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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914366/rapid-and-low-cost-biosensor-for-the-detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Ghadeer A R Y Suaifan, Sahar Alhogail, Mohammed Zourob
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common etiological agents in hospital-acquired infections and food-borne illness. S. aureus toxins and virulence proteases often circulate in host blood vessels leading to life-threatening diseases. Standard identification approaches include bacterial culturing method, which takes several days. Other nucleic acid-based methods were expensive and required trained personnel. To surmount these limitations, a paper-based biosensor was developed. The sensing mechanism was based on the proteolytic activity of S...
November 21, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914361/development-of-cxcr4-modulators-by-virtual-hts-of-a-novel-amide-sulfamide-compound-library
#2
Renren Bai, Qi Shi, Zhongxing Liang, Younghyoun Yoon, Yiran Han, Amber Feng, Shuangping Liu, Yoonhyeun Oum, C Chris Yun, Hyunsuk Shim
CXCR4 plays a crucial role in recruitment of inflammatory cells to inflammation sites at the beginning of the disease process. Modulating CXCR4 functions presents a new avenue for anti-inflammatory strategies. However, using CXCR4 antagonists for a long term usage presents potential serious side effect due to their stem cell mobilizing property. We have been developing partial CXCR4 antagonists without such property. A new computer-aided drug design program, the FRESH workflow, was used for anti-CXCR4 lead compound discovery and optimization, which coupled both compound library building and CXCR4 docking screens in one campaign...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914285/human-parechovirus-and-enterovirus-initiate-distinct-cns-innate-immune-responses-pathogenic-and-diagnostic-implications
#3
Danielle Fortuna, Ana María Cárdenas, Erin H Graf, Larry A Harshyne, D Craig Hooper, Michael Prosniak, John Shields, Mark T Curtis
BACKGROUND: Human parechovirus (HPeV) and enterovirus (EV) cause a range of human diseases including serious CNS infections. Little is known regarding the immune response to HPeV meningitis compared to EV meningitis or how the immune response to HPeV reflects its pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the innate immune response to HPeV CNS infection in order to increase our understanding of HPeV pathogenesis and possibly help identify HPeV in the clinical setting...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914221/prevalence-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-hiv-coinfection-in-southern-brazil
#4
Dulce Stauffert, Mariangela Freitas da Silveira, Marília Arndt Mesenburg, Adriane Brod Manta, Alessandra da Silva Dutra, Guilherme Lucas de Oliveira Bicca, Marcos Marreiro Villela
Chagas disease reactivation has been a defining condition for acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Brazil for individuals coinfected with Trypanosoma cruzi and HIV since 2004. Although the first coinfection case was reported in the 1980s, its prevalence has not been firmly established. In order to know coinfection prevalence, a cross-sectional study of 200 HIV patients was performed between January and July 2013 in the city of Pelotas, in southern Rio Grande do Sul, an endemic area for Chagas disease. Ten subjects were found positive for T...
November 30, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914161/streptococcus-agalactiae-native-valve-endocarditis-uncommon-presentation-of-multiple-myeloma
#5
Ana Pinho Oliveira, Anne Delgado, Cláudia Martins, Pedro Gama
Adults with chronic immunosuppressive conditions are at an increased risk for Streptococcus agalactiae endocarditis, which is typically characterized by acute onset, presence of large vegetations, rapid valvular destruction and frequent complications. We report a rare case of a 74 years old man presenting with fever, renal infarction, ischemic stroke and uveitis. Infective endocarditis was diagnosed and Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in blood cultures. A multiple myeloma Ig G-K was also diagnosed. The infective endocarditis was successfully treated with a course of benzylpenicillin and gentamicin...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914159/-molecular-mechanisms-for-adhesion-and-colonization-of-human-gastric-mucosa-by-helicobacter-pylori-and-its-clinical-implications
#6
REVIEW
Elisabete Coelho, Ana Magalhães, Mário Dinis-Ribeiro, Celso A Reis
INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori infection is very prevalent worldwide and is associated with the progression of the gastric carcinogenesis cascade, being one of the main risk factors for the development of gastric carcinoma. Several factors are determinant for the infection and for the development of gastric disease, including environmental factors, host genetic factors and virulence factors of the bacteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this review, we present an overview of the current knowledge on the determinants of the infection and on the recently described molecular mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to the gastric mucosa, as well as its possible future therapeutic application...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914156/-intratechal-chemotherapy-treatment-through-an-ommaya-reservoir-catheter-for-meningeal-carcinomatosis-a-single-centre-experience
#7
José Pedro Lavrador, Nuno Simas, Edson Oliveira, Manuel Herculano Carvalho
INTRODUCTION: Meningeal carcinomatosis is defined as tumour cells infiltration of leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. It is normally related with poor survival (2 - 5 months). The best multidisciplinary treatment for this condition is a matter of discussion. Patient's condition and the natural history of the disease should be considered in the decision making process. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of patients submitted to Ommaya Reservoir placement due to systemic solid tumour meningeal carcinomatosis between 2006 and 2014...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914088/murine-mycobacterium-marinum-infection-as-a-model-for-tuberculosis
