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Multiple sclerosis spasticity

Bastian Zirpel, Friederike Degenhardt, Chantale Zammarelli, Daniel Wibberg, Jörn Kalinowski, Felix Stehle, Oliver Kayser
Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) is a secondary natural product from the plant Cannabis sativa L. with therapeutic indications like analgesics for cancer pain or reducing spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis. Here, we investigated the influence of the co-expression of 12 helper protein genes from Komagataella phaffii (formerly Pichia pastoris) on the functional expression of the Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCAS) heterologously expressed in K. phaffii by screening 21 clones of each transformation...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Melissa Sorosina, Ferdinando Clarelli, Laura Ferrè, Ana Maria Osiceanu, Nazli Tugce Unal, Elisabetta Mascia, Vittorio Martinelli, Giancarlo Comi, Fabio Benigni, Federica Esposito, Filippo Martinelli Boneschi
BACKGROUND: Nabiximols (Sativex® ) is a cannabinoid-based compound used for the treatment of moderate to severe spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of the administration of Nabiximols on blood transcriptome profile of MS patients and to interpret it in the context of pathways and networks. METHODS: Whole-genome expression profiling was performed in whole blood of 33 MS subjects at baseline (B) and after 4 weeks (4W) of drug treatment...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Majid Ghareghani, Kazem Zibara, Hossein Sadeghi, Naser Farhadi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive inflammatory demyelinating disease in the central nervous system (CNS). Melatonin is an effective treatment in MS patients and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. Melatonin secretion peaks at 2 AM, concomitant with the time at which the muscles are resting and the body is exerting its antioxidant activity. The current study was designed to investigate combination treatment of baclofen, a muscle relaxant drug, and melatonin in EAE mice...
March 1, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
G Michael Allan, Caitlin R Finley, Joey Ton, Danielle Perry, Jamil Ramji, Karyn Crawford, Adrienne J Lindblad, Christina Korownyk, Michael R Kolber
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of medical cannabinoids on pain, spasticity, and nausea and vomiting, and to identify adverse events. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, the Cochrane Database, and the references of included studies were searched. STUDY SELECTION: Systematic reviews with 2 or more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that focused on medical cannabinoids for pain, spasticity, or nausea and vomiting were included. For adverse events, any meta-analysis for the conditions listed or of adverse events of cannabinoids was included...
February 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
G Michael Allan, Jamil Ramji, Danielle Perry, Joey Ton, Nathan P Beahm, Nicole Crisp, Beverly Dockrill, Ruth E Dubin, Ted Findlay, Jessica Kirkwood, Michael Fleming, Ken Makus, Xiaofu Zhu, Christina Korownyk, Michael R Kolber, James McCormack, Sharon Nickel, Guillermina Noël, Adrienne J Lindblad
OBJECTIVE: To develop a clinical practice guideline for a simplified approach to medical cannabinoid use in primary care; the focus was on primary care application, with a strong emphasis on best available evidence and a promotion of shared, informed decision making. METHODS: The Evidence Review Group performed a detailed systematic review of 4 clinical areas with the best evidence around cannabinoids: pain, nausea and vomiting, spasticity, and adverse events. Nine health professionals (2 generalist family physicians, 2 pain management-focused family physicians, 1 inner-city family physician, 1 neurologist, 1 oncologist, 1 nurse practitioner, and 1 pharmacist) and a patient representative comprised the Prescribing Guideline Committee (PGC), along with 2 nonvoting members (pharmacist project managers)...
February 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Suzanne Nielsen, Rada Germanos, Megan Weier, John Pollard, Louisa Degenhardt, Wayne Hall, Nicholas Buckley, Michael Farrell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pharmaceutical cannabinoids such as nabiximols, nabilone and dronabinol, and plant-based cannabinoids have been investigated for their therapeutic potential in treating multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms. This review of reviews aimed to synthesise findings from high quality systematic reviews that examined the safety and effectiveness of cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis. We examined the outcomes of disability and disability progression, pain, spasticity, bladder function, tremor/ataxia, quality of life and adverse effects...
