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Enrico Gugliandolo, Roberta Fusco, Giovanna Ginestra, Ramona D'amico, Carlo Bisignano, Giuseppina Mandalari, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Rosanna Di Paola
BACKGROUND: Colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), the most common pathogen isolated mainly in patients with cystic fibrosis, is particularly difficult to eradicate and is associated with acceleration of decline in lung function and with poorer prognosis. PA LPS is recognized by toll like receptors 4 (TLR4) and has been shown to induce lung inflammation in vivo. In addition, regulation of this process is essential for proper pathogen clearance and to prevent excessive inflammatory response resulting in tissue damage...
March 15, 2018: Shock
Divyesh Patel, Sagar Gaikwad, Naveen Challagundla, Manish Nivsarkar, Reena Agrawal-Rajput
Repeated exposure to the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigates triggers spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) signalling through dectin-1 activation, which is associated with deleterious airway inflammation. β-Glucan-induced dectin-1 signalling activates the NLRP3 inflammasome, which in turn rapidly produces IL-1β, a master regulator of inflammation. IL-1β expression results in Th17/Treg imbalance, pulmonary inflammation, and bystander tissue injury. This study reports that 3,4 methylenedioxy-β-nitrostyrene (MNS), a potent SYK inhibitor, markedly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines in vitro...
January 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Michael Kasper, Kathrin Barth
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the interstitium and destruction of alveolar histoarchitecture ultimately leading to a fatal impairment of lung function. Different concepts describe either a dominant role of inflammatory pathways or a disturbed remodeling of resident cells of the lung parenchyma during fibrogenesis. Further, a combination of both the mechanisms has been postulated. The present review emphasizes the particular involvement of alveolar epithelial type I cells in all these processes, their contribution to innate immune/inflammatory functions and maintenance of proper alveolar barrier functions...
December 22, 2017: Bioscience Reports
Caterina Ledda, Chiara Costa, Serena Matera, Beatrice Puglisi, Valentina Costanzo, Massimo Bracci, Concettina Fenga, Venerando Rapisarda, Carla Loreto
Natural asbestiform fibers are defined 'naturally occurring asbestos' (NOA) and refer to the mineral as a natural component of soils or rocks. The release of NOA fibers into the air from rocks or soils by routine human activities or natural weathering processes represents a risk for human beings. Fluoro-edenite (FE) is a NOA fiber detected in the benmoreitic lava in the area of Biancavilla, South-west slope of Mt. Etna. The aim of the present study was to investigate FE immunotoxicity pathways in a group of 38 occupationally exposed construction workers, in order to find any biological markers of its effect...
May 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
R Chaudhry, A Ghosh, A Chandolia
Genus Mycoplasma, belonging to the class Mollicutes, encompasses unique lifeforms comprising of a small genome of 8,00,000 base pairs and the inability to produce a cell wall under any circumstances. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most common pathogenic species infecting humans. It is an atypical respiratory bacteria causing community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children and adults of all ages. Although atypical pneumonia caused by M. pneumoniae can be managed in outpatient settings, complications affecting multiple organ systems can lead to hospitalization in vulnerable population...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Silvia D'Ippolito, Chiara Tersigni, Riccardo Marana, Fiorella Di Nicuolo, Raffaele Gaglione, Esther Diana Rossi, Roberta Castellani, Giovanni Scambia, Nicoletta Di Simone
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of inflammosome components (NALP-3, associated speck-like protein containing a CARD [ASC]) and their activation (caspase-1, interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-18 secretion) in the human endometrium from fertile and women with history of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): Ten fertile women (control group [CTR]) and 30 women with RPL...
January 2016: Fertility and Sterility
P Ruscitti, P Cipriani, P Di Benedetto, V Liakouli, O Berardicurti, F Carubbi, F Ciccia, S Alvaro, G Triolo, R Giacomelli
A better understanding about the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) showed that inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-1β play a pivotal role, mirroring data largely reported in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-1β is produced mainly by monocytes (MO), and hyperglycaemia may be able to modulate, in the cytoplasm of these cells, the assembly of a nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing family pyrin (NLRP3)-inflammosome, a cytosolic multi-protein platform where the inactive pro-IL-1β is cleaved into active form, via caspase-1 activity...
