow it to avoid the innate immune response of the host. Thus, it is very important for the parasite to remain within the skin after entering the host for a period of about 3 days, at which time it can then reach the venous system, migrate to the lungs and, by the end of eighth day post-infection, it reach the portal venous system, while undergoing minimal changes in morphology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622174/insufficient-astrocyte-derived-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-contributes-to-propofol-induced-neuron-death-through-akt-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-mitochondrial-fission-pathway
#15
Yanan Liu, Yasheng Yan, Yasuyoshi Inagaki, Sarah Logan, Zeljko J Bosnjak, Xiaowen Bai
BACKGROUND: Growing animal evidence demonstrates that prolonged exposure to propofol during brain development induces widespread neuronal cell death, but there is little information on the role of astrocytes. Astrocytes can release neurotrophic growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which can exert the protective effect on neurons in paracrine fashion. We hypothesize that during propofol anesthesia, BDNF released from developing astrocytes may not be sufficient to prevent propofol-induced neurotoxicity...
July 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620589/transcriptomic-profiling-of-high-density-giardia-foci-encysting-in-the-murine-proximal-intestine
#16
Jonathan K Pham, Christopher Nosala, Erica Y Scott, Kristofer F Nguyen, Kari D Hagen, Hannah N Starcevich, Scott C Dawson
Giardia is a highly prevalent, understudied protistan parasite causing significant diarrheal disease worldwide. Its life cycle consists of two stages: infectious cysts ingested from contaminated food or water sources, and motile trophozoites that colonize and attach to the gut epithelium, later encysting to form new cysts that are excreted into the environment. Current understanding of parasite physiology in the host is largely inferred from transcriptomic studies using Giardia grown axenically or in co-culture with mammalian cell lines...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620585/identification-of-a-large-family-of-slam-dependent-surface-lipoproteins-in-gram-negative-bacteria
#17
Yogesh Hooda, Christine C L Lai, Trevor F Moraes
The surfaces of many Gram-negative bacteria are decorated with soluble proteins anchored to the outer membrane via an acylated N-terminus; these proteins are referred to as surface lipoproteins or SLPs. In Neisseria meningitidis, SLPs such as transferrin-binding protein B (TbpB) and factor-H binding protein (fHbp) are essential for host colonization and infection because of their essential roles in iron acquisition and immune evasion, respectively. Recently, we identified a family of outer membrane proteins called Slam (Surface lipoprotein assembly modulator) that are essential for surface display of neisserial SLPs...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616863/contrasting-effects-of-phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-pip2-on-cloned-tmem16a-and-tmem16b-channels
#18
Chau M Ta, Kathryn E Acheson, Nils J G Rorsman, Remco C Jongkind, Paolo Tammaro
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) are gated open by a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ), typically provoked by Gq -protein coupled receptor activation (Gq PCR). Gq PCR activation initiates depletion of plasmalemmal phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 ). Here we ask whether PIP2 acts as a signalling lipid for CaCCs coded by the TMEM16A and TMEM16B genes. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Patch-clamp electrophysiology, in conjunction with genetically-encoded systems to control cellular PIP2 content, was used to define the mechanism of action of PIP2 on TMEM16A and TMEM16B channels...
June 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615323/generic-membrane-spanning-features-endow-ire1%C3%AE-with-responsiveness-to-membrane-aberrancy
#19
Nozomu Kono, Niko Amin-Wetzel, David Ron
Altered cellular lipid composition activates the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response (UPR) and UPR signaling effects important changes in lipid metabolism. Secondary effects on protein folding homeostasis likely contribute to UPR activation, but deletion of the unfolded protein stress-sensing luminal domain of the UPR transducers PERK and IRE1α does not abolish their responsiveness to lipid perturbation. This finding suggests that PERK and IRE1α also directly recognize the membrane aberrancy wrought by lipid perturbation...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615203/phosphorylation-of-serine-225-in-hepatitis-c-virus-ns5a-regulates-protein-protein-interactions
#20
Niluka Goonawardane, Anna Gebhardt, Christopher Bartlett, Andreas Pichlmair, Mark Harris
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) is a phosphoprotein that plays key, yet poorly defined, roles in both virus genome replication and virion assembly/release. It has been proposed that differential phosphorylation could act as a switch to regulate the various functions of NS5A, however the mechanistic details of the role of this post-translational modification in the virus life cycle remains obscure. We previously reported (Ross-Thriepland et al, 2015) a role for phosphorylation at serine 225 (S225) of NS5A in the regulation of JFH-1 (genotype 2a) genome replication...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
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