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dementia with lewy bodies and Parkinson's

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928840/development-of-assessment-toolkits-for-improving-the-diagnosis-of-the-lewy-body-dementias-feasibility-study-within-the-diamond-lewy-study
#1
Alan J Thomas, John Paul Taylor, Ian McKeith, Claire Bamford, David Burn, Louise Allan, John O'Brien
OBJECTIVE: The Lewy body dementias (LBD, dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia) are the second most common cause of neurodegenerative dementia but remain under-recognised, with long delays from initial assessment to diagnosis. Whilst validated instruments have been developed for key symptoms, there is no brief instrument for overall diagnostic assessment suitable for routine practice. We here report the development of such assessment toolkits. METHODS: We developed the LBD assessment toolkits in three stages...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927762/urinary-incontinence-incident-parkinsonism-and-parkinson-s-disease-pathology-in-older-adults
#2
Noa M Buchman, Sue E Leurgans, Raj J Shah, Veronique VanderHorst, Robert S Wilson, Yaacov G Bachner, David Tanne, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, Aron S Buchman
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that urinary incontinence (UI) is associated with incident parkinsonism in older adults. METHODS: We used data from 2,617 older persons without dementia. Assessment included baseline self-report UI and annual structured exam which assessed parkinsonian signs, motor performances, cognitive function, and self-report disabilities. We used a series of Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association of UI with parkinsonism and adverse health outcomes and a mixed-effect model to examine the association of UI with the annual rate of cognitive decline...
December 7, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911312/increased-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-2-in-the-neocortex-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-is%C3%A2-correlated-with-disease-severity-and%C3%A2-soluble-a%C3%AE-42-load
#3
Joyce R Chong, Yuek Ling Chai, Jasinda H Lee, David Howlett, Johannes Attems, Clive G Ballard, Dag Aarsland, Paul T Francis, Christopher P Chen, Mitchell K P Lai
BACKGROUND: Of the three transforming growth factor (TGF)-β isoforms known, TGFβ1 deficits have been widely reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and studied as a potential therapeutic target. In contrast, the status of TGFβ2, which has been shown to mediate amyloid-β (Aβ)-mediated neuronal death, are unclear both in AD and in Lewy body dementias (LBD) with differential neuritic plaque and neurofibrillary tangle burden. OBJECTIVE: To measure neocortical TGFβ2 levels and their correlations with neuropathological and clinical markers of disease severity in a well-characterized cohort of AD as well as two clinical subtypes of LBD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), known to manifest relatively high and low Aβ plaque burden, respectively...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899296/targeting-the-norepinephrinergic-system-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-related-disorders-the-locus-coeruleus-story
#4
Yannick Vermeiren, Peter P De Deyn
Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) are related, progressive and debilitating neurodegenerative disorders with hallmark features that include a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms (behavioral, autonomic and cognitive dysfunction). For almost half a century, the motor aspects have been attributed to Lewy pathology (LP) predominantly in the substantia nigra (SN), causing a major loss of dopaminergic neurons. However, the relative success of dopaminergic replacement therapies for alleviation of solely the parkinsonian features has prompted researchers to further explore other monoaminergic strategies which may tackle all PD-related aspects...
November 26, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897064/diagnosis-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-can-123-i-imp-and-123-i-mibg-scintigraphy-yield-new-core-features
#5
Fumi Sakamoto, Shinya Shiraishi, Noriko Tsuda, Mamoru Hashimoto, Seiji Tomiguchi, Manabu Ikeda, Yasuyuki Yamashita
OBJECTIVE: Since the clinical symptoms of different types of dementia frequently overlap, especially in the earlier stages at onset, it is difficult to distinguish dementias with Lewy bodies (DLB) from other neurodegenerative dementias based on their clinical manifestations alone. Nuclear medicine imaging has been reported as a high-value index for the objective evaluation and diagnosis of DLB. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether nuclear medicine imaging findings may yield core features to be added to the diagnosis of DLB...
