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Jiahong Zhong, Hui Yu, Chang Huang, Qiuping Zhong, Yaping Chen, Jinfeng Xie, Zhongzhen Zhou, Jiangping Xu, Haitao Wang
Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is a promising target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the underlying mechanism has not yet been well elucidated. Additionally, most of current PDE4 inhibitors produce severe nausea and vomiting response in patients, which limit their clinical application. FCPR16 is a novel PDE4 inhibitor with little emetic potential. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect and underlying mechanism of FCPR16 against cellular apoptosis induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+ ) were examined in SH-SY5Y cells...
February 14, 2018: Redox Biology
Mohammed Alotaibi
During labour, the uterus itself is vulnerable to hypoxia/ischemia that can occur with each strong contraction and this may ultimately cause dysfunctional labour in some women. Periods of Intermittent re-oxygenations are beneficial to tissues subjected to hypoxia to wash out metabolic by-products that have been accumulated during hypoxic stresses which may affect the tissue viability. We proposed that short intermittent hypoxic episodes may protect the uterus from subsequent sustained long hypoxia. To investigate this, two sets of experiments were performed on term-pregnant and nonpregnant rat uterine tissues...
February 12, 2018: Theriogenology
Ming-Yeh Yang, Kai-Chih Chang, Liang-Yu Chen, Po-Ching Wang, Chih-Chiang Chou, Zhong-Bin Wu, Anren Hu
Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a non-invasive and safe therapeutic method for microbial infections. Bacterial antibiotic resistance is caused by antibiotics abuse. Drug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. is a serious problem in hospitals around the world. These pathogens from nosocomial infections have high mortality rates in frailer people, and Acinetobacter spp. is commonly found in immunocompromised patients. Visible light is safer than ultraviolet light (UV) for PDI of nosocomial pathogens with mammalian cells...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Aline Steinmetz, Luiza Steffens, Ana Moira Morás, Flávia Prezzi, Elizandra Braganhol, Jenifer Saffi, Rafael Scorsatto Ortiz, Helena M T Barros, Dinara Jaqueline Moura
Cocaine is one of the most popular illicit drug worldwide. Due its great addictive potential, which leads to euphoria and hyperactivity, it is considered a public health concern. At the central nervous system, the drug acts inhibiting catecholamine re-uptake. It is now known that in addition to the toxicity of the drug itself, the contaminants present in the street drug have raised concern about the harmful effects on health. Toxicological in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated the toxic effects of cocaine correlated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn lead to oxidative damage to the cells...
February 20, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Moritz Ebeler, Ola Lind, Nils Norrman, Ronnie Palmgren, Matthias Franzreb
Monoclonal antibodies are a dominant component of today's biopharmaceutical market and are typically purified by classical platform processes. However, high costs and rising demands are drivers for the development of new, efficient and flexible integrated purification processes. Currently, high-gradient magnetic separation as a direct capturing tool for protein purification suffers from the lack of suitable GMP-compliant separation equipment for industrial scale. As a solution for this bottleneck, we present a purification process for a monoclonal antibody directly from CHO cell culture by use of protein A-functionalized magnetic particles together with the first pilot-scale GMP-compliant 'rotor-stator' high-gradient magnetic separator...
February 20, 2018: New Biotechnology
Valéria Nagy, André Vidal-Meireles, Anna Podmaniczki, Klára Szentmihályi, Gábor Rákhely, Laura Zsigmond, László Kovács, Szilvia Z Tóth
Sulphur limitation may restrain cell growth and viability. In the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, sulphur limitation may induce H2 production lasting for several days, to be exploited as a renewable energy source. Sulphur limitation causes a large number of physiological changes, including the inactivation of photosystem II (PSII), leading to the establishment of hypoxia, essential for the increase in hydrogenase expression and activity. The inactivation of PSII has been long assumed to be caused by the sulphur-limited turnover of its reaction center protein, PsbA...
February 23, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Nalini Raghunathan, Rajvardhan M Kapshikar, Jakku K Leela, Jillella Mallikarjun, Philippe Bouloc, Jayaraman Gowrishankar
Transcription termination by Rho is essential for viability in various bacteria, including some major pathogens. Since Rho acts by targeting nascent RNAs that are not simultaneously translated, it also regulates antisense transcription. Here we show that RNase H-deficient mutants of Escherichia coli exhibit heightened sensitivity to the Rho inhibitor bicyclomycin, and that Rho deficiency provokes increased formation of RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops) which is ameliorated by expression of the phage T4-derived R-loop helicase UvsW...