February 13, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Dirk Dressler, Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Saeed Bohlega, Pedro Chana, Hsin Fen Chien, Tae Mo Chung, Carlo Colosimo, Markus Ebke, Klemens Fedoroff, Bernd Frank, Ryuji Kaji, Petr Kanovsky, Serdar Koçer, Federico Micheli, Olga Orlova, Sebastian Paus, Zvezdan Pirtosek, Maja Relja, Raymond L Rosales, José Alberto Sagástegui-Rodríguez, Paul W Schoenle, Gholam Ali Shahidi, Sofia Timerbaeva, Uwe Walter, Fereshte Adib Saberi
Spasticity is a symptom occurring in many neurological conditions including stroke, multiple sclerosis, hypoxic brain damage, traumatic brain injury, tumours and heredodegenerative diseases. It affects large numbers of patients and may cause major disability. So far, spasticity has merely been described as part of the upper motor neurone syndrome or defined in a narrowed neurophysiological sense. This consensus organised by IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group Movement Disorders wants to provide a brief and practical new definition of spasticity-for the first time-based on its various forms of muscle hyperactivity as described in the current movement disorders terminology...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Meng-Qi Na, Shan Deng, Xian-Lei Yan, Yu-Lin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate musculoskeletal disorders and risk factors of low back pain in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS: In this study, patients in our hospital with confirmed MS with an expanded disabilitystatus scale (EDSS) score between 4 to 7 were selected. Data of MS history, pain, musculoskeletal disorders, muscle strength and spasticity in lower limbs were collected. RESULTS: Among 190 patients, there were 61 males and 129 females, with an average age of(54...
April 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Donald I Abrams
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine conducted a rapid turn-around comprehensive review of recent medical literature on The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids. The 16-member committee adopted the key features of a systematic review process, conducting an extensive search of relevant databases and considered 10,000 recent abstracts to determine their relevance. Primacy was given to recently published systematic reviews and primary research that studied one of the committee's 11 prioritized health endpoints- therapeutic effects; cancer incidence; cardiometabolic risk; respiratory disease; immune function; injury and death; prenatal, perinatal and postnatal outcomes; psychosocial outcomes; mental health; problem Cannabis use; and Cannabis use and abuse of other substances...
January 8, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Alexander T Peebles, Adam P Bruetsch, Sharon G Lynch, Jessie M Huisinga
OBJECTIVES: To compare physiological impairments between persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) with a history of falls and persons with MS without a history of falls and to investigate the association between physiological impairments and dynamic balance. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University motion analysis laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-five persons with MS (27 recurrent fallers and 28 non-fallers). Participants were classified as fallers if they self-reported 2 or more falls in the previous six months...
December 21, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Géraldine Martens, Steven Laureys, Aurore Thibaut
Background: Spasticity is a motor disorder frequently encountered after a lesion involving the central nervous system. It is hypothesized to arise from an anarchic reorganization of the pyramidal and parapyramidal fibers and leads to hypertonia and hyperreflexia of the affected muscular groups. While this symptom and its management is well-known in patients suffering from stroke, multiple sclerosis or spinal cord lesion, little is known regarding its appropriate management in patients presenting disorders of consciousness after brain damage...
December 9, 2017: Brain Sciences
Antoni Matilla-Dueñas, Marc Corral-Juan, Agustí Rodríguez-Palmero Seuma, Dolores Vilas, Lourdes Ispierto, Sara Morais, Jorge Sequeiros, Isabel Alonso, Víctor Volpini, Carmen Serrano-Munuera, Guillem Pintos-Morell, Ramiro Álvarez, Ivelisse Sánchez
More than 600 human disorders afflict the nervous system. Of these, neurodegenerative diseases are usually characterised by onset in late adulthood, progressive clinical course, and neuronal loss with regional specificity in the central nervous system. They include Alzheimer's disease and other less frequent dementias, brain cancer, degenerative nerve diseases, encephalitis, epilepsy, genetic brain disorders, head and brain malformations, hydrocephalus, stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's Disease), Huntington's disease, and Prion diseases, among others...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jonathan Levy, Sarah Hartley, Elsa Mauruc-Soubirac, Antoine Leotard, Frederic Lofaso, Maria-Antonia Quera-Salva, Djamel Bensmail
BACKGROUND: Spasticity and spasms are distressing features of the upper motor neuron syndrome (UMNS) following spinal cord injuries (SCI) or multiple sclerosis (MS), and have common therapeutic implications. Despite an increase of antispastic drugs and strategies, sometimes up to the surgical implant of intrathecal baclofen pump, some patients still complain of disabling spasms, which poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Although clinically similar, flexor spasms due to pyramidal tract disruption must be clearly differentiated from periodic limb movements (PLM), often accompanying restless leg syndrome (RLS) and occurring during sleep...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Mineki Saito, Hiroe Sejima, Tadasuke Naito, Hiroshi Ushirogawa, Toshio Matsuzaki, Eiji Matsuura, Yuetsu Tanaka, Tatsufumi Nakamura, Hiroshi Takashima
BACKGROUND: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is produced by activated monocytes/ macrophages and T-lymphocytes, and acts as a potent attractant for Th2 cells and a subset of T-regulatory (Treg) cells. Previous reports have indicated that CCL1 is overexpressed in adult T-cell leukemia cells, mediating an autocrine anti-apoptotic loop. Because CCL1 is also known as a potent chemoattractant that plays a major role in inflammatory processes, we investigated the role of CCL1 in the pathogenesis of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)...
