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lewy body dementia and Parkinson's

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456869/cognitive-fluctuations-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-blood-pressure-lability-as-an-underlying-mechanism
#1
David E Riley, Alberto J Espay
Background: Cognitive fluctuations refer to alterations in cognition, attention, or arousal occurring over minutes to hours, most commonly in patients with dementias associated with advanced Lewy body pathology. Their pathophysiologic underpinning remains undetermined. Case presentation: We documented serial blood pressure (BP) measurements in an 86-year-old man with Parkinson's disease dementia experiencing cognitive fluctuations during an office visit. This patient's associated dysautonomia included labile BP with orthostatic hypotension and nocturnal hypertension...
2018: Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454305/psychotropic-and-anti-dementia-treatment-in-elderly-persons-with-clinical-signs-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-a-cross-sectional-study-in-40-nursing-homes-in-sweden
#2
Iris Zahirovic, Gustav Torisson, Carina Wattmo, Elisabet Londos
BACKGROUND: Elderly persons with a dementia diagnosis often suffer from different neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as delusions, hallucinations, depression, anxiety, irritability and agitation. Currently, the medical treatment for NPS consists mostly of psychotropic medication such as hypnotics/sedatives, anxiolytics and antipsychotics. In elderly persons with dementia, usage of antipsychotics is less appropriate because of the risk of side effects such as parkinsonism, rapid cognitive decline, cerebrovascular events and finally mortality...
February 17, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453242/single-subject-spm-fdg-pet-patterns-predict-risk-of-dementia-progression-in-parkinson-disease
#3
Andrea Pilotto, Enrico Premi, Silvia Paola Caminiti, Luca Presotto, Rosanna Turrone, Antonella Alberici, Barbara Paghera, Barbara Borroni, Alessandro Padovani, Daniela Perani
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the statistical parametric mapping (SPM) procedure for fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET imaging as a possible single-subject marker of progression to dementia in Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: Fifty-four consecutive patients with PD without dementia (age at onset of 59.9 ± 10.1 years, disease duration of 5.3 ± 3.4 years) entered the study. The patients underwent an extensive motor and cognitive assessment and a single-subject FDG-PET SPM evaluation at baseline...
February 16, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448953/clinical-prevalence-of-lewy-body-dementia
#4
Joseph P M Kane, Ajenthan Surendranathan, Allison Bentley, Sally A H Barker, John-Paul Taylor, Alan J Thomas, Louise M Allan, Richard J McNally, Peter W James, Ian G McKeith, David J Burn, John T O'Brien
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and dementia in Parkinson's disease (PDD) in routine clinical practice is unclear. Prevalence rates observed in clinical and population-based cohorts and neuropathological studies vary greatly. Small sample sizes and methodological factors in these studies limit generalisability to clinical practice. METHODS: We investigated prevalence in a case series across nine secondary care services over an 18-month period, to determine how commonly DLB and PDD cases are diagnosed and reviewed within two regions of the UK...
February 15, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429645/daytime-sleepiness-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-is-associated-with-neuronal-depletion-of-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert
#5
Koji Kasanuki, Tanis J Ferman, Melissa E Murray, Michael G Heckman, Otto Pedraza, Fadi S Hanna Al-Shaikh, Takayasu Mishima, Nancy N Diehl, Jay A van Gerpen, Ryan J Uitti, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Neill R Graff-Radford, Dennis W Dickson
INTRODUCTION: Excessive daytime sleepiness is a commonly reported clinical feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) that can occur early in the disease. Cholinergic depletion is known to be severe in DLB, even when dementia severity is mild. The nucleus basalis of Meynert serves as a primary source of cortical acetylcholine, and has a role in facilitating cortical activation and arousal. We sought to determine whether daytime sleepiness at the initial evaluation of patients with DLB was associated with neuronal loss in the nucleus basalis of Meynert...