February 21, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Rebecca D Sandlin, Keith H K Wong, Shannon N Tessier, Anisa Swei, Lauren D Bookstaver, Bennett E Ahearn, Shyamala Maheswaran, Daniel A Haber, Shannon L Stott, Mehmet Toner
Emerging technologies have enabled the isolation and characterization of rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from the blood of metastatic cancer patients. CTCs represent a non-invasive opportunity to gain information regarding the primary tumor and recent reports suggest CTCs have value as an indicator of disease status. CTCs are fragile and difficult to expand in vitro, so typically molecular characterization must be performed immediately following isolation. To ease experimental timelines and enable biobanking, cryopreservation methods are needed...
2018: PloS One
Per-Arne Lönnqvist
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To put in perspective, the various challenges that faces pediatric anesthesiologists because of the recently lowered limits with regards to the viability of a fetus. Both medical and ethical considerations will be highlighted. RECENT FINDINGS: Issues related to: who should anesthetize these tiny babies; can we provide adequate and legal monitoring during the anesthetic; does these immature babies need hypnosis and amnesia and the moral/ethical implications associated with being involved with care of doubtful long-term outcome are reviewed...
February 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Yu Liu, Kun Miao, Yinghao Li, Matthew Fares, Shuyuan Chen, Xin Zhang
Protein homeostasis, or proteostasis, is essential for cellular fitness and viability. Many environmental factors compromise proteostasis, induce global proteome stress, and cause diseases. Proteome stress sensor is a powerful tool to dissect the mechanism of cellular stress and find therapeutics that ameliorate these diseases. In this work, we present a multi-color HaloTag-based sensor (named AgHalo) to visualize and quantify proteome stresses in live cells. The current AgHalo sensor is equipped with three fluorogenic probes that turn on fluorescence when the sensor forms either soluble oligomers or insoluble aggregates upon exposure to stress conditions, both in vitro and in cellulo...
February 23, 2018: Biochemistry
Seyed Ramin Pajoumshariati, Morteza Azizi, Daniel Wesner, Paula G Miller, Michael Shuler, Alireza Abbaspourrad
Microfluidic-based cell encapsulation has promising potential in therapeutic applications. It also provides a unique approach for studying cellular dynamics and interactions, though this concept has not yet been fully explored. No in vitro model currently exists that allows us to study the interaction between crypt cells and Peyer's patch immune cells due to the difficulty in recreating with sufficient control the two different microenvironments in the intestine in which these cell types belong. However, we demonstrate that our microfluidic technique is able to provide such precise control and that these cells can proliferate inside the microgels...
February 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Antonia Terpou, Loulouda Bosnea, Maria Kanellaki, Stavros Plessas, Argyro Bekatorou, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou, Athanasios A Koutinas
In this study, a novel potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei K5, previously isolated from traditional Greek Feta cheese and kefir grains, was evaluated as an adjunct culture for industrial white brined cheese production. Targeting industrial applications, apart from free cell cultures, a novel ready-to-use freeze-dried immobilized biocatalyst was prepared. The biocatalyst composed of L. paracasei K5 cells immobilized on delignified wheat bran prebiotic carrier and was freeze-dried without cryoprotectants...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Ana B Blázquez, Ángela Vázquez-Calvo, Miguel A Martín-Acebes, Juan-Carlos Saiz
Flaviviruses are relevant animal and human pathogens that include West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, or Zika virus, among others. Currently, no licensed therapy is available to fight flaviviral infections. Protein kinases C (PKCs) constitute a family of multifunctional lipid-dependent isoenzymes that regulate a wide variety of cellular processes (apoptosis, differentiation, proliferation, cellular transformation, motility, adhesion, etc.) being currently considered at the front line of drug development for the treatment of diverse human disorders...
February 23, 2018: Viruses
Xican Li, Yulu Xie, Ke Li, Aizhi Wu, Hong Xie, Qian Guo, Penghui Xue, Yerkingul Maleshibek, Wei Zhao, Jiasong Guo, Dongfeng Chen
The study tried to explore the role of sugar-residues and mechanisms of phenolic phenylpropanoid antioxidants. Acteoside, along with its apioside forsythoside B and rhamnoside poliumoside, were comparatively investigated using various antioxidant assays. In three electron-transfer (ET)-based assays (FRAP, CUPRAC, PTIO•-scavenging at pH 4.5), the relative antioxidant levels roughly ruled as: acteoside >forsythoside B > poliumoside. Such order was also observed in H⁺-transfer-involved PTIO•-scavenging assay at pH 7...
