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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718164/advances-in-imaging-in-prostate-and-bladder-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Abhishek Srivastava, Laura M Douglass, Victoria Chernyak, Kara L Watts
Recent advancements in urologic imaging techniques aim to improve the initial detection of urologic malignancies and subsequent recurrence and to more accurately stage disease. This allows the urologist to make better informed treatment decisions. In particular, exciting advances in the imaging of prostate cancer and bladder cancer have recently emerged including the use of dynamic, functional imaging with MRI and PET. In this review, we will explore these imaging modalities, in addition to new sonography techniques and CT, and how they hope to improve the diagnosis and management of prostate and bladder cancer...
September 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718074/advances-in-imaging-instrumentation-for-nuclear-cardiology
#2
Jae Sung Lee, Gil Kovalski, Tali Sharir, Dong Soo Lee
Advances in imaging instrumentation and technology have greatly contributed to nuclear cardiology. Dedicated cardiac SPECT cameras incorporating novel, highly efficient detector, collimator, and system designs have emerged with the expansion of nuclear cardiology. Solid-state radiation detectors incorporating cadmium zinc telluride, which directly convert radiation to electrical signals and yield improved energy resolution and spatial resolution and enhanced count sensitivity geometries, are increasingly gaining favor as the detector of choice for application in dedicated cardiac SPECT systems...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713667/absent-congenital-cervical-pedicle-nearly-misdiagnosed-as-a-facet-dislocation-a-case-report
#3
Scott Safir, Jonathan Rasouli, Jeremy Steinberger, Branko Skovrlj, Amish Doshi, Konstantinos Margetis, Saadi Ghatan
BACKGROUND: Cervical spinal injury encompasses up to 1.5% of all pediatric injuries. Children, and more specifically infants, are a difficult subset of patients to obtain neurological exam in the setting of trauma, thus necessitating the use of cervical X-rays, CT scans, and MRI imaging. CASE DESCRIPTION: A healthy, 15-month-old boy had an unwitnessed fall down a flight of stairs and received a CT scan of the head and cervical spine in the emergency department due to cephalohematoma and mechanism of injury...
September 2017: Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery: Advanced Techniques and Case Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711565/new-aspects-of-molecular-imaging-in-prostate-cancer
#4
Francesco Ceci, Paolo Castellucci, Juliano J Cerci, Stefano Fanti
Nowadays several new imaging modalities are available for investigating prostate cancer (PCa) such as magnet resonance imaging (MRI) in the form of whole body MRI and pelvic multiparametric MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) using choline as radiotracers. Nevertheless, these modalities proved sub-optimal accuracy for detecting PCa metastases, particularly in the recurrence setting. A new molecular probe targeting the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been recently developed for PET imaging...
July 12, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711211/advanced-tissue-characterization-and-texture-analysis-using-dual-energy-computed-tomography-horizons-and-emerging-applications
#5
REVIEW
Reza Forghani, Ashok Srinivasan, Behzad Forghani
In the last article of this issue, advanced analysis capabilities of DECT is reviewed, including spectral Hounsfield unit attenuation curves, virtual monochromatic images, material decomposition maps, tissue effective Z determination, and other advanced post-processing DECT tools, followed by different methods of analysis of the attenuation curves generated using DECT. The article concludes with exciting future horizons and potential applications, such as the use of the rich quantitative data in dual energy CT scans for texture or radiomic analysis and the use of machine learning methods for generation of prediction models using spectral data...
August 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711202/miscellaneous-and-emerging-applications-of-dual-energy-computed-tomography-for-the-evaluation-of-intracranial-pathology
#6
REVIEW
Hirofumi Kuno, Kotaro Sekiya, Margaret N Chapman, Osamu Sakai
Dual-energy computed tomography (CT) has the potential to improve detection of abnormalities and increase diagnostic confidence in the evaluation of a variety of neurologic conditions by using different x-ray energy-dependent absorption behaviors of different materials. This article reviews the virtual monochromatic imaging applications of dual-energy CT, particularly material decomposition algorithms to improve lesion conspicuity, define lesion-normal tissue interface using different reconstruction techniques, and discuss miscellaneous emerging applications of dual-energy CT for neuroimaging, with an emphasis on their potential clinical utility...
August 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706909/volumetric-assessment-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#7
REVIEW
David J Murphy, Ritu R Gill
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly malignant pleural neoplasm with a dismal prognosis. Multimodality approach including surgery and chemotherapy are utilized to treat patients with resectable disease. Clinical staging allows for selection of patients for treatment strategies, but has not been found to be prognostic and is plagued by high interobserver variability. Tumor volume measurement on cross-sectional imaging has emerged as a potential quantitative tool with prognostic significance. This review focuses on volumetric assessment from cross-sectional imaging (CT, MRI, (18)F-FDG PET/CT) and the potential prognostic benefit and applications...
