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Chen Chi, Leigh C Murphy, Pingzhao Hu
Breast cancer diagnosis in young women has emerged as an independent prognostic factor with higher recurrence risk and death than their older counterparts. We aim to find recurrent somatic copy number alteration (CNA) regions identified from breast cancer microarray data and associate the CNA status of the genes harbored in the regions to the survival of young women with breast cancer. By using the interval graph-based algorithm we developed, and the CNA data consisting of a Discovery set with 130 young women and a Validation set with 125 young women, we identified 38 validated recurrent CNAs containing 39 protein encoding genes...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Xiaomin Fu, Xiaoyan Zhu, Fujun Qin, Yong Zhang, Jizhen Lin, Yuechao Ding, Zihe Yang, Yiman Shang, Li Wang, Qinxian Zhang, Quanli Gao
BACKGROUND: Liver tumor initiating cells (TICs) have self-renewal and differentiation properties, accounting for tumor initiation, metastasis and drug resistance. Long noncoding RNAs are involved in many physiological and pathological processes, including tumorigenesis. DNA copy number alterations (CNA) participate in tumor formation and progression, while the CNA of lncRNAs and their roles are largely unknown. METHODS: LncRNA CNA was determined by microarray analyses, realtime PCR and DNA FISH...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Cancer
Oscar A Klockars, Anica Klockars, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Oxytocin (OT) at acting central nuclei decreases meal size and reduces intake of palatable sweet solutions. It remains largely unclear as to which brain sites mediate OT's effect on palatability versus energy or the combination of those aspects of consumption. Here, we expanded the search for sites that mediate anorexigenic properties of OT by focusing on two subdivisions of the amygdala, its central (CNA) and basolateral (BLA) nuclei. We injected OT directly into the BLA or CNA in rats and assessed intake of standard chow induced by energy deprivation and intake of sweet solutions in nondeprived animals...
March 13, 2018: Neuroreport
Thai Ha Tran, Jérôme Labanowski, Hervé Gallard
The manganese oxide birnessite adsorbed and catalyzed the transformation of the anthelminthic drug niclosamide (NIS) into 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline (CNA) and 5-chlorosalicylic acid (CSA) at acidic pH. The adsorption of NIS was fitted using a linear isotherm for all conditions and reaction times. Linear adsorption constant Kd was 103 000 L kg-1 at pH 5.0. The rate of transformation was first order with respect to both MnO2 and NIS. At pH 5.0, the second order rate constant was 3.3 (±0.3) × 10-1  M-1  s-1 ...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Mitchell S Stark, Jean-Marie Tan, Lisa Tom, Kasturee Jagirdar, Duncan Lambie, Helmut Schaider, H Peter Soyer, Richard A Sturm
The melanoma transformation rate of each nevus is rare despite the detection of oncogenic BRAF or NRAS mutations in 100% of nevi. Acquired melanocytic nevi (AMN) do however mimic melanoma and ∼30% of all melanomas arise within pre-existing nevi. Using whole-exome sequencing of 30 matched nevi, adjacent normal skin, and saliva we sought to identify the underlying genetic mechanisms for nevus development. All nevi were clinically, dermoscopically, and histopathologically documented. In addition to identifying somatic mutations, we found mutational signatures relating to ultra-violet radiation (UVR) mirroring those found in cutaneous melanoma...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Mirella Hage, Say Viengchareun, Erika Brunet, Chiara Villa, Dominique Pineau, Jérôme Bouligand, Jean Paul Teglas, Clovis Adam, Fabrice Parker, Marc Lombès, Gérard Tachdjian, Stéphane Gaillard, Philippe Chanson, Lucie Tosca, Peter Kamenický
Purpose: The molecular pathogenesis of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas is not fully understood. Cytogenetic alterations might serve as alternative driver events in GNAS mutation-negative somatotroph tumors. Experimental Design: We performed cytogenetic profiling of pituitary adenomas obtained from 39 acromegalic patients and 4 patients with sporadic gigantism by using array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis. We explored intratumor DNA copy-number heterogeneity in two tumor samples by using DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Maria Chiara Fontana, Giovanni Marconi, Jelena D Milosevic Feenstra, Eugenio Fonzi, Cristina Papayannidis, Andrea Ghelli Luserna di Rorá, Antonella Padella, Vincenza Solli, Eugenia Franchini, Emanuela Ottaviani, Anna Ferrari, Carmen Baldazzi, Nicoletta Testoni, Ilaria Iacobucci, Simona Soverini, Torsten Haferlach, Viviana Guadagnuolo, Lukas Semerad, Michael Doubek, Michael Steurer, Zdenek Racil, Stefania Paolini, Marco Manfrini, Michele Cavo, Giorgia Simonetti, Robert Kralovics, Giovanni Martinelli
Chromothripsis is a one-step genome-shattering catastrophe resulting from disruption of one or few chromosomes in multiple fragments and consequent random rejoining and repair. This study defines incidence of chromothripsis in 395 newly diagnosed adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients from three institutions, its impact on survival and its genomic background. SNP 6.0 or CytoscanHD Array (Affymetrix® ) were performed on all samples. We detected chromothripsis with a custom algorithm in 26/395 patients...
