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Carnitine in parenteral nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856995/choline-protects-against-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-in-parenteral-nutrition-fed-immature-rats
#1
Jie Zhu, Ting Lu, Fei Chen, Junkai Yan, Fan Chen, Qiaosen Zhang, Jifan Wang, Weihui Yan, Tingxi Yu, Qingya Tang, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND: Deficiency of choline, a required nutrient, is related to intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of choline supplementation on IFALD and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) were fed AIN-93G chow and administered intravenous 0.9% saline (control), parenteral nutrition (PN), or PN plus intravenous choline (600 mg/kg) for 7 days. We evaluated body weight, hepatic histology, biochemical indicators, triglycerides, oxidative status, methylation levels of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) gene promoter, expression of PPARα and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), and levels of choline metabolites...
November 17, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836286/acylcarnitine-profiles-reflect-metabolic-vulnerability-for-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-newborns-born-premature
#2
Karl G Sylvester, Zachary J Kastenberg, R Larry Moss, Gregory M Enns, Tina M Cowan, Gary M Shaw, David K Stevenson, Tiffany J Sinclair, Curt Scharfe, Kelli K Ryckman, Laura L Jelliffe-Pawlowski
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between newborn acylcarnitine profiles and the subsequent development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) with the use of routinely collected newborn screening data in infants born preterm. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with the use of discharge records for infants born preterm admitted to neonatal intensive care units in California from 2005 to 2009 who had linked state newborn screening results. A model-development cohort of 94 110 preterm births from 2005 to 2008 was used to develop a risk-stratification model that was then applied to a validation cohort of 22 992 births from 2009...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403414/nutrition-in-pancreatic-cancer-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Simone Gärtner, Janine Krüger, Ali A Aghdassi, Antje Steveling, Peter Simon, Markus M Lerch, Julia Mayerle
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both genders. More than 80% of patients suffer from significant weight loss at diagnosis and over time develop severe cachexia. Early nutritional support is therefore essential. SUMMARY: This review evaluates the different nutritional therapies, such as enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition and special nutritional supplements, on nutritional status, quality of life and survival...
May 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26113560/a-call-to-action-to-bring-safer-parenteral-micronutrient-products-to-the-u-s-market
#4
Vincent W Vanek, Peggy Borum, Alan Buchman, Theresa A Fessler, Lyn Howard, Alan Shenkin, Christina J Valentine
The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) started an intensive review of commercially available parenteral vitamin and trace element (TE) products in 2009. The chief findings were that adult multi-TE products currently available in the United States (U.S.) provide potentially toxic amounts of manganese, copper, and chromium, and neonatal/pediatric multi-TE products provide potentially toxic amounts of manganese and chromium. The multivitamin products appeared safe and effective; however, a separate parenteral vitamin D product is needed for those patients on standard therapy who continue to be vitamin D depleted and are unresponsive to oral supplements...
August 2015: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25874778/the-role-of-carnitine-in-the-perinatal-period
#5
REVIEW
Alina Kępka, Sylwia Chojnowska, Osazee E Okungbowa, Krzysztof Zwierz
Carnitine (2-hydroxy-4-trimethylammonium butyrate, vitamin BT) is a small hydrophilic molecule derived from protein-bound lysine, not degraded in the body but excreted via urine, bile and breast milk. Carnitine stimulates the catabolism of long-chain fatty acids (FAs), by transporting them to mitochondria for oxidation, and the intracellular decomposition of branched-chain ketoacids. It also helps to excrete toxic exogenous and nontoxic endogenous organic acids via urine. It further participates in the production of pulmonary surfactant, inhibits free radicals production and demonstrates other antioxidant properties...
October 2014: Developmental Period Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25596209/vitamin-e-in-new-generation-lipid-emulsions-protects-against-parenteral-nutrition-associated-liver-disease-in-parenteral-nutrition-fed-preterm-pigs
#6
Kenneth Ng, Barbara Stoll, Shaji Chacko, Miguel Saenz de Pipaon, Charlotte Lauridsen, Matthew Gray, E James Squires, Juan Marini, Irving J Zamora, Oluyinka O Olutoye, Douglas G Burrin
INTRODUCTION: Parenteral nutrition (PN) in preterm infants leads to PN-associated liver disease (PNALD). PNALD has been linked to serum accumulation of phytosterols that are abundant in plant oil but absent in fish oil emulsions. HYPOTHESIS: Whether modifying the phytosterol and vitamin E composition of soy and fish oil lipid emulsions affects development of PNALD in preterm pigs. METHODS: We measured markers of PNALD in preterm pigs that received 14 days of PN that included 1 of the following: (1) Intralipid (IL, 100% soybean oil), (2) Intralipid + vitamin E (ILE, d-α-tocopherol), (3) Omegaven (OV, 100% fish oil), or (4) Omegaven + phytosterols (PS, β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol)...