October 2015: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Nasser M Al-Daghri, Franca R Guerini, Omar S Al-Attas, Majed S Alokail, Khalid M Alkharfy, Hossam M Draz, Cristina Agliardi, Andrea S Costa, Irma Saulle, Abdul Khader Mohammed, Mara Biasin, Mario Clerici
To explore the mechanisms underlying the suggested role of the vitamin D/vitamin D receptor (VDR) complex in the pathogenesis of obesity we performed genetic and immunologic analyses in obese and non-obese Saudi individuals without other concomitant chronic diseases. Genomic DNA was genotyped for gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of VDR by allelic discrimination in 402 obese (body mass index -BMI≥30 kg/m2) and 489 non-obese (BMI<30 kg/m2) Saudis. Q-PCR analyses were performed using an ABI Prism 7000 Sequence Detection System...
2014: PloS One
Mohammad Momeni, Mohammad Reza Mirzaei, Nahid Zainodini, Gholamhossein Hassanshahi, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
BACKGROUND: Absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2) is an intracellular microbial dsDNA sensor which plays an important role in production of proinflammatory cytokines through Apoptosis associated Speck-like protein containing a Caspase activation and recruitment domain (ASC) and Caspase-1. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of immune related genes. However, there is little information regarding the effects of miRNAs on the AIM2 and ASC expression. OBJECTIVE: To determine the mRNA levels of AIM2 and ASC in Jurkat cell line following introducing miRNA-143 (miR-143)...
June 2013: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
Martina Girardelli, Iva Maestri, Rosa R Rinaldi, Mauro Tognon, Renzo Boldorini, Massimo Bovenzi, Sergio Crovella, Manola Comar
UNLABELLED: HASH(0x406f498) BACKGROUND: An increasing incidence of malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases in patients with low levels of asbestos exposure suggests the interference of alternative cofactors. SV40 infection was detected, as co-morbidity factor, only in 22% of asbestos-MM patients from a North-Eastern Italy area. An additional mechanism of injury related to asbestos exposure in MM development has been recently associated to inflammatory responses, principally driven by interleukin (IL)-1 beta (ß) activated within the inflammasome complex...
2012: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Alessandra Pontillo, Eulalia Catamo, Beatrice Arosio, Daniela Mari, Sergio Crovella
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease. Genetic and molecular studies have confirmed that in the human brain, amyloid-β fibrils can induce, through the activation of NALP1 inflammosome, inflammatory and apoptotic responses involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Considering that AD pathogenesis is multifactorial, we hypothesized that NALP1/NLRP1 could be a susceptibility gene involved in the devolvement of the disease. The possible association between 9 selected polymorphisms in the NALP1/NLRP1 gene and AD was evaluated by comparing their frequency distribution in an Italian cohort of AD patients (AD, n = 276) and in a group of Italian sex-matched and age-matched healthy controls without dementia (HC, n = 266)...
July 2012: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
José F González-Benítez, Marco A Juárez-Verdayes, Sandra Rodríguez-Martínez, Mario E Cancino-Diaz, Francisco García-Vázquez, Juan C Cancino-Diaz
In the inflammosome complex, NALP3 or NALP1 binds to ASC and activates caspase-1 which induces IL-1beta. In murine LPS-induced ocular inflammation, the production of IL-1beta is increased. We suggest that NALP3- or NALP1-inflammasome complex can be participating in the LPS-induced ocular inflammation. In this work, eye, brain, testis, heart, spleen, and lung were obtained from C3H/HeN mice treated with LPS for 3 to 48 hours, and the expression of NALP1b, NALP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1beta, and IL-18 was determined...
2008: Mediators of Inflammation
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