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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432778/cross-species-studies-of-cognition-relevant-to-drug-discovery-a-translational-approach
#1
REVIEW
T W Robbins
This Review advances the case that bidirectional, cross-species translation of findings from experimental animals to and from humans is an important strategy for drug discovery. Animal models of mental disorders require appropriate behavioural or cognitive outcome variables that can be generalized cross-species. One example is the treatment of impulsive behaviour in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with stimulant drugs. Performance on the stop signal reaction task as an index of impulsivity is improved both in healthy human volunteers and in patients with adult ADHD by stimulant drugs and also by the selective noradrenergic reuptake blocker atomoxetine...
April 22, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432649/psoriasis-depression-and-inflammatory-overlap-a-review
#2
Nupur Patel, Anish Nadkarni, Leah A Cardwell, Nora Vera, Casey Frey, Nikhil Patel, Steven R Feldman
Psoriasis has an enormous impact on patients' lives and is frequently associated with depression. Depression in psoriasis may be attributed, at least in part, to elevated proinflammatory cytokines rather than the psychosocial impact of psoriasis itself. Biologics that target inflammatory cytokines treat the clinical manifestations of psoriasis, but may also play a role in reducing associated depression. Multiple biologics have decreased symptoms of depression during clinical trials in psoriasis; however, these studies used a variety of depression screening tools, which limits comparison...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432040/usability-acceptability-and-adherence-to-an-electronic-self-monitoring-system-in-patients-with-major-depression-discharged-from-inpatient-wards
#3
Lise Lauritsen, Louise Andersen, Emilia Olsson, Stine Rauff Søndergaard, Lasse Benn Nørregaard, Philip Kaare Løventoft, Signe Dunker Svendsen, Erik Frøkjær, Hans Mørch Jensen, Ida Hageman, Lars Vedel Kessing, Klaus Martiny
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from depression have a high risk of relapse and readmission in the weeks following discharge from inpatient wards. Electronic self-monitoring systems that offer patient-communication features are now available to offer daily support to patients, but the usability, acceptability, and adherence to these systems has only been sparsely investigated. OBJECTIVE: We aim to test the usability, acceptability, adherence, and clinical outcome of a newly developed computer-based electronic self-assessment system (the Daybuilder system) in patients suffering from depression, in the period from discharge until commencing outpatient treatment in the Intensive Outpatient Unit for Affective Disorders...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431902/addressing-unmet-maternal-health-needs-at-a-pediatric-specialty-infant-care-clinic
#4
Matthew L Zerden, Anna Falkovich, Erin K McClain, Sarah Verbiest, Diane D Warner, Janice Kay Wereszczak, Alison Stuebe
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this intervention was to evaluate the feasibility of screening mothers of medically fragile infants in the domains of 1) depression, 2) tobacco exposure, and 3) family planning at a post-neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) developmental pediatric visit. Additionally, we sought to estimate the percentage who met criteria for further evaluation in the three domains assessed. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 100 caregivers of medically fragile infants at a specialty, post-NICU clinic visit...
April 18, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431868/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-quality-of-life-and-associated-factors-in-older-adults-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder
#5
Carl I Cohen, Aninditha Vengassery, Elena F Garcia Aracena
OBJECTIVES: Self-perceived quality of life (QOL) is an important outcome indicator in schizophrenia and a predictor of symptomatic and functional improvement. This study provides the first large scale longitudinal study of the fluctuations, predictors, and impact of QOL in older adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD). METHODS: The sample consisted of 104 community-dwelling persons with SSD aged 55 and over (mean age: 61years) who developed the disorder prior to age 45...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431745/mental-health-care-in-athens-are-compulsory-admissions-in-greece-a-one-way-road
#6
Stelios Stylianidis, Lily Evangelia Peppou, Nektarios Drakonakis, Athanasios Douzenis, Aimilia Panagou, Kyriaki Tsikou, Amalia Pantazi, Yannis Rizavas, Benedetto Saraceno
Involuntary hospitalization has long been a contentious issue worldwide. In Greece, the frequency of compulsory admissions is assumed to be alarmingly high; however, no study has systematically investigated this issue. In line with this, the present study aims to estimate the frequency of compulsory admissions in a psychiatric hospital and to explore its underpinnings. All individuals who were admitted to the Psychiatric Hospital of Attica during June-October 2011 were included into the study. Information about their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics as well as their previous contact with mental health services was obtained from interviewing the patient and his/her physician...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431689/-behavioral-activation-programs-a-tool-for-treating-depression-efficiently
#7
C Dondé, R Moirand, A Carre
INTRODUCTION: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disorder, and its treatment often requires complex and costly psychological therapies. Behavioral activation (BA) is a simple, effective and affordable psychotherapy recommended in the treatment of MDD. OBJECTIVES: (i) Explain the theoretical basis of BA and its application in clinical practice. (ii) Review the randomized controlled trials examining BA as a treatment for MDD through a systematic search of the existing literature...
