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lewy body dementia and Parkinson's

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240340/update-on-current-care-guideline-memory-disorders
#1
(no author information available yet)
Any complaint about memory should be examined. Diagnosis is based on international criteria. Basic evaluation consists of medical history, clinical evaluation, cognitive tests and brain imaging. When a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), AD with cerebrovascular disease or with Lewy Body disease (LBD), or Dementia associated with Parkinson's disease or LBD is made, evidence-based medical therapy (acetylcholine esterase inhibitor or memantine) is indicated as a part of comprehensive care. In frontotemporal degenerations, these drugs are ineffective...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228071/associations-between-tau-%C3%AE-amyloid-and-cognition-in-parkinson-disease
#2
Joseph R Winer, Anne Maass, Peter Pressman, Jordan Stiver, Daniel R Schonhaut, Suzanne L Baker, Joel Kramer, Gil D Rabinovici, William J Jagust
Importance: Multiple disease processes are associated with cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease (PD), including Lewy bodies, cerebrovascular disease, and Alzheimer disease. It remains unknown whether tau pathology relates to cognition in patients with PD without dementia. Objective: To compare tau aggregation in patients with PD who are cognitively normal (PD-CN), patients with PD with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), and healthy control participants, and evaluate the relationships between β-amyloid (Aβ), tau, and cognition in patients with PD who did not have dementia...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222591/dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-current-concepts-and-controversies
#3
REVIEW
Kurt A Jellinger
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease-dementia (PDD), although sharing many clinical, neurochemical and morphological features, according to DSM-5, are two entities of major neurocognitive disorders with Lewy bodies of unknown etiology. Despite considerable clinical overlap, their diagnosis is based on an arbitrary distinction between the time of onset of motor and cognitive symptoms: dementia often preceding parkinsonism in DLB and onset of cognitive impairment after onset of motor symptoms in PDD...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216908/clinical-and-neuropathological-features-of-als-ftd-with-tia1-mutations
#4
Veronica Hirsch-Reinshagen, Cyril Pottier, Alexandra M Nicholson, Matt Baker, Ging-Yuek R Hsiung, Charles Krieger, Pheth Sengdy, Kevin B Boylan, Dennis W Dickson, Marsel Mesulam, Sandra Weintraub, Eileen Bigio, Lorne Zinman, Julia Keith, Ekaterina Rogaeva, Sasha A Zivkovic, David Lacomis, J Paul Taylor, Rosa Rademakers, Ian R A Mackenzie
Mutations in the stress granule protein T-cell restricted intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1) were recently shown to cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with or without frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here, we provide detailed clinical and neuropathological descriptions of nine cases with TIA1 mutations, together with comparisons to sporadic ALS (sALS) and ALS due to repeat expansions in C9orf72 (C9orf72+). All nine patients with confirmed mutations in TIA1 were female. The clinical phenotype was heterogeneous with a range in the age at onset from late twenties to the eighth decade (mean = 60 years) and disease duration from one to 6 years (mean = 3 years)...
December 7, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198173/autophagy-inhibition-promotes-snca-alpha-synuclein-release-and-transfer-via-extracellular-vesicles-with-a-hybrid-autophagosome-exosome-like-phenotype
#5
Georgia Minakaki, Stefanie Menges, Agnes Kittel, Evangelia Emmanouilidou, Iris Schaeffner, Katalin Barkovits, Anna Bergmann, Edward Rockenstein, Anthony Adame, Franz Marxreiter, Brit Mollenhauer, Douglas Galasko, Edit Irén Buzás, Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Katrin Marcus, Wei Xiang, Dieter Chichung Lie, Kostas Vekrellis, Eliezer Masliah, Jürgen Winkler, Jochen Klucken
The autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) regulates intracellular homeostasis of the cytosolic protein SNCA/alpha-synuclein and is impaired in synucleinopathies, including Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Emerging evidence suggests that ALP influences SNCA release, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are not well understood. Several studies identified SNCA in exosome/extracellular vesicle (EV) fractions. EVs are generated in the multivesicular body compartment and either released upon its fusion with the plasma membrane, or cleared via the ALP...
December 4, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196808/propagation-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology-from-the-olfactory-bulb-possible-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#6
REVIEW
María Graciela Cersosimo
Olfactory limbic structures, like the amygdala, the entorhinal, and the piriform cortices, are closely involved in cognitive processes. Thus, besides olfactory dysfunctions, it is conceivable that the compromise of these structures can lead to cognitive impairment. The olfactory bulb is affected by alpha-synuclein pathology in almost all cases of both Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. The clinical distinction between these disorders relies on the timing in the appearance of dementia in relationship to motor symptoms...
December 1, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195744/discrimination-of-atypical-parkinsonisms-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#7
Alberto Benussi, Valentina Dell'Era, Valentina Cantoni, Clarissa Ferrari, Salvatore Caratozzolo, Luca Rozzini, Antonella Alberici, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Borroni
BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis of atypical parkinsonian disorders, i.e. dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or corticobasal syndrome (CBS) still remains problematic. Furthermore, DLB may overlap with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the early stages of disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to classify atypical parkinsonian disorders and AD. METHODS: A paired-pulse TMS multi-paradigm approach assessing multiple intracortical circuits, as short interval intracortical inhibition-facilitation and short latency afferent inhibition, was used to model a decision tree analysis and determine diagnostic accuracy in classifying different neurodegenerative disorders...