#8
Julia Lienard, Fredric Carlsson
Mycobacteria are a major human health problem globally. Regarding tuberculosis the situation is worsened by the poor efficacy of current vaccine regimens and by emergence of drug-resistant strains (Manjelievskaia J et al, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 110: 110, 2016; Pereira et al., Lancet Infect Dis 12:300-306, 2012; http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/) undermining both disease-prevention and available treatments. Thus, increased basic understanding of mycobacterial-and particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis-virulence strategies and pathogenesis is of great importance...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914087/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-biofilm-formation-by-pathogenic-streptococci
#9
Yashuan Chao, Caroline Bergenfelz, Anders P Håkansson
This manuscript presents novel approaches to grow and evaluate Streptococcal biofilm formation using the human respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) as the main model organism on biological surfaces in vitro and in vivo. Most biofilm models are based on growth on abiotic surfaces, which is relevant for many pathogens whose growth on surfaces or medical devices is a major cause of disease transmission and infections, especially in hospital environments. However, most infections with commensal organisms require biofilm formation on biological surfaces in the host at the site of colonization or infection...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914084/the-zebrafish-as-a-model-for-human-bacterial-infections
#10
Melody N Neely
The development of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) infectious disease model has provided new insights and information into pathogenesis. Many of these new discoveries would not have been possible using a typical mammalian model. The advantages of using this model are many and in the last 15 years the model has been exploited for the analysis of many different pathogens. Here, we describe in detail how to perform a bacterial infection using either the adult zebrafish or zebrafish larvae using microinjection. Multiple methods of analysis are described that can be used to address specific questions pertaining to disease progression and the interactions with the immune system...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914021/surface-modified-cobalt-ferrite-nanoparticles-for-rapid-capture-detection-and-removal-of-pathogens-a-potential-material-for-water-purification
#11
Raghvendra A Bohara, Nanasaheb D Throat, Nayeem A Mulla, Shivaji H Pawar
Enteric infections resulting from the consumption of contaminated drinking water, inadequate supply of water for personal hygiene, and poor sanitation take a heavy toll worldwide, and developing countries are the major sufferers. Consumption of microbiologically contaminated water leads to diseases such as amoebiasis, cholera, shigellosis, typhoid, and viral infections leading to gastroenteritis and hepatitis B. The present investigation deals with the development of effective method to capture and eliminate microbial contamination of water and improve the quality of water and thus decreasing the contaminated waterborne infections...
December 2, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913973/emergence-of-new-virulent-rabbit-hemorrhagic-disease-virus-strains-in-saudi-arabia
#12
Mahmoud M Ismail, Mahmoud H A Mohamed, Ibrahim M El-Sabagh, Mohamed A Al-Hammadi
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is an acute fatal highly contagious viral infectious disease that causes high losses among rabbitries. The disease was first reported in China in 1984 and later on in Saudi Arabia in 1996. The aim of this study was to investigate the emergence and pathogenicity of new rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains in Saudi Arabia. The pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculation in susceptible rabbits. Three RHDV strains were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers targeting VP60 capsid protein gene in infected rabbitries during 2012 and 2013...
December 2, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913920/ns5a-resistance-associated-variants-undermine-the-effectiveness-of-ledipasvir-and-sofosbuvir-for-cirrhotic-patients-infected-with-hcv-genotype-1b
#13
Eiichi Ogawa, Norihiro Furusyo, Hideyuki Nomura, Kazufumi Dohmen, Nobuhiko Higashi, Kazuhiro Takahashi, Akira Kawano, Koichi Azuma, Takeaki Satoh, Makoto Nakamuta, Toshimasa Koyanagi, Masaki Kato, Shinji Shimoda, Eiji Kajiwara, Jun Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Little real-world cohort data has been reported for Asians who have received interferon-free regimens with sofosbuvir (SOF) for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety in clinical practice of ledipasvir (LDV) plus SOF for Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1. METHODS: This large, multicenter, real-world cohort study consisted of 772 patients treatment-naive or -experienced, with or without compensated cirrhosis, who were treated with LDV (90 mg)/SOF (400 mg) for a fixed 12-week duration...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913859/complex-genetics-architecture-contributes-to-salmonella-resistance-in-acb60-mice
#14
Sean Beatty, Leïla Rached-D'Astous, Danielle Malo
Human infection with Salmonella is of global public health concern. In low- and middle-income countries, Salmonella infection is a major source of disease in terms of both mortality and morbidity, while in high-income nations, the pathogen is an ongoing threat to food security. The outcome of infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) in mouse models is dependent upon a coordinated and complex immune response. A panel of recombinant congenic strains (RCS) derived from the reciprocal double backcross of A/J and C57BL/6J mice has been screened for their susceptibility to Salmonella infection, and the RCS AcB60 was identified to be the most resistant strain to Salmonella infection, more resistant than the parental strain A/J...
