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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909244/cd4-down-regulation-by-hiv-1-nef-reveals-distinct-roles-for-%C3%AE-1-and-%C3%AE-2-subunits-of-ap-1-complex-in-protein-trafficking
#1
Lucas A Tavares, Eulália M L da Silva, Mara E da Silva-Januário, Yunan C Januário, Julianne V de Cavalho, Érika S Czernisz, Gonzalo A Mardones, Luis L P daSilva
The HIV accessory protein Nef is a major determinant of viral pathogenesis that facilitates viral particle release, prevents viral antigen presentation and increases infectivity of new virus particles. These functions of Nef involve its ability to remove specific host proteins from the surface of infected cells, including the CD4 receptor. Nef binds to the adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) and CD4 in clathrin-coated pits, forcing CD4 internalization and subsequent target to lysosomes. Herein, we report that this lysosomal targeting requires a variant of the AP-1 comprising the isoform 2 of γ-adaptin...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899203/bioresorbable-scaffold-implantation-in-patients-with-indication-for-oral-anticoagulation-a-propensity-matched-analysis
#2
Niklas F Boeder, Victoria Johnson, Oliver Dörr, Jens Wiebe, Albrecht Elsässer, Helge Möllmann, Christian W Hamm, Holger M Nef, Timm Bauer
OBJECTIVES: To examine ischemic and bleeding outcomes in patients on triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT) compared with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after the implantation of bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS). BACKGROUND: The optimal antithrombotic regimen in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention that have an indication for oral anticoagulation is unclear, in particular among those undergoing BRS implantation. METHODS: Consecutive patients of a single-center, all-comers BRS registry were included...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894306/first-phase-i-human-clinical-trial-of-a-killed-whole-hiv-1-vaccine-demonstration-of-its-safety-and-enhancement-of-anti-hiv-antibody-responses
#3
Eunsil Choi, Chad J Michalski, Seung Ho Choo, Gyoung Nyoun Kim, Elizabeth Banasikowska, Sangkyun Lee, Kunyu Wu, Hwa-Yong An, Anthony Mills, Stefan Schneider, U Fritz Bredeek, Daniel R Coulston, Shilei Ding, Andrés Finzi, Meijuan Tian, Katja Klein, Eric J Arts, Jamie F S Mann, Yong Gao, C Yong Kang
BACKGROUND: Vaccination with inactivated (killed) whole-virus particles has been used to prevent a wide range of viral diseases. However, for an HIV vaccine this approach has been largely negated due to inherent safety concerns, despite the ability of killed whole-virus vaccines to generate a strong, predominantly antibody-mediated immune response in vivo. HIV-1 Clade B NL4-3 was genetically modified by deleting the nef and vpu genes and substituting the coding sequence for the Env signal peptide with that of honeybee melittin signal peptide to produce a less virulent and more replication efficient virus...
November 28, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891699/effects-of-oils-on-feed-mildew-and-quality
#4
Jie Liu, Ming Qi, Yakuan Huang, Jiao Guo, Jiacai Zhang, Chong Li, Niya Zhang, Lvhui Sun, Desheng Qi
This study was performed to determine the effects of oils on feed mildew and feed quality. Under different moisture content conditions (10%, 13% and 16%), the basal feeds were supplemented with 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% soybean oil. In addition, at different moisture content levels (10%, 13% and 16%), the basal feed was supplemented with 12% of various types of oil (soybean, peanut, corn and fish). Subsequently, a mixed mold spore suspension was added. The feed samples were incubated at 28°C, and the total mold, water activity (Aw), moisture, acid value, crude protein (CP), crude lipid (CL), crude ash (CA) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) levels were determined at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days...
November 27, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890554/endocarditis-after-interventional-repair-of-the-mitral-valve-review-of-a-dilemma
#5
REVIEW
Niklas F Boeder, Oliver Dörr, Johannes Rixe, Kay Weipert, Timm Bauer, Matthias Bayer, Christian W Hamm, Holger M Nef
BACKGROUND: The MitraClip procedure can be an alternative treatment option for patients with high surgical risk for whom surgical treatment is contraindicated. Patients with prosthetic material have an increased risk for infective endocarditis. HYPOTHESIS: Incidence, treatment and outcome of patients with endocarditis after interventional mitral valve repair are not known. METHODS: We searched for articles using PubMed using the terms "interventional mitral valve repair", "mitraclip" and "endocarditis"...