November 22, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193464/functional-connectivity-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-a-within-and-between-network-analysis
#8
Julia Schumacher, Luis R Peraza, Michael Firbank, Alan J Thomas, Marcus Kaiser, Peter Gallagher, John T O'Brien, Andrew M Blamire, John-Paul Taylor
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a common form of dementia and is characterized by cognitive fluctuations, visual hallucinations, and Parkinsonism. The phenotypic expression of the disease may, in part, relate to alterations in functional connectivity within and between brain networks. This resting-state study sought to clarify this in DLB, how networks differed from Alzheimer's disease (AD), and whether they were related to clinical symptoms in DLB. Resting-state networks were estimated using independent component analysis...
November 29, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187334/cognitive-profile-in-prodromal-disease-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#9
Jennifer Kemp, Nathalie Philippi, Clélie Phillipps, Anne Botzung, Frédéric Blanc
This paper reviews findings on cognition in prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The issue of differential diagnosis between DLB and Alzheimer's disease (AD) on the one hand, and Parkinson's disease (PD) on the other hand, at prodromal stages of the diseases is discussed. The cognitive profile of prodromal DLB is also evaluated in terms of cognitive deficits and « cognitive weaknesses » (low performances although in normal range). Findings suggest that visuo-constructive tests and verbal fluency are particularly relevant to dfferentiate DLB from AD...
December 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180135/alpha-synuclein-transgenic-mice-h-%C3%AE-synl62-display-%C3%AE-syn-aggregation-and-a-dopaminergic-phenotype-reminiscent-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Silke Frahm, Valeria Melis, David Horsley, Janet E Rickard, Gernot Riedel, Paula Fadda, Maria Scherma, Charles R Harrington, Claude M Wischik, Franz Theuring, Karima Schwab
Alpha-Synuclein (α-Syn) accumulation is considered a major risk factor for the development of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies. We have generated mice overexpressing full-length human α-Syn fused to a membrane-targeting signal sequence under the control of the mouse Thy1-promotor. Three separate lines (L56, L58 and L62) with similar gene expression levels, but considerably heightened protein accumulation in L58 and L62, were established. In L62, there was widespread labelling of α-Syn immunoreactivity in brain including spinal cord, basal forebrain, cortex and striatum...
November 24, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170501/idiopathic-rem-sleep-behaviour-disorder-and-neurodegeneration-an-update
#11
REVIEW
Birgit Högl, Ambra Stefani, Aleksandar Videnovic
So-called idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), formerly seen as a rare parasomnia, is now recognized as the prodromal stage of an α-synucleinopathy. Given the very high risk that patients with idiopathic RBD have of developing α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD), PD dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies or multiple system atrophy, and the outstandingly high specificity and very long interval between the onset of idiopathic RBD and the clinical manifestations of α-synucleinopathies, the prodromal phase of this disorder represents a unique opportunity for potentially disease-modifying intervention...
November 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168583/distinct-patterns-of-amyloid-dependent-tau-accumulation-in-lewy-body-diseases
#12
Seung Ha Lee, Hanna Cho, Jae Yong Choi, Jae Hoon Lee, Young Hoon Ryu, Myung Sik Lee, Chul Hyoung Lyoo
BACKGROUND: In addition to Lewy body pathology, amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles that are characteristic for Alzheimer's disease are also frequently found in Lewy body diseases. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate tau accumulation patterns in dementia with Lewy bodies and other Lewy body diseases using in vivo (18) F-AV-1451 PET. METHODS: The study included 12 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with normal cognition, 22 PD patients with cognitive impairment, and 18 dementia with Lewy bodies patients...
November 23, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147836/effects-of-saffron%C3%A2-and-its-constituents-%C3%A2-crocin-1-crocin-2-and-crocetin-on-%C3%AE-synuclein-fibrils
#13
Eiji Inoue, Yasuharu Shimizu, Ryo Masui, Tomomi Hayakawa, Tomoe Tsubonoya, Satoko Hori, Keiichi Sudoh
Saffron, the stigma of Crocus sativus Linné (Iridaceae family), has been known to inhibit aggregation of β-amyloid, a nerve tissue protein. α-Synuclein (αS) is a 140-amino acid protein found abundantly in various regions of the brain. Its abnormal aggregation and accumulation in nerve tissue are said to cause neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Lewy body dementia, and multiple-system atrophy. This study (part of this study was presented at the 137th Annual Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan) examined the effects of saffron, its constituents (crocin-1, crocin-2, crocetin, and safranal), and crocetin structural analogs (hexadecanedioic acid, norbixin, and trans, trans-muconic acid) on αS aggregation, and αS fibril dissociation...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146478/diacylglycerols-as-biomarkers-of-sustained-immune-activation-in-proteinopathies-associated-with-dementia
#14
REVIEW
Paul L Wood, John E Cebak, Randall L Woltjer
Cognitive decline is a devastating clinical condition, heavily correlated with age progression. In the cases of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Lewy body disease, the common neuropathologies are proteinopathies and neuroinflammation. Herein, we review current lipidomics findings and conclude that brain and circulating diacylglycerols represent biomarkers of this ongoing sustained immune response, presumably involving microglia. We further hypothesize that a logical next step will be to evaluate biomarkers of immune activation in a cohort of patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and subsequently attempt to provide therapeutic intervention with anti-inflammatory therapy in MCI patients with immune activation...
