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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632304/are-visceral-adiposity-index-and-lipid-accumulation-product-reliable-indices-for-metabolic-disturbances-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Nebojsa Kavaric, Aleksandra Klisic, Ana Ninic
BACKGROUND: Visceral adiposity index (VAI) and Lipid accumulation product (LAP) are novel visceral adiposity indexes, proposed for the evaluation of cardiometabolic risk in adult population. Considering contradictory results obtained from many studies so far, we aimed to examine the potential benefit of applicability of VAI and LAP, over simple anthropometric indices and traditional lipid parameters in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). METHODS: A total of 180 DM2 (of them 50% females) and 119 controls who volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study were enrolled...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629559/prospective-intra-individual-comparison-of-standard-dose-versus-reduced-dose-thoracic-ct-using-hybrid-and-pure-iterative-reconstruction-in-a-follow-up-cohort-of-pulmonary-nodules-effect-of-detectability-of-pulmonary-nodules-with-lowering-dose-based-on-nodule
#2
Varut Vardhanabhuti, Chun-Lap Pang, Sean Tenant, James Taylor, Christopher Hyde, Carl Roobottom
OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of lung nodule detection in thoracic CT using 2 reduced dose protocols comparing 3 available CT reconstruction algorithms (filtered back projection-FBP, adaptive statistical reconstruction-ASIR and model-based iterative reconstruction-MBIR) in a western population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective single-center study recruited 98 patients with written consent. Standard dose (STD) thoracic CT followed by 2 reduced-dose protocols using automatic tube current modulation (RD1) and fixed tube current (RD2) were performed and reconstructed with FBP, ASIR and MBIR with subsequent diagnostic accuracy analysis for nodule detection...
June 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628945/precise-spike-timing-dynamics-of-hippocampal-place-cell-activity-sensitive-to-cholinergic-disruption
#3
Ehren L Newman, Sarah Jo C Venditto, Jason R Climer, Elijah A Petter, Shea N Gillet, Sam Levy
New memory formation depends upon both the hippocampus and modulatory effects of acetylcholine. The mechanism by which acetylcholine levels in the hippocampus enable new encoding remains poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that cholinergic modulation supports memory formation by leading to structured spike timing in the hippocampus. Specifically, we tested if phase precession in dorsal CA1 was reduced under the influence of a systemic cholinergic antagonist. Unit and field potential was recorded from the dorsal CA1 of rats as they completed laps on a circular track for food rewards before and during the influence of the systemically administered acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine...
June 19, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627519/tumour-immunology-lap-targeting-reduces-tolerogenic-cells-in-cancer
#4
Alexandra Flemming
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627405/the-effects-of-dietary-leucine-on-the-growth-performances-body-composition-metabolic-abilities-and-innate-immune-responses-in-black-carp-mylopharyngodon-piceus
#5
Chenglong Wu, Lian Chen, Zhibin Lu, Jun'e Gao, Yudan Chu, Liang Li, Ming Wang, Geying Zhang, Miaotong Zhang, Jinyun Ye
The present study was focused on the growth, body composition, metabolic abilities and innate immune responses in juvenile black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus fed with six levels of dietary leucine (7.3, 12.4, 16.2, 21.9, 28.3 and 34.5 g kg(-1)) for 9 weeks. Results showed that the highest weight gain (WG) and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) was obtained at 23.5 and 23.9 g kg(-1) dietary leucine using second-order polynomial model, respectively. Adequate dietary leucine content (21.9 and 28.3 g kg(-1)) could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and ghrelin (GRL) in the brain of black carp juveniles...