February 3, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422107/rapid-and-ultra-sensitive-quantitation-of-disease-associated-%C3%AE-synuclein-seeds-in-brain-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-by-%C3%AE-syn-rt-quic
#6
Bradley R Groveman, Christina D Orrù, Andrew G Hughson, Lynne D Raymond, Gianluigi Zanusso, Bernardino Ghetti, Katrina J Campbell, Jiri Safar, Douglas Galasko, Byron Caughey
The diagnosis and treatment of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies would be aided by the availability of assays for the pathogenic disease-associated forms of α-synuclein (αSynD) that are sufficiently sensitive, specific, and practical for analysis of accessible diagnostic specimens. Two recent αSynD seed amplification tests have provided the first prototypes for ultrasensitive and specific detection of αSynD in patients' cerebrospinal fluid. These prototypic assays require 5-13 days to perform...
February 9, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412983/parasomnias-and-sleep-related-movement-disorders-in-older-adults
#7
REVIEW
Alex Iranzo
Parasomnias and sleep-related movement disorders are important problems in older adults. Sleep paralysis is rare, but may occur in families. In a minority of patients with disorders of arousal, the episodes persist until the age of 70. Zolpidem and other medications may induce sleepwalking and sleep-related eating. Most patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder eventually develop Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies. Anti-IgLON5 disease includes abnormal behaviors in NREM and REM sleep...
March 2018: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407464/abnormalities-of-resting-state-functional-cortical-connectivity-in-patients-with-dementia-due-to-alzheimer-s-and-lewy-body-diseases-an-eeg-study
#8
Claudio Babiloni, Claudio Del Percio, Roberta Lizio, Giuseppe Noce, Susanna Lopez, Andrea Soricelli, Raffaele Ferri, Flavio Nobili, Dario Arnaldi, Francesco Famà, Dag Aarsland, Francesco Orzi, Carla Buttinelli, Franco Giubilei, Marco Onofrj, Fabrizio Stocchi, Paola Stirpe, Peter Fuhr, Ute Gschwandtner, Gerhard Ransmayr, Heinrich Garn, Lucia Fraioli, Michela Pievani, Giovanni B Frisoni, Fabrizia D'Antonio, Carlo De Lena, Bahar Güntekin, Lutfu Hanoğlu, Erol Başar, Görsev Yener, Derya Durusu Emek-Savaş, Antonio Ivano Triggiani, Raffaella Franciotti, John Paul Taylor, Laura Vacca, Maria Francesca De Pandis, Laura Bonanni
Previous evidence showed abnormal posterior sources of resting-state delta (<4 Hz) and alpha (8-12 Hz) rhythms in patients with Alzheimer's disease with dementia (ADD), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and Lewy body dementia (DLB), as cortical neural synchronization markers in quiet wakefulness. Here, we tested the hypothesis of additional abnormalities in functional cortical connectivity computed in those sources, in ADD, considered as a "disconnection cortical syndrome", in comparison with PDD and DLB...
December 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406924/white-matter-hyperintensities-on-mri-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-parkinson-s-disease-with-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Hideto Joki, Yuichi Higashiyama, Yoshiharu Nakae, Chiharu Kugimoto, Hiroshi Doi, Katsuo Kimura, Hitaru Kishida, Naohisa Ueda, Tatsu Nakano, Tatsuya Takahashi, Shigeru Koyano, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Fumiaki Tanaka
BACKGROUND: In dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), it is still debated whether white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on MRI reflect atherosclerotic cerebrovascular changes or Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology such as cerebral amyloid angiopathy. To examine AD-related pathology in DLB and PDD, we compared the severity of WMH and medial temporal lobe atrophy among patients with DLB, PDD, non-demented PD (PDND), and AD. METHODS: We retrospectively studied sex- and age-matched outpatients with AD, DLB, PDD, and PDND, as well as subjects without central nervous system disorders as normal controls (n=50 each)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406901/scan-without-evidence-of-dopaminergic-deficit-swedd-in-degenerative-parkinsonism-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-a-prospective-study
#10
Nicolas Nicastro, Pierre R Burkhard, Valentina Garibotto