November 29, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862327/an-order-in-lewy-body-disorders-retrograde-degeneration-in-hyperbranching-axons-as-a-fundamental-structural-template-accounting-for-focal-multifocal-lewy-body-disease
#6
REVIEW
Toshiki Uchihara 内原 俊記
Initial clinical recognition of "paralysis agitans" by James Parkinson was expanded by Jean-Martin Charcot, who recognized additional clinical findings of his own, such as slowness (distinct from paralysis), rigidity (distinct from spasticity) and characteristic countenance. Charcot assembled these findings under the umbrella of "Parkinson disease (PD)". This purely clinical concept was so prescient and penetrating that subsequent neuropathological and biochemical evidences were ordered along this axis to establish the nigra-central trinity of PD (dopamine depletion, nigral lesion with Lewy bodies: LBs)...
November 14, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855167/assessment-of-olfactory-function-in-mapt-associated-neurodegenerative-disease-reveals-odor-identification-irreproducibility-as-a-non-disease-specific-general-characteristic-of-olfactory-dysfunction
#7
Katerina Markopoulou, Bruce A Chase, Piotr Robowski, Audrey Strongosky, Ewa Narożańska, Emilia J Sitek, Mariusz Berdynski, Maria Barcikowska, Matt C Baker, Rosa Rademakers, Jarosław Sławek, Christine Klein, Katja Hückelheim, Meike Kasten, Zbigniew K Wszolek
Olfactory dysfunction is associated with normal aging, multiple neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Lewy body disease and Alzheimer's disease, and other diseases such as diabetes, sleep apnea and the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis. The wide spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders associated with olfactory dysfunction suggests different, potentially overlapping, underlying pathophysiologies. Studying olfactory dysfunction in presymptomatic carriers of mutations known to cause familial parkinsonism provides unique opportunities to understand the role of genetic factors, delineate the salient characteristics of the onset of olfactory dysfunction, and understand when it starts relative to motor and cognitive symptoms...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848117/capgras-syndrome-in-parkinson-s-disease-two-new-cases-and-literature-review
#8
REVIEW
Antonino Cannas, Mario Meloni, Marcello Mario Mascia, Paolo Solla, Luigi Cocco, Antonella Muroni, Gianluca Floris, Francesca Di Stefano, Francesco Marrosu
The Capgras syndrome (CS) is a rare psychiatric disorder. CS is classified as a delusional misidentification syndrome. Initially, CS was described in paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. CS has also been reported in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia. To date, there are very few descriptions of the occurrence of CS in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), with or without dementia. Considering the recent observation of two new cases in PD patients, a systematic overview of the literature published between 1976 and 2016 reporting CS in PD was conducted...
November 15, 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826641/synucleinopathies-common-features-and-hippocampal-manifestations
#9
REVIEW
Weiwei Yang, Shun Yu
Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are three major synucleinopathies characterized by α-synuclein-containing inclusions in the brains of patients. Because the cell types and brain structures that are affected vary markedly between the disorders, the patients have different clinical manifestations in addition to some overlapping symptoms, which are the basis for differential diagnosis. Cognitive impairment and depression associated with hippocampal dysfunction are frequently observed in these disorders...
November 8, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814994/the-dementia-associated-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-allele-is-not-associated-with-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder
#10
Ziv Gan-Or, Jacques Y Montplaisir, Jay P Ross, Judes Poirier, Simon C Warby, Isabelle Arnulf, Stephanie Strong, Yves Dauvilliers, Claire S Leblond, Michele T M Hu, Birgit Högl, Ambra Stefani, Christelle Charley Monaca, Valérie Cochen De Cock, Michel Boivin, Luigi Ferini-Strambi, Giuseppe Plazzi, Elena Antelmi, Peter Young, Anna Heidbreder, Thomas R Barber, Samuel G Evetts, Michal Rolinski, Patrick A Dion, Alex Desautels, Jean-François Gagnon, Nicolas Dupré, Ronald B Postuma, Guy A Rouleau
The present study aimed to examine whether the APOE ε4 allele, associated with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and possibly with dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD), is also associated with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Two single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs429358 and rs7412, were genotyped in RBD patients (n = 480) and in controls (n = 823). APOE ε4 allele frequency was 0.14 among RBD patients and 0.13 among controls (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.88-1.40, p = 0.41). APOE ε4 allele frequencies were similar in those who converted to DLB (0...
