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vitamin D and sun

Alan M Preston, José Rodríguez-Orengo, Lorena González-Sepúlveda, Sylvette Ayala-Peña, Elizabeth Maldonado-Maldonado
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D status is primarily dependent upon sun exposure and dietary sources, however genetic, cultural, and environmental factors can have a modulating role in the measured amount. One under-reported factor is the effect of regular living quarters on the degree of sun exposure. Herein, we assess vitamin D status in the blood of Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) housed in high amounts of sunlight (corn-cribs), medium sunlight (corrals with shaded areas), and minimal sunlight (quarantine cages)...
June 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Robyn M Lucas, Rachel E Neale, Sasha Madronich, Richard L McKenzie
Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main risk factor for skin cancer, and a major source of vitamin D, in many regions of the world. Sun protection messages to minimize skin cancer risks but avoid vitamin D deficiency are challenging, partly because levels of UV radiation vary by location, season, time of day, and atmospheric conditions. The UV Index provides information on levels of UV radiation and is a cornerstone of sun protection guidelines. Current guidelines from the World Health Organization are that sun protection is required only when the UV Index is 3 or greater...
June 15, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Pang Yao, Liang Sun, Quan Xiong, Xinming Xu, Huaixing Li, Xu Lin
Background: Bone turnover markers (BTMs) are proposed as alternative indicators for bone mineral density in diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. However, little is known about the effects of vitamin D supplementation on BTMs in nonwhite populations. Objective: We aimed to investigate the responses in BTMs after vitamin D supplementation in Asians. Methods: In this secondary data analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 448 Chinese adults [mean ± SD age: 31...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Mary E Kelly, Srinivasagan Ramkumar, Weizhong Sun, Crystal Colon Ortiz, Philip D Kiser, Marcin Golczak, Johannes von Lintig
Vitamin A serves essential functions in mammalian biology as a signaling molecule and chromophore. This lipid can be synthesized from more than 50 putative dietary provitamin A precursor molecules which contain at least one unsubstituted β-ionone ring. We here scrutinized the enzymatic properties and substrate specificities of the two structurally related carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) which catalyze this synthesis. Recombinant BCO1 split substrates across the C15,C15' double bond adjacent to a canonical β-ionone ring site to vitamin A aldehyde...
June 8, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
William B Grant, Barbara J Boucher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Irene Härdi, Sarah Reinhard, Martin Conzelmann, Reto W Kressig, Stephanie A Bridenbaugh
Vitamin D Level in Employees of a Swiss University Geriatric Hospital Abstract. Vitamin D plays an important role in health. The aim of this study was to determine the vitamin D level in hospital employees from different age, sex and occupational groups. 281 employees took part in the investigation. Vitamin D (25-OH) was determined by serum sample analysis, the mean value was 59.5 nmol/l. 43.1 % of participants showed a vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/l). Low vitamin D levels significantly correlated with increased BMI...
June 2018: Praxis
Vijay Ganji, Bernadette Martineau, William Edmund Van Fleit
BACKGROUND: Because children have been advised on the dangers of sun exposure, diet is an important contributor of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations. Aim of this study was to determine whether serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with any specific dietary patterns in US children. METHODS: Data from 2 cycles of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 for individuals aged 2 to ≤19 y, were used to study relation between dietary patterns and serum 25(OH)D...
June 4, 2018: Nutrition Journal
M J W Thompson, G Jones, D A Aitken
Greater skin pigmentation reduces dose equivalent cutaneous vitamin D3 production, potentially impacting lifetime vitamin D status and fracture risk. We show that melanin density was positively associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D and total body bone mineral density. These relationships were partially explained by greater sun exposure due to more permissive skin phenotype. INTRODUCTION: Higher cutaneous melanin reduces vitamin D3 production. This may impact lifetime vitamin D status and increase fracture risk...
June 1, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Linda van Deventer, Susanna M H Kannenberg, Jacques du Toit
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the most important environmental risk factor for the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). UV radiation is, however, also vital in the formation of vitamin D in humans. Strict sun protection advised to skin cancer patients may lead to vitamin D deficiency, yet vitamin D may have a protective effect against cancer formation. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim was to determine whether patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer at our institution were vitamin D deficient...
May 29, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Muhammad Arif Nadeem Saqib, Ibrar Rafique, Ijaz Hayder, Rabia Irshad, Saira Bashir, Rizwan Ullah, Najma Javed Awan
OBJECTIVE: To compare vitamin D levels with bone mineral density, serum calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase. METHODS: The cross-sectional multicentre study was conducted at Pakistan Health Research Council centres in Islamabad, Lahore, and Karachi,and comprised subjects coming for either vitamin D testing or bone mineral density examination. Information related to demography, height/weight, skin colour, smoking, use of sun screen, daily milk intake, sun exposure and exercise was taken along with biochemical tests like serum calcium and phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, and 25 hydroxy vitamin D...