BACKGROUND: 123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging is a reliable method to assess presynaptic dopaminergic pathways in degenerative parkinsonisms and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: We aimed at examining sensitivity of combined visual and semi-quantitative 123I-FP-CIT SPECT analyses in a prospective cohort of subjects with DLB and degenerative parkinsonisms - Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) to determine prevalence and clinical significance of scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDD)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405350/orthostatic-heart-rate-changes-in-patients-with-autonomic-failure-caused-by-neurodegenerative-synucleinopathies
#11
Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Horacio Kaufmann, Jose-Alberto Palma, Cyndya A Shibao, Italo Biaggioni, Amanda C Peltier, Wolfgang Singer, Phillip A Low, David S Goldstein, Christopher H Gibbons, Roy Freeman, David Robertson
OBJECTIVE: Blunted tachycardia during hypotension is a characteristic feature of patients with autonomic failure, but the range has not been defined. This study reports the range of orthostatic heart rate (HR) changes in patients with autonomic failure caused by neurodegenerative synucleinopathies. METHODS: Patients evaluated at sites of the U.S. Autonomic Consortium (NCT01799915) underwent standardized autonomic function tests and full neurological evaluation. RESULTS: We identified 402 patients with orthostatic hypotension (OH) who had normal sinus rhythm...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396794/spectrum-of-abnormalities-of-sympathetic-tyrosine-hydroxylase-and-alpha-synuclein-in-chronic-autonomic-failure
#12
Risa Isonaka, Patti Sullivan, Yunden Jinsmaa, Abraham Corrales, David S Goldstein
OBJECTIVE: Lewy body forms of primary chronic autonomic failure (CAF) such as incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and pure autonomic failure evolving into dementia with Lewy bodies (PAF+DLB) feature cardiac sympathetic denervation, whereas multiple system atrophy (MSA) in most cases does not. What links Lewy bodies with cardiac sympathetic denervation in CAF? In familial PD, abnormalities of the alpha-synuclein (AS) gene cause CAF and cardiac sympathetic denervation; and in sporadic PD, brainstem Lewy bodies contain AS co-localized with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a marker of catecholaminergic neurons...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393203/importance-of-proactive-treatment-of-depression-in-lewy-body-dementias-the-impact-on-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-cognition-in-a-post-mortem-study
#13
Ariana Gatt, Antigoni Ekonomou, Alyma Somani, Sandrine Thuret, David Howlett, Anne Corbett, Mary Johnson, Elaine Perry, Johannes Attems, Paul Francis, Dag Aarsland, Clive Ballard
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and depression on neurogenesis and cognition in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson disease dementia (PDD). METHODS: Late-stage progenitor cells were quantified in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus of DLB/PDD patients (n = 41) and controls without dementia (n = 15) and compared between treatment groups (unmedicated, SSRIs, acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors [AChEIs], combined SSRIs and AChEIs)...
January 27, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391125/cerebrospinal-fluid-neurofilament-light-levels-in-neurodegenerative-dementia-evaluation-of-diagnostic-accuracy-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-prion-diseases
#14
Inga Zerr, Matthias Schmitz, André Karch, Anna Villar-Piqué, Eirini Kanata, Ewa Golanska, Daniela Díaz-Lucena, Aikaterini Karsanidou, Peter Hermann, Tobias Knipper, Stefan Goebel, Daniela Varges, Theodoros Sklaviadis, Beata Sikorska, Pawel P Liberski, Isabel Santana, Isidro Ferrer, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Olga Calero, Miguel Calero, Anna Ladogana, Raquel Sánchez-Valle, Inês Baldeiras, Franc Llorens
INTRODUCTION: Neurofilament light (NFL) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid are increased in several neurodegenerative dementias. However, their diagnostic accuracy in the differential diagnostic context is unknown. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid NFL levels were quantified in nonprimarily neurodegenerative neurological and psychiatric diseases (n = 122), mild cognitive impairment (n = 48), Alzheimer's disease (n = 108), dementia with Lewy bodies/Parkinson's disease dementia (n = 53), vascular dementia (n = 46), frontotemporal dementia (n = 41), sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD, n = 132), and genetic prion diseases (n = 182)...