October 13, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801938/causes-of-death-according-to-death-certificates-in-individuals-with-dementia-a-cohort-from-the-swedish-dementia-registry
#11
Sara Garcia-Ptacek, Ingemar Kåreholt, Pavla Cermakova, Debora Rizzuto, Dorota Religa, Maria Eriksdotter
OBJECTIVES: The causes of death in dementia are not established, particularly in rarer dementias. The aim of this study is to calculate risk of death from specific causes for a broader spectrum of dementia diagnoses. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Swedish Dementia Registry (SveDem), 2007-2012. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with incident dementia registered in SveDem (N = 28,609); median follow-up 741 days. Observed deaths were 5,368 (19%)...
November 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801611/clinical-and-imaging-characteristics-of-late-onset-mitochondrial-membrane-protein-associated-neurodegeneration-mpan
#12
Ethan Gore, Brian S Appleby, Mark L Cohen, Suzanne D DeBrosse, James B Leverenz, Bruce L Miller, Sandra L Siedlak, Xiongwei Zhu, Alan J Lerner
Young onset dementias present significant diagnostic challenges. We present the case of a 35-year-old Kuwaiti man with social withdrawal, drowsiness, irritability, anxiety, aphasia, memory loss, hypereflexia, and Parkinsonism. Brain MRI showed bilateral symmetric gradient echo hypointensities in the globi pallidi and substantiae nigrae. Left cortical hypometabolism was seen on brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. A cortical brain biopsy revealed a high Lewy body burden. Genetic testing revealed a homozygous p...
October 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768960/anomalies-occurring-in-lipid-profiles-and-protein-distribution-in-frontal-cortex-lipid-rafts-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-disclose-neurochemical-traits-partially-shared-by-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases
#13
Raquel Marin, Noemí Fabelo, Virginia Martín, Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Isidre Ferrer, David Quinto-Alemany, Mario Díaz
Lipid rafts are highly dynamic membrane microdomains intimately associated with cell signaling. Compelling evidence has demonstrated that alterations in lipid rafts are associated with neurodegenerative diseases such Alzheimer's disease, but at present, whether alterations in lipid raft microdomains occur in other types of dementia such dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) remains unknown. Our analyses reveal that lipid rafts from DLB exhibit aberrant lipid profiles including low levels of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly docosahexaenoic acid), plasmalogens and cholesterol, and reduced unsaturation and peroxidability indexes...
September 6, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752516/alpha-synuclein-rt-quic-in-the-csf-of-patients-with-alpha-synucleinopathies
#14
Graham Fairfoul, Lynne I McGuire, Suvankar Pal, James W Ironside, Juliane Neumann, Sharon Christie, Catherine Joachim, Margaret Esiri, Samuel G Evetts, Michal Rolinski, Fahd Baig, Claudio Ruffmann, Richard Wade-Martins, Michele T M Hu, Laura Parkkinen, Alison J E Green
We have developed a novel real-time quaking-induced conversion RT-QuIC-based assay to detect alpha-synuclein aggregation in brain and cerebrospinal fluid from dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease patients. This assay can detect alpha-synuclein aggregation in Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease cerebrospinal fluid with sensitivities of 92% and 95%, respectively, and with an overall specificity of 100% when compared to Alzheimer and control cerebrospinal fluid. Patients with neuropathologically confirmed tauopathies (progressive supranuclear palsy; corticobasal degeneration) gave negative results...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752512/dysregulation-of-protein-phosphatase-2a-in-parkinson-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#15
Hye-Jin Park, Kang-Woo Lee, Eun S Park, Stephanie Oh, Run Yan, Jie Zhang, Thomas G Beach, Charles H Adler, Michael Voronkov, Steven P Braithwaite, Jeffry B Stock, M Maral Mouradian
OBJECTIVE: Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric holoenzyme composed of a catalytic C subunit, a structural A subunit, and one of several regulatory B subunits that confer substrate specificity. The assembly and activity of PP2A are regulated by reversible methylation of the C subunit. α-Synuclein, which aggregates in Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), is phosphorylated at Ser129, and PP2A containing a B55α subunit is a major phospho-Ser129 phosphatase...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723861/high-frequency-of-gba-gene-mutations-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-among-ashkenazi-jews
#16
Tamara Shiner, Anat Mirelman, Mali Gana Weisz, Anat Bar-Shira, Elissa Ash, Ron Cialic, Naomi Nevler, Tanya Gurevich, Noa Bregman, Avi Orr-Urtreger, Nir Giladi
Importance: Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene are a risk factor for the development of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). These mutations are common among Ashkenazi Jews (AJ) and appear to have an effect on the natural history of the disease. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and genetic characteristics of an AJ cohort of patients diagnosed with DLB, assess the association of phenotype of DLB with GBA mutations, and explore the effects of these mutations on the clinical course of the disease...