April 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
L Wang, X Chen, Z X Cheng, Z Lian, A D Sun
Objective: To investigate the gene expression and polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Method: The expression of VDR mRNA was detected by fluorescent quantitative PCR in PBMC from 48 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 48 controls. The FokI and ApaI loci of all subjects were detected by TaqMan-MGB fluorescent probe PCR. Result: The VDR mRNA △Ct value was 9.32±0.91 and 7.31±1.04 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and controls, respectively. Using multivariate Logistic regression analysis, the results showed that the distribution of FokI point Ff genotype in the case group was significantly higher than that in the control group (adjusted OR =1...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Arif Abu-Abed, Said Azbarga, Roni Peleg
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D is an important component of bone metabolism. Skin cells synthesize vitamin D when exposed to the sun. However, prolonged sun exposure damages the skin and increases the risk for skin cancer. The objective is to evaluate and compare the attitudes and recommendations of family doctors, dermatologists, and endocrinologists on exposure to the sun and vitamin D. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was completed by personal interview in a study population of 78 family doctors, 21 dermatologists, and 22 endocrinologists...
May 24, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
Cong Dai, Min Jiang, Ming-Jun Sun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
L G D'Cruz, S A Husain, T Wells, C Morgan, P J Stanczyk, A Satgunarajah, J Kashir, B L Calver, L M Blayney, F A Lai
Objectives: Does excessive sun-exposure, non-use of sunscreen and/or high doses of vitamin-D3 supplements provoke exacerbation of asthma? Design: Clinical examinations, retrospective records-access and questionnaire surveys were distributed to a convenience sample of allergic-asthma patient (n=183). Setting: Patients (19-89 years) attending the outpatient respiratory clinics at Maidstone Hospital were enrolled. Results: 90...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Aging Research & Clinical Practice
Tahani A Zareef, Robert T Jackson, Abdulkareem A Alkahtani
Background: Saudi women depend on food sources to maintain their serum 25(OH) D concentrations because covering by traditional clothing and time spent indoors limit their sun exposure. Little is known about vitamin D intake and its main food sources in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the association between vitamin D and calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in young women is not well researched. Objectives: To assess the adequacy of vitamin D intake among Saudi women as compared to the estimated average requirements (EARs), to identify dietary vitamin D sources, to examine potential determinants of vitamin D intake, and to assess bone health and the association of calcium and vitamin D intake with BMD...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Yi-Qian Sun, Ben M Brumpton, Carolina Bonilla, Sarah J Lewis, Stephen Burgess, Frank Skorpen, Yue Chen, Tom Il Nilsen, Pål Richard Romundstad, Xiao-Mei Mai
We aimed to investigate potential causal associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and incidence of lung cancer overall and histologic types.We performed a Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis using a prospective cohort study in Norway, including 54 580 individuals and 676 incident lung cancer cases. A 25(OH)D allele score was generated based on vitamin D-increasing alleles of rs2282679, rs12785878 and rs10741657. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incidence of lung cancer and histologic types were estimated in relation to the allele score...
May 10, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Yonghui Bi, Weiguo Zhang, Jian Sun, Ruohui Gao
This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of vitamin D (VD) combined with interferon (IFN) type I (IFN-α) on mice with hepatitis B and to explore the possible mechanism. The mice were divided into control group, model group, IFN-α group, and IFN-α +  VD group. After 4 weeks, the mice of four groups were weighed, and the thymus and spleen indexes were calculated. The activity of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in the serum was detected while pathological changes of the liver were observed...
January 2018: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Lars Alfredsson, Tomas Olsson
Lifestyle and environmental factors potently influence the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), because genetic predisposition only explains a fraction of the risk increase. There is strong evidence for associations of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, smoking, sun exposure/vitamin D, and adolescent obesity to risk of MS. There is also circumstantial evidence on organic solvents and shift work, all associate with greater risk, although certain factors like nicotine, alcohol, and a high coffee consumption associate with a reduced risk...
May 7, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Barbara B Shih, Mark D Farrar, Marcus S Cooke, Joanne Osman, Abigail K Langton, Richard Kift, Ann R Webb, Jacqueline L Berry, Rachel E B Watson, Andy Vail, Frank R de Gruijl, Lesley E Rhodes
Public health guidance recommends limiting sun-exposure to sub-sunburn levels, but it's unknown whether these can gain vitamin D (for musculoskeletal health) whilst avoiding epidermal DNA damage (initiates skin cancer). Well-characterised healthy humans of all skin types (I-VI; lightest to darkest skin) were exposed to a low dose-series of solar simulated UVR of 20-80% their individual sunburn threshold dose (minimal erythemal dose, MED). Significant UVR dose-responses were seen for serum 25(OH)D and whole epidermal CPD, with as little as 0...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Bingjun Zhang, Yuge Wang, Yi Zhong, Siyuan Liao, Zhengqi Lu
25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency is a frequent condition in patients who suffer acute ischemic stroke (AIS), and several studies suggested that it may be associated with a poorer prognosis. Whether this association is affected by hypertension is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the association between 25(OH)D levels and both clinical severity and outcome after 3 months in AIS patients stratified by the history of hypertension. Consecutive first-ever AIS patients admitted to the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, China were identified...
May 3, 2018: Neurochemistry International
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