December 4, 2017: Virology Journal
Bryan S Lee, Jaes Jones, Min Lang, Rebecca Achey, Lu Dai, Darlene A Lobel, Sean J Nagel, Andre G Machado, Francois Bethoux
OBJECTIVE Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes demyelination and axonal loss. Walking difficulties are a common and debilitating symptom of MS; they are usually caused by spastic paresis of the lower extremities. Although intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy has been reported to be an effective treatment for spasticity in MS, there is limited published evidence regarding its effects on ambulation. The goal of this study was to characterize ITB therapy outcomes in ambulatory patients with MS...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
James C Dodge
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a heterogeneous group of rare inherited metabolic diseases that are frequently triggered by the accumulation of lipids inside organelles of the endosomal-autophagic-lysosomal system (EALS). There is now a growing realization that disrupted lysosomal homeostasis (i.e., lysosomal cacostasis) also contributes to more common neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson disease (PD). Lipid deposition within the EALS may also participate in the pathogenesis of some additional neurodegenerative diseases of the motor system...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Jan Rusz, Barbora Benova, Hana Ruzickova, Michal Novotny, Tereza Tykalova, Jan Hlavnicka, Tomas Uher, Manuela Vaneckova, Michaela Andelova, Klara Novotna, Lucie Kadrnozkova, Dana Horakova
BACKGROUND: Motor speech disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) are poorly understood and their quantitative, objective acoustic characterization remains limited. Additionally, little data regarding relationships between the severity of speech disorders and neurological involvement in MS, as well as the contribution of pyramidal and cerebellar functional systems on speech phenotypes, is available. METHODS: Speech data were acquired from 141 MS patients with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) ranging from 1 to 6...
November 8, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Margherita Russo, Vincenzo Dattola, Anna Lisa Logiudice, Rosella Ciurleo, Edoardo Sessa, Rosaria De Luca, Placido Bramanti, Alessia Bramanti, Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
INTRODUCTION: Currently, none of the available multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying medications has been shown to stop or reverse gait disability. Recently, the nabiximols has been tested for the treatment of spasticity and walking impairment in MS. Nabiximols (trade name Sativex) is an oromucosal spray formulation containing 1:1 fixed ratio of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol derived from cloned Cannabis sativa L. plant. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: A single-center, prospective, parallel design, single-blind trial will be conducted at the IRCCS Neurolesi "Bonino-Pulejo" (Italy) involving MS patients affected by spasticity and undergoing a Robotic Rehabilitation training...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ralf Linker
Each year at the Multiple Sclerosis Experts Summit, relevant research in the field of multiple sclerosis spasticity is featured in poster sessions. The main studies presented at this year's meeting are summarized herein.
November 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
Kjell-Morten Myhr, Mathias Mäurer, Marisa Martínez Ginés, Federica Esposito, Ralf Linker
A popular feature of the Multiple Sclerosis Experts Summit is interactive break-out sessions to discuss various aspects of multiple sclerosis (MS), including MS spasticity and general management of MS patients. The format encourages participation and active discussion, thus providing attendees with the opportunity to exchange their experiences of the day-to-day management of MS in clinical practice. Following feedback provided by each session leader, key messages are summarized and presented in a plenary session by the Summit chair...
November 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
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