November 13, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146111/microrna-expression-patterns-in-human-anterior-cingulate-and-motor-cortex-a-study-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-cases-and-controls
#15
Peter T Nelson, Wang-Xia Wang, Sarah A Janse, Katherine L Thompson
OVERVIEW: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we evaluated the expression of miRNAs in anterior cingulate (AC; Brodmann area [BA] 24) and primary motor (MO; BA 4) cortical tissue from aged human brains in the University of Kentucky AD Center autopsy cohort, with a focus on dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: RNA was isolated from gray matter of brain samples with pathology-defined DLB, AD, AD+DLB, and low-pathology controls, with n=52 cases initially included (n=23 with DLB), all with low (<4hrs) postmortem intervals...
November 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145189/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#16
Claudio L Bassetti, Panagiotis Bargiotas
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a brain disorder, characterized by the dream enactment during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep due to a lack of physiologic muscle atonia and increased muscle twitching. Schenk was the first to describe this disorder in 1986; however, few authors reported in the 1970-1980s loss of physiological muscle atonia combined with dream enactment in the course of brainstem disorders and as a consequence of alcoholism and antidepressant treatment. RBD affects less than 1% of the adult population, but can be found in up to 25-50% of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, multisystem atrophy, and dementia with Lewy body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143692/non-pharmacological-interventions-for-lewy-body-dementia-a-systematic-review
#17
Michael H Connors, Lena Quinto, Ian McKeith, Henry Brodaty, Louise Allan, Claire Bamford, Alan Thomas, John-Paul Taylor, John T O'Brien
Lewy body dementia (consisting of dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterised by visual hallucinations, fluctuating attention, motor disturbances, falls, and sensitivity to antipsychotics. This combination of features presents challenges for pharmacological management. Given this, we sought to review evidence for non-pharmacological interventions with patients with Lewy body dementia and their carers. Bibliographic databases were searched using a wide range of search terms and no restrictions were placed on study design, language, or clinical setting...
November 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133699/referral-practice-reporting-standards-and-the-impact-of-dopamine-transporter-scans-done-in-a-tertiary-hospital
#18
Shakya Bhattacharjee, Albi J Chalissery, Tim Barry, Donagh O'Sullivan, Martin O'Connell, Timothy Lynch
AIMS: We studied the referral practice, reporting standards, and the impact of 123 ioflupane single photon emission computed tomogram dopamine transporters (DAT-SPECT) scans conducted for the diagnosis and clinical management of patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: The present study was a retrospective, non-interventional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed the DAT scan referral and the official reports available from the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Mater Misericordiae University Hospital over 1 year (2013)...
November 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131019/utility-of-autonomic-function-tests-to-differentiate-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-parkinson-disease-with-dementia-from-alzheimer-disease
#19
Shuta Toru, Tadashi Kanouchi, Takanori Yokota, Yosuke Yagi, Akira Machida, Takayoshi Kobayashi
OBJECTIVE: We studied autonomic disturbance in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson disease with dementia (PDD), Alzheimer disease (AD), to determine whether autonomic function tests can be used to distinguish these disorders. METHODS: Autonomic function was tested in 56 patients with DLB, 37 patients with PDD, and 59 patients with AD by using the sympathetic skin response, coefficient of variation in R-R interval, the head-up tilt test, serum norepinephrine concentration, and 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy...
November 13, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126445/ykl-40-in-the-brain-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-neurodegenerative-dementias
#20
Franc Llorens, Katrin Thüne, Waqas Tahir, Eirini Kanata, Daniela Diaz-Lucena, Konstantinos Xanthopoulos, Eleni Kovatsi, Catharina Pleschka, Paula Garcia-Esparcia, Matthias Schmitz, Duru Ozbay, Susana Correia, Ângela Correia, Ira Milosevic, Olivier Andréoletti, Natalia Fernández-Borges, Ina M Vorberg, Markus Glatzel, Theodoros Sklaviadis, Juan Maria Torres, Susanne Krasemann, Raquel Sánchez-Valle, Isidro Ferrer, Inga Zerr
BACKGROUND: YKL-40 (also known as Chitinase 3-like 1) is a glycoprotein produced by inflammatory, cancer and stem cells. Its physiological role is not completely understood but YKL-40 is elevated in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in several neurological and neurodegenerative diseases associated with inflammatory processes. Yet the precise characterization of YKL-40 in dementia cases is missing. METHODS: In the present study, we comparatively analysed YKL-40 levels in the brain and CSF samples from neurodegenerative dementias of different aetiologies characterized by the presence of cortical pathology and disease-specific neuroinflammatory signatures...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
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