June 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700585/validation-of-the-sensitivity-of-the-national-emergency-x-radiography-utilization-study-nexus-head-computed-tomographic-ct-decision-instrument-for-selective-imaging-of-blunt-head-injury-patients-an-observational-study
#8
William R Mower, Malkeet Gupta, Robert Rodriguez, Gregory W Hendey
BACKGROUND: Clinicians, afraid of missing intracranial injuries, liberally obtain computed tomographic (CT) head imaging in blunt trauma patients. Prior work suggests that clinical criteria (National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study [NEXUS] Head CT decision instrument [DI]) can reliably identify patients with important injuries, while excluding injury, and the need for imaging in many patients. Validating this DI requires confirmation of the hypothesis that the lower 95% confidence limit for its sensitivity in detecting serious injury exceeds 99...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700484/cardiac-metastasis-of-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma-complicated-by-pulmonary-embolism-a-case-report
#9
Sonaz Malekzadeh, Alexandra Platon, Pierre-Alexandre Poletti
RATIONALE: Cardiac metastasis is known as a rare complication of head and neck malignancy. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a 58-year-old woman patient with a history of tongue carcinoma who was admitted in emergency department for sudden chest pain. Imaging work-up by computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) diagnosed a cardiac metastasis complicated by intraventricular thrombus and pulmonary embolism. DIAGNOSIS: Cardiac metastasis from tongue carcinoma complicated by pulmonary embolism...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696854/ct-angiography-in-the-emergency-department-maximizing-contrast-enhancement-and-image-quality-while-minimizing-radiation-dose-and-contrast-material-volume-vascular-interventional-radiology
#10
Toshimasa J Clark, Martin L Gunn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695643/diagnostic-value-and-effect-of-bedside-ultrasound-in-acute-appendicitis-in-the-emergency-department
#11
Brian C Weiner
In their introduction, Gungor et al described ultrasound as a technique for evaluation of patients with low prior probability of acute appendicitis. This testing protocol for appendicitis is being proposed to challenge and perhaps replace the current standard of care for imaging, CT scanning. Specificity of CT scanning is reported in the range of 92-98% and CT is generally felt to be more accurate than ultrasonography The finding of 95.8% specificity for their method appears competitive and may be arithmetically correct but is seriously flawed...
July 11, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692515/criteria-for-performing-cranial-computed-tomography-for-chinese-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-canadian-computed-tomography-head-rule-or-new-orleans-criteria
#12
Xiao-Feng Yang, Yuan-Yuan Meng, Liang Wen, Hao Wang
Computed tomography (CT) provides the primary diagnostic evidence for traumatic brain injury (TBI), but few positive traumatic findings are discovered in patients with mild TBI. In China, there are no existing criteria for selecting patients with mild TBI to undergo CT, and almost all of these patients undergo cranial CT in the emergency department. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the necessity of cranial CT among patients with mild TBI, as well as the feasibility of 2 popular criteria (Canadian CT head rule [CCHR] and New Orleans Criteria [NOC]) in China...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687599/psma-ligands-for-pet-imaging-of-prostate-cancer
#13
Sarah M Schwarzenböck, Isabel Rauscher, Christina Bluemel, Wolfgang P Fendler, Steven P Rowe, Martin G Pomper, Ali Afshar-Oromieh, Ken Herrmann, Matthias Eiber
Targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) with (68)Ga-labelled and (18)F-labelled PET-agents has become increasingly important in recent years. Imaging of biochemically recurrent prostate cancer (PC) has been established as a widely accepted clinical indication for PSMA ligand PET/CT in many parts of the world due to the results of multiple, primarily retrospective, studies that indicate superior detection efficacy compared to standard of care imaging. For high-risk primary PC, evidence is growing that this modality significantly aids in the detection of otherwise occult nodal and bone metastases...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687284/are-english-ct-departments-and-radiographers-prepared-for-the-morbidly-obese-patient
#14
R Wiles, S M Meredith, J P Mullany, T Wiles
INTRODUCTION: Morbid obesity is increasing in England, as is the use of CT scanning. All CT scanners have weight and body width limits. It is imperative that the radiographer performing the scan is aware of these limits, particularly in an emergency. This study aim was to determine whether radiographers are aware of their scanner limits, where they may be able to send a patient who exceeds these limits and whether a formal protocol exists. The secondary aim of the study was to determine capacities of scanners in acute trusts throughout England...