April 18, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431551/guided-internet-based-versus-face-to-face-clinical-care-in-the-management-of-tinnitus-study-protocol-for-a-multi-centre-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Eldré W Beukes, David M Baguley, Peter M Allen, Vinaya Manchaiah, Gerhard Andersson
BACKGROUND: Innovative strategies are required to improve access to evidence-based tinnitus interventions. A guided Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) intervention for tinnitus was therefore developed for a U.K. POPULATION: Initial clinical trials indicated efficacy of iCBT at reducing tinnitus severity and associated comorbidities such as insomnia and depression. The aim of this phase III randomised controlled trial is to compare this new iCBT intervention with an established intervention, namely face-to-face clinical care for tinnitus...
April 21, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431511/validation-of-the-short-version-of-the-10-66-dementia-diagnosis-in-multiethnic-asian-older-adults-in-singapore
#9
Edimansyah Abdin, Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Louisa Picco, Boon Yiang Chua, Martin Prince, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
BACKGROUND: To validate the short version of the 10/66 dementia diagnosis against the standard version of the 10/66 dementia diagnosis and clinical diagnosis and examine concurrent validity with the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment schedule and care needs in a multiethnic Asian older adult population in Singapore. METHODS: Data from the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly study, a nationally representative survey of the older Singapore Resident population aged 60 years and above was used...
April 21, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431489/apathy-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-insights-from-dimensional-apathy-scale
#10
Gabriella Santangelo, Mattia Siciliano, Luigi Trojano, Cinzia Femiano, Maria Rosaria Monsurrò, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Francesca Trojsi
OBJECTIVES: Apathy is associated with cognitive decline and worse survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); an accurate evaluation of this aspect is relevant in clinical settings. The aims of this study are to evaluate the prevalence of apathy in a large ALS sample, using published diagnostic criteria, and to explore the psychometric properties, the sensitivity and the specificity of the Dimensional Apathy Scale (DAS) as a screening tool for apathy. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-one patients underwent clinical interview based on diagnostic criteria for apathy, DAS, Apathy Evaluation Scale, and assessment of depression, global cognitive functioning, and non-verbal intelligence...
April 21, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431406/erk-expression-and-its-correlation-with-stat1-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#11
Hu Wang, Ying Zhang, Hailong Yun, Shubiao Chen, Yelong Chen, Zhaoyong Liu
BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is one of leading causes of cancer-related deaths in Chaoshan region a high-risk region for esophageal cancer. Extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) usually play an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation. However, accumulating evidence has shown that the ERK was aberrantly expressed in cancers and correlated with STAT1 depression. RESULTS: The activated ERK downregulates STAT1 expression in ESCC cell lines and U0126 increases expression of STAT1...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431270/clinicians-conflicting-emotional-responses-to-high-suicide-risk-patients-association-with-short-term-suicide-behaviors-a-prospective-pilot-study
#12
Zimri S Yaseen, Igor I Galynker, Lisa J Cohen, Jessica Briggs
BACKGROUND: Clinician's emotional responses to patients have been recognized as potentially relating to treatment outcome, however they have received little attention in the literature on suicide risk. We examine the relationship between a novel targeted measure of clinicians' emotional responses to high-risk psychiatric inpatients and their short-term post-discharge suicide behavior. METHODS: First-year psychiatry residents' emotional responses to their patients were assessed anonymously with the novel self-report 'Therapist Response Questionnaire-Suicide Form' (TRQ-SF)...