July 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25411530/serum-carnitine-as-an-independent-biomarker-of-malnutrition-in-patients-with-impaired-oral-intake
#7
Junichi Iwamoto, Akira Honda, Yasunori Miyamoto, Teruo Miyazaki, Masashi Murakami, Yoshifumi Saito, Tadashi Ikegami, Jiro Miyamoto, Yasushi Matsuzaki
Carnitine is a vitamin-like compound that plays important roles in fatty acid β-oxidation and the control of the mitochondrial coenzyme A/acetyl-CoA ratio. However, carnitine is not added to ordinary enteral nutrition or total parenteral nutrition. In this study, we determined the serum carnitine concentrations in subjects receiving ordinary enteral nutrition (EN) or total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases to compare its levels with those of other nutritional markers...
November 2014: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24958973/evaluation-of-serum-carnitine-levels-for-pediatric-patients-receiving-carnitine-free-and-carnitine-supplemented-parenteral-nutrition
#8
Brian Winther, Daniel Jackson, Cecilia Mulroy, Mark MacKay
PURPOSE: Carnitine is a carrier molecule transporting long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) into the mitochondria for fatty acid β-oxidation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of carnitine supplementation in parenteral nutrition (PN) within the pediatric population. Our goal was to determine a weight range for which empiric carnitine supplementation is justified and to determine a weight range at which a carnitine level should first be drawn to confirm a deficiency prior to supplementation...
June 2014: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24500444/carnitine-deficiency-in-chronic-critical-illness
#9
REVIEW
Luisa Bonafé, Mette M Berger, Yok Ai Que, Jeffrey I Mechanick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: New insight in mitochondrial physiology has highlighted the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction in the metabolic and neuroendocrine changes observed in patients presenting with chronic critical illness. This review highlights specifically the importance of carnitine status in this particular patient population and its impact on beta-oxidation and mitochondrial function. RECENT FINDINGS: The main function of carnitine is long chain fatty acid esterification and transport through the mitochondrial membrane...
March 2014: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22730042/a-s-p-e-n-position-paper-recommendations-for-changes-in-commercially-available-parenteral-multivitamin-and-multi-trace-element-products
#10
Vincent W Vanek, Peggy Borum, Alan Buchman, Theresa A Fessler, Lyn Howard, Khursheed Jeejeebhoy, Marty Kochevar, Alan Shenkin, Christina J Valentine
The parenteral multivitamin preparations that are commercially available in the United States (U.S.) meet the requirements for most patients who receive parenteral nutrition (PN). However, a separate parenteral vitamin D preparation (cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol) should be made available for treatment of patients with vitamin D deficiency unresponsive to oral vitamin D supplementation. Carnitine is commercially available and should be routinely added to neonatal PN formulations. Choline should also be routinely added to adult and pediatric PN formulations; however, a commercially available parenteral product needs to be developed...
August 2012: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22562458/l-carnitine-and-cancer-cachexia-ii-effects-of-lipid-emulsion-used-in-total-parenteral-nutrition-on-parameters-of-hemostasis-and-inflammatory-state-in-l-carnitine-deficiency-in-myocytes
#11
Jarosław Szefel, Wiesław Janusz Kruszewski, Maciej Ciesielski, Mariusz Szajewski, Krzysztof Kawecki, Jerzy Jankun, Wiesława Lysiak-Szydłowska
Cancer cachexia (CC), a progressive loss of body mass, leads to malnutrition and deficiencies of essential substances including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and L-carnitine (LC). The availability of these 2 compounds determines the rate of eicosanoid synthesis, which modulates inflammatory processes and hemostasis. We compared the effects of administration of emulsions containing long chain triglycerides (LCTs) relative to a 50:50 mix of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) with LCTs on hemostasis and inflammatory reactions in patients with CC...
July 2012: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22562434/l-carnitine-and-cancer-cachexia-i-l-carnitine-distribution-and-metabolic-disorders-in-cancer-cachexia
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jarosław Szefel, Wiesław Janusz Kruszewski, Maciej Ciesielski, Mariusz Szajewski, Krzysztof Kawecki, Ewa Aleksandrowicz-Wrona, Jerzy Jankun, Wiesława Lysiak-Szydłowska
Cancer cachexia (CC), a progressive loss of body mass, is associated with decreased energy production. Abnormally low levels of L-carnitine (LC) in skeletal muscle means that mitochondrial β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) does not occur efficiently in patients with CC. We assessed the influence of CC on LC distribution and the effects of parenteral lipid emulsions on plasma LC levels and urinary excretion. Fifty patients with CC were randomly assigned to total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), or LCTs plus medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) as 50/50...
July 2012: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22497819/lipid-destabilisation-in-a-ternary-admixture-for-paediatric-parenteral-nutrition-due-to-heparin-and-trigger-factors
#13
C Hernández Prats, M Real Panisello, M J Fuentes Bonmatí, C Torres Chazarra, M I Sánchez Casado
The preparation of paediatric parenteral nutrition admixtures varies greatly. There is still a clear lack of consensus on many points. These points include the use of organic or inorganic phosphate or calcium salts, preparing binary or ternary mixtures, the type of lipid used, and the addition or suppression of heparin or carnitine, etc. The process must be standardised in order to guarantee that prepared mixtures will be stable. However, there is still no information on how to predict their stability with any degree of precision, particularly for ternary mixtures...