January 29, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382725/the-small-heat-shock-protein-hsp27-binds-%C3%AE-synuclein-fibrils-preventing-elongation-and-cytotoxicity
#15
Dezerae Cox, Daniel R Whiten, James Brown, Mathew H Horrocks, Rebecca San Gil, Christopher M Dobson, David Klenerman, Antoine M van Oijen, Heath Ecroyd
Proteostasis, or protein homeostasis, encompasses the maintenance of the conformational and functional integrity of the proteome and involves an integrated network of cellular pathways. Molecular chaperones, such as the small heat shock proteins (sHsps), are a key element of the proteostasis network that have crucial roles in inhibiting the aggregation of misfolded proteins. Failure of the proteostasis network can lead to the accumulation of misfolded proteins into intra- and extracellular deposits. Deposits containing fibrillar forms of α- synuclein (α-syn) are characteristic of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370097/alternative-splicing-of-alpha-and-beta-synuclein-genes-plays-differential-roles-in-synucleinopathies
#16
REVIEW
Ana Gámez-Valero, Katrin Beyer
The synuclein family is composed of three members, two of which, α- and β-synuclein, play a major role in the development of synucleinopathies, including Parkinson's disease (PD) as most important movement disorder, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) as the second most frequent cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease and multiple system atrophy. Whereas abnormal oligomerization and fibrillation of α-synuclein are now well recognized as initial steps in the development of synucleinopathies, β-synuclein is thought to be a natural α-synuclein anti-aggregant...
January 25, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367449/adjunct-zonisamide-to-levodopa-for-dlb-parkinsonism-a-randomized-double-blind-phase-2-study
#17
Miho Murata, Toshinari Odawara, Kazuko Hasegawa, Sayaka Iiyama, Masatoshi Nakamura, Masaaki Tagawa, Kenji Kosaka
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of zonisamide as an adjunct to levodopa therapy for parkinsonism in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: This phase 2, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study consisted of run-in (placebo, 4 weeks) and treatment (placebo or zonisamide 25 or 50 mg once daily, 12 weeks) periods. Outpatients diagnosed with probable DLB were eligible for inclusion. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part 3 total score at week 12...
January 24, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362011/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-cognitive-profile-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-with-lewy-bodies
#18
Paul C Donaghy, John-Paul Taylor, John T O'Brien, Nicola Barnett, Kirsty Olsen, Sean J Colloby, Jim Lloyd, George Petrides, Ian G McKeith, Alan J Thomas
BACKGROUND: The accurate clinical characterisation of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study was to compare the neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive profile of MCI with Lewy bodies (MCI-LB) with Alzheimer's disease MCI (MCI-AD). METHODS: Participants were ⩾60 years old with MCI. Each had a thorough clinical and neuropsychological assessment and 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane single photon emission computed tomography FP-CIT SPECT)...
January 24, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360467/parkinson-s-disease-from-the-gut
#19
Rodger A Liddle
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative condition associated with tremor, rigidity, dementia, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation, nausea and vomiting. The pathological hallmarks of PD are Lewy bodies and neurites in the brain and peripheral nerves. The major constituent of Lewy bodies is the neuronal protein α-synuclein. Misfolding of α-synuclein confers prion-like properties enabling its spread from cell to cell. Misfolded α-synuclein also serves as a template and induces misfolding of endogenous α-synuclein in recipient cells leading to the formation of oligomers that progress to fibrils and eventually Lewy bodies...
January 31, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332010/oligogenic-genetic-variation-of-neurodegenerative-disease-genes-in-980-postmortem-human-brains
#20
Michael J Keogh, Wei Wei, Juvid Aryaman, Ian Wilson, Kevin Talbot, Martin R Turner, Chris-Anne McKenzie, Claire Troakes, Johannes Attems, Colin Smith, Safa Al Sarraj, Chris M Morris, Olaf Ansorge, Stuart Pickering-Brown, Nick Jones, James W Ironside, Patrick F Chinnery
BACKGROUND: Several studies suggest that multiple rare genetic variants in genes causing monogenic forms of neurodegenerative disorders interact synergistically to increase disease risk or reduce the age of onset, but these studies have not been validated in large sporadic case series. METHODS: We analysed 980 neuropathologically characterised human brains with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease-dementia with Lewy bodies (PD-DLB), frontotemporal dementia-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD-ALS) and age-matched controls...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
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