November 10, 2016: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879338/functional-interplay-between-murine-leukemia-virus-glycogag-serinc5-and-surface-glycoprotein-governs-virus-entry-with-opposite-effects-on-gammaretroviral-and-ebolavirus-glycoproteins
#6
Yadvinder S Ahi, Shu Zhang, Yashna Thappeta, Audrey Denman, Amin Feizpour, Suryaram Gummuluru, Bjoern Reinhard, Delphine Muriaux, Matthew J Fivash, Alan Rein
: Gammaretroviruses, such as murine leukemia viruses (MLVs), encode, in addition to the canonical Gag, Pol, and Env proteins that will form progeny virus particles, a protein called "glycogag" (glycosylated Gag). MLV glycogag contains the entire Gag sequence plus an 88-residue N-terminal extension. It has recently been reported that glycogag, like the Nef protein of HIV-1, counteracts the antiviral effects of the cellular protein Serinc5. We have found, in agreement with prior work, that glycogag strongly enhances the infectivity of MLVs with some Env proteins but not those with others...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863289/a-new-novolimus-eluting-bioresorbable-coronary-scaffold-present-status-and-future-clinical-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Holger M Nef, Jens Wiebe, Nicolas Foin, Florian Blachutzik, Oliver Dörr, Sara Toyloy, Christian W Hamm
The DESolve® scaffold (Elixir Medical Corporation, Sunnyvale, California, USA) is manufactured from a poly-l-lactide based polymer and elutes an anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory drug, Novolimus from a poly-l-lactide based topcoat mixture. The strut thickness is 150μm and the scaffold has platinum-iridium radiopaque markers at both ends. Radial support is available during the early time period to prevent recoil. The scaffold biodegrades within 1year (>90% reduction in molecular weight) and then completely bioresorbs within 2years...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843096/tnf-and-hiv-1-nef-an-intimate-interplay
#8
Georges Herbein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830336/optical-coherence-tomography-influence-of-contrast-concentration-on-image-quality-and-diagnostic-confidence
#9
Florian Blachutzik, Stephan Achenbach, Holger Nef, Christian Hamm, Oliver Dörr, Niklas Boeder, Mohamed Marwan, Monique Tröbs, Reinhard Schneider, Jens Röther, Christian Schlundt
OCT requires intracoronary injection of contrast agent to remove blood from the coronary lumen during data acquisition, which is a possible limitation of this method. Aim of this study was to analyze the influence of iodine concentration on image quality and diagnostic certainty of optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT sequences acquired using contrast agent with a reduced concentration of 150 mg iodine/ml and a standard concentration of 350 mg iodine/ml were analyzed. Cross-sectional images with a spacing of 10 mm were evaluated regarding image quality and diagnostic confidence...
November 9, 2016: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822141/hiv-1-nef-promotes-migration-and-chemokine-synthesis-of-human-basophils-and-mast-cells-through-the-interaction-with-cxcr4
#10
Francesca Wanda Rossi, Nella Prevete, Felice Rivellese, Antonio Lobasso, Filomena Napolitano, Francescopaolo Granata, Carmine Selleri, Amato de Paulis
BACKGROUND: The Nef protein can be detected in plasma of HIV-1-infected patients and plays a role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1. Nef produced during the early stages of infection is fundamental in creating the ideal environment for viral replication, e.g. by reducing the ability of infected cells to induce an immune response. AIM: Based on previous experience showing that both Tat and gp41 of HIV-1 are potent chemotactic factors for basophils and mast cells, and gp120 is a powerful stimulus for the release of histamine and cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13) from basophils, in this study we aimed to verify if the HIV Nef protein can exert some effects on basophils and mast cells purified from healthy volunteers through the interaction with the CXCL12 receptor, CXCR4...