October 10, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697033/recombinant-antibody-fragments-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#17
Karen Manoutcharian, Roxanna Perez-Garmendia, Goar Gevorkian
Recombinant antibody fragments are promising alternatives to full-length immunoglobulins and offer important advantages compared with conventional monoclonal antibodies: extreme specificity, higher affinity, superior stability and solubility, reduced immunogenicity as well as easy and inexpensive large-scale production. Different antibody formats such as single-chain fragment variable (scFv), single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs or sdAbs), bispecific antibodies (bsAbs), intrabodies and nanobodies, are currently being studied in pre-clinical models of cancer as well as infectious and autoimmune diseases and many of them are being tested as therapeutics in clinical trials...
September 30, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692054/detecting-the-cognitive-prodrome-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-a-prospective-study-of-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#18
Daphné Génier Marchand, Jacques Montplaisir, Ronald B Postuma, Shady Rahayel, Jean-François Gagnon
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Long-term studies in REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) have shown a high rate of conversion into synucleinopathies. We aimed to prospectively follow up a large cohort of RBD patients to identify cognitive markers for early detection of prodromal dementia. METHODS: Seventy-six idiopathic RBD patients underwent polysomnography and a complete neuropsychological and neurological assessment and were then followed for a mean of 3.6 years. Cognitive characteristics at baseline were compared between patients who remained disease-free and those who developed a synucleinopathy, and between those who developed dementia first and those who developed parkinsonism first...
September 26, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689024/-123-i-meta-iodobenzylguanidine-sympathetic-imaging-standardization-and-application-to-neurological-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Kenichi Nakajima, Masahito Yamada
(123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) has become widely applied in Japan since its introduction to clinical cardiology and neurology practice in the 1990s. Neurological studies found decreased cardiac uptake of (123)I-MIBG in Lewy-body diseases including Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Thus, cardiac MIBG uptake is now considered a biomarker of Lewy body diseases. Although scintigraphic images of (123)I-MIBG can be visually interpreted, an average count ratio of heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) has commonly served as a semi-quantitative marker of sympathetic activity...
September 2016: Chonnam Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687251/fully-automated-structural-mri-of-the-brain-in-clinical-dementia-workup
#20
Karin Persson, Geir Selbæk, Anne Brækhus, Mona Beyer, Maria Barca, Knut Engedal
BACKGROUND: The dementia syndrome has been regarded a clinical diagnosis but the focus on supplemental biomarkers is increasing. An automatic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetry method, NeuroQuant® (NQ), has been developed for use in clinical settings. PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of NQ in distinguishing Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) from non-dementia and non-AD dementia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: NQ was performed in 275 patients diagnosed according to the criteria of ICD-10 for AD, vascular dementia and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD); the Winblad criteria for mild cognitive impairment; the Lund-Manchester criteria for frontotemporal dementia; and the revised consensus criteria for Lewy body dementia (LBD)...
September 28, 2016: Acta Radiologica
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