February 23, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
W Zhao, L Li, Y Zhang, X Liu, J Wei, Y Xie, M Du, S An
Lepidoptera sex pheromone biosynthesis is regulated by pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN). PBAN regulates not only female sex pheromone biosynthesis but also male sex pheromone biosynthesis. Previous research has confirmed that PBAN regulates sex pheromone biosynthesis using Ca2+ as a secondary messenger in all examined species to date. However, the downstream signal of Ca2+ has remained elusive. In the present study, calcineurin A (CNA), a downstream signal of Ca2+ , was discovered in Helicoverpa armigera male hairpencil and named HaCNA...
February 21, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Tao Liu, Xianmin Mai, Haijun Chen, Jing Ren, Zheting Liu, Yingxiang Li, Lina Gao, Ning Wang, Jiaoxia Zhang, Hongcai He, Zhanhu Guo
The carbon nanotube aerogel (CNA) with an ultra-low density, three-dimensional network nanostructure, superior electronic conductivity and large surface area is being widely employed as a catalytic electrode and catalytic support. Impressively, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) assembled with a CNA counter electrode (CE) achieved a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.28%, which exceeded that of the conventional platinum (Pt)-based DSSC (7.20%) under the same conditions. Furthermore, highly dispersed CoS 2 nanoparticles endowed with excellent intrinsic catalytic activity were hydrothermally incorporated to form a CNA-supported CoS 2 (CNA-CoS 2 ) CE, which was due to the large number of catalytically active sites and sufficient connections between CoS 2 and the CNA...
February 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Emilia M Pinto, Dima Hamideh, Armita Bahrami, Brent A Orr, Tong Lin, Stanley Pounds, Gerard P Zambetti, Alberto S Pappo, Amar Gajjar, Sameer Agnihotri, Alberto Broniscer
Multifocal synchronous or metachronous atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) and non-central nervous system malignant rhabdoid tumors (extra-CNS MRTs) are rare cancers. We reviewed the clinical and radiologic characteristics of affected patients seen at our institution. Genotyping and analysis of copy number abnormalities (CNAs) in SMARCB1 were performed in germline and tumor samples. Tumor samples underwent genome-wide DNA methylation and CNA analysis. The median age at diagnosis of 21 patients was 0.6 years...
February 10, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Mi-Ryung Han, Sun Shin, Hyeon-Chun Park, Min Sung Kim, Sung Hak Lee, Seung Hyun Jung, Sang Yong Song, Sug Hyung Lee, Yeun-Jun Chung
Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) consists of two different etiologic categories: human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated (HPV (+)) and HPV-non-associated (HPV (-)). There have been no genome-wide studies on the genetic alterations of vulvar SCCs or on the differences between HPV (+) and HPV (-) vulvar SCCs. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing and copy number profiling of 6 HPV (+) and 9 HPV (-) vulvar SCCs and found known mutations (TP53, CDKN2A and HRAS) and copy number alterations (CNAs) (7p and 8q gains and 2q loss) in HPV (-) SCCs...
February 9, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Pauline Robbe, Niko Popitsch, Samantha J L Knight, Pavlos Antoniou, Jennifer Becq, Miao He, Alexander Kanapin, Anastasia Samsonova, Dimitrios V Vavoulis, Mark T Ross, Zoya Kingsbury, Maite Cabes, Sara D C Ramos, Suzanne Page, Helene Dreau, Kate Ridout, Louise J Jones, Alice Tuff-Lacey, Shirley Henderson, Joanne Mason, Francesca M Buffa, Clare Verrill, David Maldonado-Perez, Ioannis Roxanis, Elena Collantes, Lisa Browning, Sunanda Dhar, Stephen Damato, Susan Davies, Mark Caulfield, David R Bentley, Jenny C Taylor, Clare Turnbull, Anna Schuh
PurposeFresh-frozen (FF) tissue is the optimal source of DNA for whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of cancer patients. However, it is not always available, limiting the widespread application of WGS in clinical practice. We explored the viability of using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, available routinely for cancer patients, as a source of DNA for clinical WGS.MethodsWe conducted a prospective study using DNAs from matched FF, FFPE, and peripheral blood germ-line specimens collected from 52 cancer patients (156 samples) following routine diagnostic protocols...
February 1, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Nancy K Gillis, Daniel M Rotroff, Tania E Mesa, Jiqiang Yao, Zhihua Chen, Michael A Carulli, Sean J Yoder, Christine M Walko, Jamie K Teer, Howard L McLeod
Multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have broad efficacy and similar FDA-approved indications, suggesting shared molecular drug targets across cancer types. Irrespective of tumor type, 20-30% of patients treated with multi-targeted TKIs demonstrate intrinsic resistance, with progressive disease as a best response. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to identify tumor (somatic) point mutations, insertion/deletions, and copy number alterations (CNA) associated with intrinsic resistance to multi-targeted TKIs...