2016: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803322/s2-from-equine-infectious-anemia-virus-is-an-infectivity-factor-which-counteracts-the-retroviral-inhibitors-serinc5-and-serinc3
#11
Ajit Chande, Emilia Cristiana Cuccurullo, Annachiara Rosa, Serena Ziglio, Susan Carpenter, Massimo Pizzato
The lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) encodes the small protein S2, a pathogenic determinant that is important for virus replication and disease progression in horses. No molecular function had been linked to this accessory protein. We report that S2 can replace the activity of Negative factor (Nef) in HIV-1 infectivity, being required to antagonize the inhibitory activity of Serine incorporator (SERINC) proteins on Nef-defective HIV-1. Like Nef, S2 excludes SERINC5 from virus particles and requires an ExxxLL motif predicted to recruit the clathrin adaptor, Adaptor protein 2 (AP2)...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798165/hiv-1-nef-impairs-the-formation-of-calcium-membrane-territories-controlling-the-signaling-nanoarchitecture-at-the-immunological-synapse
#12
Joana G Silva, Nuno P Martins, Ricardo Henriques, Helena Soares
The ability of HIV-1 to replicate and to establish long-term reservoirs is strongly influenced by T cell activation. Through the use of membrane-tethered, genetically encoded calcium (Ca(2+)) indicators, we were able to detect for the first time, to our knowledge, the formation of Ca(2+) territories and determine their role in coordinating the functional signaling nanostructure of the synaptic membrane. Consequently, we report a previously unknown immune subversion mechanism involving HIV-1 exploitation, through its Nef accessory protein, of the interconnectivity among three evolutionarily conserved cellular processes: vesicle traffic, signaling compartmentalization, and the second messenger Ca(2+) We found that HIV-1 Nef specifically associates with the traffic regulators MAL and Rab11b compelling the vesicular accumulation of Lck...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795436/naf1-regulates-hiv-1-latency-by-suppressing-viral-promoter-driven-gene-expression-in-primary-cd4-t-cells
#13
Chuan Li, Hai-Bo Wang, Wen-Dong Kuang, Xiao-Xin Ren, Shu-Ting Song, Huan-Zhang Zhu, Qiang Li, Li-Ran Xu, Hui-Jun Guo, Li Wu, Jian-Hua Wang
: HIV-1 latency is characterized by reversible silencing of viral transcription driven by the long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter of HIV-1. Cellular and viral factors regulating the LTR activity contribute to HIV-1 latency and certain repressive cellular factors modulate viral transcription silencing. Nef-associated factor 1 (Naf1) is a host nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein and regulates multiple cellular signal pathways and HIV-1 production. We have recently reported that the nucleus-located Naf1 promoted nuclear export of unspliced HIV-1 gag mRNA, leading to the accumulated Gag production...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783345/speciation-and-mobility-of-volatile-heavy-metals-cd-pb-and-tl-in-fly-ashes
#14
Ryszard Świetlik, Marzena Trojanowska, Bożena Karbowska, Włodzimierz Zembrzuski
Speciation of volatile metals Cd, Pb, and Tl in fly ashes (FAs) produced from burning of hard coal in stocker-fired boilers (SFBs) was studied. Two grain fractions of fly ash collected in a multicyclone and battery cyclone of the systems of dust separation from three SFB units operating in various urban heating plants were analyzed. The characteristic feature of speciation of the three metals was a large share of labile fractions: Cd (av. 46.1 %), Pb (av. 39.8 %), and Tl (av. 21.6 %). The fraction which most clearly reflected the different chemical properties of the investigated metals was the oxidizable fraction: F(4)-Cd-0 %, F(4)-Pb-av...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775442/release-kinetics-of-high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponins-i-and-t-and-troponin-t-upstream-open-reading-frame-peptide-tntuorf-in-clinically-induced-acute-myocardial-infarction
#15
Christoph Liebetrau, Luise Gaede, J Sebastian Wolter, Julia Homann, Alexander Meyer, Oliver Dörr, Holger M Nef, Christian Troidl, Christian W Hamm, Helge Möllmann, A Mark Richards, Chris J Pemberton
CONTEXT: Troponin T upstream open reading frame peptide (TnTuORF) may be useful as a novel biomarker in acute cardiac syndromes. OBJECTIVE: The study examined the early release kinetics of TnTuORF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the time course of the release of cardiac troponins I and T and TnTuORF in patients (n = 31) with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy undergoing transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy (TASH). RESULTS: Fifteen minutes after TASH the levels of both troponins increased significantly (cTnT median: 18 ng/L vs...