August 2017: Radiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686923/rare-case-of-incarcerated-obturator-hernia-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#15
N C Sá, V C M Silva, P R L Carreiro, A S Matos Filho, I A Lombardi
INTRODUCTION: Obturator hernia is a rare condition accounting for less than 1% of all intra abdominal hernias. Clinical diagnosis is considered a challenge for most surgeons. It usually appears as an intestinal obstruction. Confirmation of diagnosis is carried out by means of imaging or during surgery. CASE REPORT: An 85-year-old female patient, with symptoms of intestinal obstruction of 24h duration was admitted to the emergency room of Unimed Hospital - Belo Horizonte...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686423/nanoparticle-uptake-in-plants-gold-nanomaterial-localized-in-roots-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-by-x-ray-computed-nanotomography-and-hyperspectral-imaging
#16
Astrid Avellan, Fabienne Schwab, Armand Masion, Perrine Chaurand, Daniel Borschneck, Vladimir Vidal, Jérôme Rose, Catherine Santaella, Clément Levard
Terrestrial plants can internalize and translocate nanoparticles (NPs). However, direct evidence for the processes driving the NP uptake and distribution in plants is scarce at the cellular level. Here, NP-root interactions were investigated after 10 days of exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana to 10 mg.L 1 of negatively or positively charged gold NPs ((-/+)Au-NPs, 13.4±1.3 nm, and 12.1±0.8 nm, respectively) in gels. Two complementary imaging tools were used: X-ray computed nanotomography (nano-CT), and enhanced dark-field microscopy combined with hyperspectral imaging (DF-HSI)...
July 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678047/imaging-of-the-pulmonary-valve-in-the-adults
#17
Ricardo H Pignatelli, Cory Noel, S Chandra B Reddy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pulmonary valve is the least imaged of the cardiac valves in adults. This review will address the strengths and the limitations of various imaging modalities that are commonly used for evaluation of pulmonary valve diseases in the adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Valvular pulmonary stenosis is mostly congenital and pulmonary regurgitation is usually an acquired pulmonary valve disease. Combined pulmonary stenosis and pulmonary regurgitation as sequel to previous surgeries for congenital heart diseases is the most common form of pulmonary valve disease in the adults...
July 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678028/three-dimensional-ultrasound-versus-computerized-tomography-in-fat-graft-volumetric-analysis
#18
Charles Philip Blackshear, Michael Anthony Rector, Natalie Narie Chung, Dre Michael Irizarry, John Stephen Flacco, Elizabeth Anne Brett, Arash Momeni, Gordon Kwanlyp Lee, Michael T Longaker, Derrick C Wan
Studies evaluating fat grafting in mice have frequently used micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) as an accurate radiographic tool to measure longitudinal volume retention without killing the animal. Over the past decade, however, microultrasonography has emerged as an equally powerful preclinical imaging tool. Given their respective strengths in 3-dimensional reconstruction, there is no study to our knowledge that directly compares micro-CT with microultrasound in volumetric analysis. In this study, we compared the performance of micro-CT with microultrasound in the evaluation of adipose tissue graft volume in a murine model...
July 3, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676304/imaging-trends-in-acute-venous-thromboembolic-disease-2000-to-2015
#19
Isaac Wang, Matthew S Davenport, Ella A Kazerooni
PURPOSE: To measure diffusion of new knowledge and correlate imaging utilization for suspected acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) with d-dimer utilization, landmark publications, and institutional guidelines. MATERIALS: Between 2000 and 2015, the number of CT pulmonary angiograms (CTPAs), CTPA combined with indirect CT venography (CTV), ventilation-perfusion (VQ) scans, and lower extremity venous Doppler ultrasound (US) examinations were obtained for inpatients and emergency department (ED) patients and correlated with d-dimer utilization, landmark publications regarding radiation and VTE imaging, and an institutional inpatient best-practice alert requiring VTE prophylaxis assessment (2008)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674910/diagnostic-imaging-in-pediatric-thoracic-trauma
#20
Claudia Lucia Piccolo, Stefania Ianniello, Margherita Trinci, Michele Galluzzo, Michele Tonerini, Massimo Zeccolini, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Vittorio Miele
Thoracic trauma accounts for approximately 14% of blunt force traumatic deaths, second only to head injuries. Chest trauma can be blunt (90% of cases) or penetrating. In young patients, between 60 and 80% of chest injuries result from blunt trauma, with over half as a consequence of impact with motor vehicles, whereas in adolescents and adults, penetrating trauma has a statistically more prominent role. Pulmonary contusions and rib fractures are the most frequent injuries occurring. Chest X-ray is the first imaging modality of choice to identify patients presenting with life-threatening conditions (i...
July 4, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
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