February 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Marco Artini, Alexandros Patsilinakos, Rosanna Papa, Mijat Božović, Manuela Sabatino, Stefania Garzoli, Gianluca Vrenna, Marco Tilotta, Federico Pepi, Rino Ragno, Laura Selan
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous organism and opportunistic pathogen that can cause persistent infections due to its peculiar antibiotic resistance mechanisms and to its ability to adhere and form biofilm. The interest in the development of new approaches for the prevention and treatment of biofilm formation has recently increased. The aim of this study was to seek new non-biocidal agents able to inhibit biofilm formation, in order to counteract virulence rather than bacterial growth and avoid the selection of escape mutants...
February 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Seulah Lee, Hee Ra Park, Joo Yeon Lee, Jung-Hyun Cho, Hye Min Song, Ah Hyun Kim, Wonjong Lee, Yujeong Lee, Seung-Cheol Chang, Hyung Sik Kim, Jaewon Lee
Acrylamide (ACR) is a neurotoxin known to produce neurotoxicity characterized by ataxia, skeletal muscle weakness, cognitive impairment, and numbness of the extremities. Previously, investigators reported that high-dose (50 mg/kg) ACR impaired hippocampal neurogenesis and increased neural progenitor cell death; however, the influence of subchronic environmentally relevant low dose-(2, 20, or 200 μg/kg) ACRs have not been examined in adult neurogenesis or cognitive function in mice. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether low-dose ACR adversely affected mouse hippocampal neurogenesis and neurocognitive functions...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Yeo-Jung Kwon, Nam-Hyeon Cho, Dong-Jin Ye, Hyoung-Seok Baek, Yeon-Sang Ryu, Young-Jin Chun
Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1), a well-known oncogene, has garnered wide attention because of its tumor-specific expression pattern and actions as a carcinogenic factor. Although CYP1B1 might play a crucial role in carcinogenesis, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying oncogenic involvement in cancer development remain unclear. The present study investigated the manner in which CYP1B1 promotes survival of various cancer cells. Treatment with 2,2',4,6'-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS), a specific CYP1B1 inhibitor, significantly inhibited cell viability in human breast cancer and leukemia cell lines, including MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HL-60, and U937 cells...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Jeong-Hyeon Kim, Kyeong-A Kim, Young-Jun Shin, Haram Kim, Arshad Majid, Ok-Nam Bae
Endothelial cells (ECs) maintain the structure and function of blood vessels and are readily exposed to exogenous and endogenous toxic substances in the circulatory system. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) circulate in the blood and differentiate to EC, which are known to participate in angiogenesis and regeneration of injured vessels. Dysfunction in EPC contributes to cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes, but the precise molecular mechanisms underlying diabetic EPC abnormalities are not completely understood...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Jae Yoon Lee, YoungWon Koo, GeunHyung Kim
This work investigated the printability and applicability of a core/shell cell-printed scaffold for medium-term (for up to 20 days) cryopreservation and subsequent cultivation with acceptable cellular activities including cell viability. We developed an innovative cell printing process supplemented with a microfluidic channel, a core/shell nozzle, and low temperature working stage to obtain a cell-laden 3D porous collagen scaffold for cryopreservation. The 3D porous biomedical scaffold consisted of core/shell struts with a cell-laden collagen-based bioink/dimethyl sulfoxide mixture in the core-region, and an alginate/poly(ethylene oxide) mixture in the shell-region...
February 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Salih Tuncay, Halil Senol, Eray Metin Guler, Nuket Ocal, Hasan Secen, Abdurrahim Kocyigit, Gulacti Topcu
BACKGROUND: Oleanolic acid (OA) is a known natural compound with many important biological activities. Thirteen oleanolic acid derivatives linked at C-3 and C-28 were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by 1H- and 13C NMR and mass spectral analyses. Among them, compounds 4, 6, 8-10, 12, 13 were synthesized for the first time. They were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity. They showed proliferative effect at low concentrations while cytotoxic effect was observed at high concentrations in a dose dependent manner...
February 21, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
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