May 2012: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22301330/fatty-emaciation-a-case-report-of-suspected-fat-overload-syndrome-in-oral-refeeding
#14
Arielle D Macher, Daniel Palazuelos, Saverio M Maviglia
Refeeding syndrome has been observed in patients receiving nutrition after a prolonged period of malnourishment and is characterized by multiple metabolic derangements. Besides hypophosphatemia and hypoglycemia, lipemia has been described in association with parenteral nutrition administration to the malnourished. The authors describe one anorexic patient who developed lipemia during oral refeeding, followed by a precipitous drop in hematocrit suggestive of fat overload syndrome.
July 2012: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22245235/the-metabolic-effects-of-two-different-lipid-emulsions-used-in-parenterally-fed-premature-infants-a-randomized-comparative-study
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Gamze Demirel, Serife Suna Oguz, Istemi Han Celik, Omer Erdeve, Nurdan Uras, Ugur Dilmen
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of two different lipid emulsions, based on soybean oil and olive oil respectively on plasma lipid concentrations and acylcarnitine profile of very low birth weight infants. DESIGN: Randomized comparative study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty very low birth weight infants, ≤32 weeks of gestational age and receiving at least 40% of the calorie taken by parenteral nutrition from lipid solution at 14th day of life were evaluated...
July 2012: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21881018/nutrition-delivery-for-obese-icu-patients-delivery-issues-lack-of-guidelines-and-missed-opportunities
#16
Robert G Martindale, Mark DeLegge, Stephen McClave, Craig Monroe, Vance Smith, Laszlo Kiraly
The most appropriate enteral formula for the severely obese population has yet to be determined. The obese patient in the intensive care unit (ICU) creates numerous difficulties for managing care, one being the ability to deliver appropriate and timely nutrition. Access for nutrition therapy, either enteral or parenteral, can also create a challenge. Currently, no specific guidelines are available on a national or international scale to address the issues of how and when to feed the obese patient in the ICU...
September 2011: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20806996/nutritional-treatments-for-acute-myocardial-infarction
#17
REVIEW
Alan R Gaby
Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the most frequent causes of death in the United States. The evaluation and treatment of acute MI in conventional medicine has focused primarily on anatomical and physiological factors that lead to impaired blood flow. Less attention has been paid to metabolic factors that may influence the vulnerability of the myocardium to ischemia and to various stressors. There is evidence that in some cases inefficient cellular metabolism, rather than the availability of oxygen and other blood-borne nutrients, is an important factor determining whether cardiac pathology will develop...
July 2010: Alternative Medicine Review: a Journal of Clinical Therapeutic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20534325/l-carnitine-supplemented-parenteral-nutrition-improves-fat-metabolism-but-fails-to-support-compensatory-growth-in-premature-korean-infants
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
So-Hui Seong, Soo-Chul Cho, Yongsoon Park, Youn-Soo Cha
We have previously shown that pregnant Korean mothers often have especially poor carnitine status, which may be responsible for the suboptimal carnitine levels of newborn Korean infants. This study tested the hypothesis that carnitine obtained from premature infant formula alone is adequate in sustaining optimal lipid metabolism and growth in premature infants. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of parenteral carnitine supplementation on carnitine status, growth parameters, and lipid metabolism in premature infants by measuring serum lipid profiles, carnitine and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, and body weight, size, and length...
April 2010: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20164367/postnatal-hepatic-fatty-acid-oxidative-capacity-of-preterm-pigs-receiving-tpn-does-not-differ-from-that-of-term-pigs-and-is-not-affected-by-supplemental-arachidonic-and-docosahexaenoic-acids
#19
Jenny A Campbell, Jessica E Martin, Krizia Melendez, Michael B Stout, Pasha A Lyvers-Peffer
To improve pediatric care of preterm infants, a better understanding of the metabolic processes associated with immaturity is needed. To this end, preterm and term pigs were delivered and administered either a control, a low-PUFA [0.3 and 0.6% of total lipids as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA), respectively], or a high-PUFA (5 and 11% of total lipids as DHA and AA, respectively) parenteral solution. Hepatic oxidative capacity and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) mRNA and activity in the presence or absence of malonyl-CoA were determined after 6 d...
April 2010: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19934086/continuous-venovenous-haemodialysis-cvvhd-and-continuous-peritoneal-dialysis-cpd-in-the-acute-management-of-21-children-with-inborn-errors-of-metabolism
#20
Anja K Arbeiter, Birgitta Kranz, Anne-Margret Wingen, Klaus-Eugen Bonzel, Christian Dohna-Schwake, Ludwig Hanssler, Ulrich Neudorf, Peter F Hoyer, Rainer Büscher
BACKGROUND: Newborns with inborn errors of metabolism often present with hyperammonaemic coma, requiring prompt diagnosis and specific medical therapy, nutritional support and efficient toxin removal. Little information regarding the efficacy and safety of continuous venovenous haemodialysis (CVVHD) as an option for extracorporal ammonia detoxification in children is available. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with hyperammonaemia [19 neonates (mean age 4.1 +/- 2.4 days) and two children 1 and 7 years of age, respectively] were admitted to our hospital for dialysis between 1996 and 2008...
April 2010: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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