April 6, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431011/the-relationship-between-pain-characteristics-peer-difficulties-and-emotional-functioning-among-adolescents-seeking-treatment-for-chronic-pain-a-test-of-mediational-models
#13
Sherilynn F Chan, Mark Connelly, Dustin P Wallace
To evaluate patterns of relationships between pain characteristics, peer difficulties, and emotional functioning in a sample of adolescents seeking treatment for chronic pain. Participants were 172 adolescents (age M  = 14.88 years; 76% female, 88% White) with heterogeneous chronic pain disorders who completed measures of pain characteristics, peer difficulties, and emotional functioning before their new patient appointment in a pain management clinic. Direct and indirect relationships between variables were tested using path analysis...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430979/effect-of-physical-exercise-and-acute-escitalopram-on-the-excitability-of-brain-monoamine-neurons-in-vivo-electrophysiological-study-in-rats
#14
Eliyahu Dremencov, Kristína Csatlósová, Barbora Durišová, Lucia Lapínová, Lubica Lacinová, Daniela Ježová
Background: The antidepressant effect of physical exercise has been reported in several clinical and animal studies. Since serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine and dopamine play a central role in depression, it is possible that the beneficial effects of physical exercise are mediated via monoamine pathways. This study investigates the effects of voluntary wheel running (VWR) on the excitability of monoamine neurons. Material and methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430921/association-between-cardiovascular-health-and-endothelial-function-with-future-erectile-dysfunction-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#15
Abbi D Lane-Cordova, Kiarri Kershaw, Kiang Liu, David Herrington, Donald M Lloyd-Jones
BACKGROUND: The association of Cardiovascular Health (CVH; defined by the American Heart Association by assigning points for health-related behavioral and clinical factors) with endothelial and erectile dysfunction has not been reported, although endothelial and erectile dysfunction have been associated with components of CVH. METHODS: Data were collected in 1,136 men in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis at baseline and erectile dysfunction status (measured by survey or medication use) at exam 5...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430672/lamotrigine-uses-in-psychiatric-practice-beyond-bipolar-prophylaxis-a-hope-or-hype
#16
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430533/new-directions-in-the-rational-design-of-electrical-and-magnetic-seizure-therapies-individualized-low-amplitude-seizure-therapy-ilast-and-magnetic-seizure-therapy-mst
#17
Thomas Radman, Sarah H Lisanby
Electroconvulsive therapy remains a key treatment option for severe cases of depression, but undesirable side-effects continue to limit its use. Innovations in the design of novel seizure therapies seek to improve its risk benefit ratio through enhanced control of the focality of stimulation. The design of seizure therapies with increased spatial precision is motivated by avoiding stimulation of deep brain structures implicated in memory retention, including the hippocampus. The development of two innovations in seizure therapy-individualized low-amplitude seizure therapy (iLAST) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST), are detailed...
April 21, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430522/impact-of-naturalistic-lighting-on-hospitalized-stroke-patients-in-a-rehabilitation-unit-design-and-measurement
#18
Anders West, Poul Jennum, Sofie Amalie Simonsen, Birgit Sander, Milena Pavlova, Helle K Iversen
INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE: Stroke is a major cause of acquired cerebral disability among adults, frequently accompanied by depression, anxiety, cognitive impairment, disrupted sleep and fatigue. New ways of intervention to prevent these complications are therefore needed. The major circadian regulator, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, is mainly controlled by natural daylight, and the blue spectrum is considered the most powerful. During stroke rehabilitation, patients typically are mostly indoors and therefore not exposed to the natural daytime variation in light intensity...
April 21, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430370/extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-field-elf-emf-reduces-oxidative-stress-and-improves-functional-and-psychological-status-in-ischemic-stroke-patients
#19
Natalia Cichoń, Michał Bijak, Elżbieta Miller, Joanna Saluk
As a result of ischaemia/reperfusion, massive generation of reactive oxygen species occurs, followed by decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) can modulate oxidative stress, but there are no clinical antioxidant studies in brain stroke patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of ELF-EMF on clinical and antioxidant status in post-stroke patients. Fifty-seven patients were divided into two groups: ELF-EMF and non-ELF-EMF. Both groups underwent the same 4-week rehabilitation program...
April 21, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429847/outcome-of-individuals-not-at-risk-of-psychosis-and-prognostic-accuracy-of-the-basel-screening-instrument-for-psychosis-bsip
#20
Martina Papmeyer, Jacqueline Aston, Judith Everts-Graber, Ulrike Heitz, Erich Studerus, Stefan J Borgwardt, Rolf-Dieter Stieglitz, Anita Riecher-Rössler
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the prognostic accuracy of the Basel Screening Instrument for Psychosis (BSIP) in terms of specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive value by following up individuals that were initially not considered to be at increased risk of psychosis based on the BSIP. Moreover, clinical characteristics of these individuals were examined given the relative lack of such information in the literature. METHODS: As part of the "Früherkennung von Psychosen" (FePsy) study, 87 individuals were screened with the BSIP...
April 21, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
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