December 29, 2017: Oncotarget
S Raponi, I Del Giudice, M Marinelli, J Wang, L Cafforio, C Ilari, A Piciocchi, M Messina, S Bonina, S Tavolaro, M Bordyuh, P Mariglia, N Peragine, F R Mauro, S Chiaretti, S Molica, M Gentile, A Visentin, L Trentin, G M Rigolin, A Cuneo, F Diop, D Rossi, G Gaidano, A Guarini, R Rabadan, R Foà
Background: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has a heterogeneous clinical course. Beside patients requiring immediate treatment, others show an initial indolent phase followed by progression and others do not progress for decades. The latter two subgroups usually display mutated IGHV genes and a favorable FISH profile. Patients and Methods: Patients with absence of disease progression for over 10 years (11-30) from diagnosis were defined as ultra-stable CLL (US-CLL)...
January 22, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Alysa D Haas, Daniel A Hunter, Ninica L Howard
BACKGROUND: Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) experience a high risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) and are further made vulnerable by their situation in low levels of workplace and societal hierarchies of power and privilege. OBJECTIVE: This study applies structural vulnerability theory to CNA WMSD experiences in order to identify structural factors that may influence such injuries. METHODS: A sample of CNAs (n = 26) working in Nursing and Residential Care Facilities (NRCFs) was selected from workers who filed a claim during 2011-2014 for a WMSD of the back, shoulder, knee, or hand/wrist in the Washington State Department of Labor & Industries workers' compensation system...
January 19, 2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Reed Mitchell, Jeremy Molligan, Sydney Rooney, Young Cho, Lew Schon, Zijun Zhang
Charcot neuroarthropathy (CNA) often presents as a diabetic foot complication. The role of synovial mesenchymal stem cells (syn-MSCs) in the pathogenesis of CNA is unclear. Synovial samples were collected, for isolation of syn-MSCs, from diabetic patients with CNA (n=7) and non-diabetic patients with intra-articular fracture or normal joints (non-CNA; n=7) during foot surgery. The syn-MSCs in the CNA and non-CNA groups were characterized comparatively. The average number of colonies formed in the CNA group was 6±3...
January 15, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Aline Luiza Duarte de Freitas, Vanessa Kaplum, Diego Conrado Pereira Rossi, Leandro Buffoni Roque da Silva, Márcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Carlos Pelleschi Taborda, João Carlos Palazzo de Mello, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Kelly Ishida
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The stem bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville is popularly used as anti-inflammatory, astringent and in the treatment of wounds and vaginal infections. Several pharmacological activities have been scientifically proven by "in vitro" and "in vivo" experimental assays for antibacterial, antiviral, antiprotozoan, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated whether proanthocyanidin polymeric tannins from the Stryphnodendron adstringens steam bark with antifungal activity against Candida albicans in vitro are also active against planktonic and biofilm cells of Candida non-albicans (CNA, including fluconazole-resistant isolates) and are capable of controlling Candida vaginitis in vivo...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Lei He, Hongwei Meng, Qian Liu, Mo Hu, Yanan Wang, Xiaoying Chen, Xiaoyun Liu, Min Li
Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus or SA) is a leading cause of healthcare-associated (HA-) and community-associated (CA) infection. HA-SA isolates usually cause nosocomial pneumonia, bloodstream infections, catheter-related urinary tract infections, etc. On the other hand, CA-SA isolates usually cause highly fatal diseases, such as SSTIs as well as post influenza necrotic hemorrhagic pneumonia. The differences of the infection types are partially due to the unique characteristics between HA-SA and CA-SA isolates...
2018: Clinical Proteomics
Connor Skehan, Bin Ai, Steven R Larson, Keenan M Stone, William Dennis, Yiping Zhao
Several plasmonic compound nanohole arrays (CNAs), such as triangular nanoholes and fan-like nanoholes with multiple nanotips and nanogaps, are designed by a simple and efficient shadow sphere lithography (SSL) technique by tuning the sphere mask size, the deposition and azimuthal angles, substrate temperature TS, and the number of deposition steps N. Compared with conventional circular nanohole arrays (CCNAs), the CNAs show more hot spots and exhibit new transmission speaks. Systematic FDTD calculations indicate that different resonance modes excited by the various shaped and sized nanoholes are responsible for the enhanced plasmonic performances of CNAs...
January 10, 2018: Nanotechnology
René Böttcher, Charlotte F Kweldam, Julie Livingstone, Emilie Lalonde, Takafumi N Yamaguchi, Vincent Huang, Fouad Yousif, Michael Fraser, Robert G Bristow, Theodorus van der Kwast, Paul C Boutros, Guido Jenster, Geert J L H van Leenders
BACKGROUND: Invasive cribriform and intraductal carcinoma (CR/IDC) is associated with adverse outcome of prostate cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular aberrations associated with CR/IDC in primary prostate cancer, focusing on genomic instability and somatic copy number alterations (CNA). METHODS: Whole-slide images of The Cancer Genome Atlas Project (TCGA, N = 260) and the Canadian Prostate Cancer Genome Network (CPC-GENE, N = 199) radical prostatectomy datasets were reviewed for Gleason score (GS) and presence of CR/IDC...
January 2, 2018: BMC Cancer
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