October 24, 2016: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773542/hiv-nef-and-notch1-dependent-endocytosis-of-adam17-induces-vesicular-tnf-secretion-in-chronic-hiv-infection
#16
Christian Ostalecki, Sebastian Wittki, Jung-Hyun Lee, Miriam M Geist, Nadine Tibroni, Thomas Harrer, Gerold Schuler, Oliver T Fackler, Andreas S Baur
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a key cytokine in HIV replication and pathogenesis. For reasons that are not entirely clear, the cytokine remains upregulated despite anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Here we demonstrate that HIV Nef induces an alternative TNF secretion mechanism that remains active in chronic infection. Ingestion of Nef-containing plasma extracellular vesicles (pEV) from ART patients by primary immune cells, but also Nef expression, induced intracellular proTNF cleavage and secretion of vesicular TNF endosomes...
October 19, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757522/post-dilatation-after-implantation-of-bioresorbable-everolimus-and-novolimus-eluting-scaffolds-an-observational-optical-coherence-tomography-study-of-acute-mechanical-effects
#17
Florian Blachutzik, Niklas Boeder, Jens Wiebe, Alessio Mattesini, Oliver Dörr, Astrid Most, Timm Bauer, Jens Röther, Monique Tröbs, Christian Schlundt, Stephan Achenbach, Christian W Hamm, Holger M Nef
OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the acute mechanical effects of post-dilatation on bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT). BACKGROUND: Post-dilatation with high-pressure balloons is regarded as a key component of BRS implantation for treatment of coronary artery stenoses. However, the impact of post-dilatation on BRS in vivo has not been thoroughly investigated. METHODS: OCT was performed after the implantation procedure of 51 everolimus-eluting or novolimus-eluting polylactic acid-based BRS with (n = 27) or without non-compliant balloon post-dilatation (n = 24)...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756485/a-study-of-vaccine-induced-immune-pressure-on-breakthrough-infections-in-the-phambili-phase-2b-hiv-1-vaccine-efficacy-trial
#18
T Hertz, M G Logan, M Rolland, C A Magaret, C Rademeyer, A Fiore-Gartland, P T Edlefsen, A DeCamp, H Ahmed, N Ngandu, B B Larsen, N Frahm, J Marais, R Thebus, D Geraghty, J Hural, L Corey, J Kublin, G Gray, M J McElrath, J I Mullins, P B Gilbert, C Williamson
INTRODUCTION: The Merck Adenovirus-5 Gag/Pol/Nef HIV-1 subtype-B vaccine evaluated in predominately subtype B epidemic regions (Step Study), while not preventing infection, exerted vaccine-induced immune pressure on HIV-1 breakthrough infections. Here we investigated if the same vaccine exerted immune pressure when tested in the Phambili Phase 2b study in a subtype C epidemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sieve analysis, which compares breakthrough viruses from placebo and vaccine arms, was performed on 277 near full-length genomes generated from 23 vaccine and 20 placebo recipients...
October 15, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743821/thebesian-veins-as-drainage-to-the-ventricle-a-case-report
#19
Niklas F Boeder, Holger M Nef, Timm Bauer
A 64-year old woman was referred to the division of cardiology due to recurrent angina pectoris (CCS III). The patient's symptoms and high cardiovascular risk profile were an indication for coronary angiography. Relevant coronary heart disease was hereby ruled out; however, angiography showed a direct drainage of coronary vessels into the chambers. These Thebesian veins are of venoluminal nature in most cases and have a clinical implication in selected cases only.
September 30, 2016: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725808/the-responsiveness-of-the-lucerne-icf-based-multidisciplinary-observation-scale-a-comparison-with-the-functional-independence-measure-and-the-barthel-index
#20
Tim Vanbellingen, Beatrice Ottiger, Tobias Pflugshaupt, Jan Mehrholz, Stephan Bohlhalter, Tobias Nef, Thomas Nyffeler
BACKGROUND: Good responsive functional outcome measures are important to measure change in stroke patients. The aim of study was to compare the internal and external responsiveness, floor and ceiling effects of the motor, cognition, and communication subscales of the Lucerne ICF-based Multidisciplinary Observation Scale (LIMOS) with the motor and cognition subscales of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and the Barthel Index (BI), in a large cohort of stroke patients. METHODS: One hundred eighteen stroke patients participated in this study...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
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