December 2, 2016: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913791/circadian-transcription-factor-bmal1-regulates-innate-immunity-against-select-rna-viruses
#15
Tanmay Majumdar, Jayeeta Dhar, Sonal Patel, Roman Kondratov, Sailen Barik
BMAL1 (brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1, also known as MOP3 or ARNT3) belongs to the family of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS domain-containing transcription factors, and is a key component of the molecular oscillator that generates circadian rhythms. Here, we report that BMAL1-deficient cells are significantly more susceptible to infection by two major respiratory viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family, namely RSV and PIV3. Embryonic fibroblasts from Bmal1(-/-) mice produced nearly 10-fold more progeny virus than their wild type controls...
December 1, 2016: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913761/best-practices-in-the-treatment-of-early-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease
#16
REVIEW
Marijke Proesmans
For many years, management of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease was focused on symptomatic treatment of chronic lung infection, which is characterized by cough and sputum production, leading to progressive lung damage. With increasing survival and better knowledge of the pathogenesis of CF lung disease, it has become clear that treatment has to start very early because lung damage occurs in young patients, often before obvious symptoms appear. The arrival of new cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance-regulator (CFTR)-correcting therapies will bring more opportunities to prevent the disease, apart from only treating chronic lung infection...
December 2, 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913752/expression-and-bioactivity-of-human-alpha-fetoprotein-in-a-bac-to-bac-system
#17
Bo Lin, Kun Liu, Wenting Wang, Wei Li, Xu Dong, Yi Chen, Yan Lu, Junli Guo, Mingyue Zhu, Mengsen Li
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is an early serum growth factor in fetal embryonic development and hepatic oncogenesis. A growing number of investigations of AFP as a tumor-specific biomarker have concluded that AFP is an important target for cancer treatment. AFP also plays an immunomodulatory role in the treatment of several autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and thyroiditis. In an effort to support biochemical screening and drug design and discovery, we attempted to express and purify human AFP in a Bac-to-Bac system...
December 2, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913725/in-vivo-expression-technology-and-5-end-mapping-of-the-borrelia-burgdorferi-transcriptome-identify-novel-rnas-expressed-during-mammalian-infection
#18
Philip P Adams, Carlos Flores Avile, Niko Popitsch, Ivana Bilusic, Renée Schroeder, Meghan Lybecker, Mollie W Jewett
Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterial pathogen responsible for Lyme disease, modulates its gene expression profile in response to the environments encountered throughout its tick-mammal infectious cycle. To begin to characterize the B. burgdorferi transcriptome during murine infection, we previously employed an in vivo expression technology-based approach (BbIVET). This identified 233 putative promoters, many of which mapped to un-annotated regions of the complex, segmented genome. Herein, we globally identify the 5' end transcriptome of B...
December 1, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913644/the-impact-of-established-immunoregulatory-networks-on-vaccine-efficacy-and-the-development-of-immunity-to-malaria
#19
REVIEW
Marcela Montes de Oca, Michael F Good, James S McCarthy, Christian R Engwerda
The development of vaccines to protect against parasites is difficult, in large part due to complex host-parasite interactions that have evolved over millennia. Parasitic factors such as antigenic variation and host factors such as age, transmission intensity, and genetic influences are all thought to contribute to the limited efficacy of parasite vaccines. A developing theme in field studies investigating antiparasitic immunity is the emergence, establishment, and maintenance of immunoregulatory networks that shape the immune responses to new infections, as well as vaccines, thereby influencing disease outcome...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913634/comparative-analysis-highlights-variable-genome-content-of-wheat-rusts-and-divergence-of-the-mating-loci
#20
Christina A Cuomo, Guus Bakkeren, Hala Badr Khalil, Vinay Panwar, David Joly, Rob Linning, Sharadha Sakthikumar, Xiao Song, Xian Adiconis, Lin Fan, Jonathan M Goldberg, Joshua Z Levin, Sarah Young, Qiandong Zeng, Yehoshua Anikster, Myron Bruce, Meinan Wang, Chuntao Yin, Brent McCallum, Les J Szabo, Scot Hulbert, Xiaming Chen, John P Fellers
Three members of the Puccinia genus, P. triticina (Pt), P. striiformis f.sp. tritici (Pst), and P. graminis f.sp. tritici (Pgt), cause the most common and often most significant foliar diseases of wheat. While similar in biology and life cycle, each species is uniquely adapted and specialized. The genomes of Pt and Pst were sequenced and compared to that of Pgt to identify common and distinguishing gene content, to determine gene variation among wheat rust pathogens, other rust fungi and basidiomycetes, and to identify genes of significance for infection...
December 2, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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