June 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626078/state-space-representation-of-extended-guyton-s-model
#6
Atsunori Kamiya, Yohsuke Hayama, Shuji Shimizu, Toru Kawada
There are some debate as to dynamic-state applicability and cause-and-effect relationship between variables in Guyton's circulatory equilibrium model. The work of Moller PW et al. () supports the dynamic-state applicability in the venous return property of Guyton's model. State-space representation clearly depicts function structure of cardiovascular system; inputs to the system firstly affect internal unmeasureable properties of system (total stressed blood volume, pump function, systemic arterial resistance) and as a result measurable variables (cardiac output, venous return, RAP, LAP, systemic arterial pressure) were determined simultaneously as circulatory equilibrium...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624230/the-correlation-between-fundamental-characteristics-and-first-time-performance-in-laparoscopic-tasks
#7
Cuan M Harrington, Richard Bresler, Donncha Ryan, Patrick Dicker, Oscar Traynor, Dara O Kavanagh
BACKGROUND: The ability of characteristics to predict first time performance in laparoscopic tasks is not well described. Videogame experience predicts positive performance in laparoscopic experiences but its mechanism and confounding-association with aptitude remains to be elucidated. This study sought to evaluate for innate predictors of laparoscopic performance in surgically naive individuals with minimal videogame exposure. METHODS: Participants with no prior laparoscopic exposure and minimal videogaming experience were recruited consecutively from preclinical years at a medical university...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614710/anterior-cingulate-cortex-modulation-of-the-ventral-tegmental-area-in-an-effort-task
#8
Thomas W Elston, David K Bilkey
Information gained during goal pursuit motivates adaptive behavior. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) supports adaptive behavior, but how ACC signals are translated into motivational signals remains unclear. Rats with implants in the ACC and ventral tegmental area (VTA), a dopaminergic brain area implicated in motivation, were trained to run laps around a rectangular track for a fixed reward, where each lap varied in physical effort (a 30-cm climbable barrier). Partial directed coherence analysis of local field potentials revealed that ACC theta (4-12 Hz) activity increased as rats entered the barrier-containing region of the maze in trials when the barrier was absent and predicted similar changes in VTA theta activity...
June 13, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608768/effects-of-dog-assisted-therapy-on-communication-and-basic-social-skills-of-adults-with-intellectual-disabilities-a-pilot-study
#9
Ivano Scorzato, Leonardo Zaninotto, Michela Romano, Chiara Menardi, Lino Cavedon, Alessandra Pegoraro, Laura Socche, Piera Zanetti, Deborah Coppiello
Thirty-nine adults with severe to profound intellectual disability (ID) were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n = 21) or a control group (n = 18). Assessment was blinded and included selected items from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), the Behavioral Assessment Battery (BAB), and the Learning Accomplishment Profile (LAP). The experimental group, who attended a dog-assisted treatment intervention over a 20-week period, showed significant improvements in several cognitive domains, including attention to movement (BAB-AM), visuomotor coordination (BAB-VM), exploratory play (BAB-EP), and motor imitation (BAB-CO-MI), as well as in some social skills, as measured by LAP items...
June 2017: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608659/is-the-initial-size-of-tuberculous-lymphadenopathy-associated-with-lymph-node-enlargement-during-treatment
#10
Yun Jae Seol, Se Yoon Park, Shi Nae Yu, Tark Kim, Eun Jung Lee, Min Huok Jeon, Eun Ju Choo, Tae Hyong Kim
There are little data on the changes in lymph node (LN) size during the treatment of tuberculous lymphadenopathy (TB LAP). This study aimed to provide data on LN changes during treatment. Between March 2014 and December 2015, 20 patients who were diagnosed with cervical TB LAP were enrolled. LN enlargement within two months (50%, 4/8 vs. 8.3%, 1/12; P = 0.04) was more frequently observed in patients with initial LN size ≥ 7.5 cm². Enlarged LNs were excised in three patients owing to pain and fistula formation...
May 24, 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605210/pacing-strategy-during-simulated-mountain-bike-racing
#11
Bruno Ferreira Viana, Flávio Oliveira Pires, Allan Inoue, Tony Meireles Santos
Cross-country mountain biking (XCO) is a popular high-intensity cycling endurance event, however, XCO pacing strategy has not been fully examined. This study examined the pacing strategies of different XCO athletes, during a laboratory-simulated XCO performance test. Brazilian cyclists classified as performance cohort level three (PL3-trained) performed an XCO race simulation. The simulation consisted of four 10 km laps with a gradient of 0-10%. No group vs. time interaction was found in lap time (P = 0.169), absolute (P = 0...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604885/developing-a-tissue-glue-by-engineering-the-adhesive-and-hemostatic-properties-of-metal-oxide-nanoparticles
#12
Martin T Matter, Fabian Starsich, Marco Galli, Markus Hilber, Andrea A Schlegel, Sergio Bertazzo, Sotiris E Pratsinis, Inge K Herrmann
Despite decades of research, wound complications remain a major cause of postoperative mortality, especially in the face of multiple comorbidities. Addressing the issue of anastomotic leakages and impaired wound healing from a new angle is of great interest with the prospect of having direct impact on patient outcome. Recently, aqueous suspensions of silica and iron oxide nanoparticles have been employed to connect biological tissue by serving as an adhesive layer eventually leading to macroscopic gluing of tissue...
June 12, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603377/effect-of-prolonged-racing-on-muscle-activity-and-spatiotemporal-variables-double-poling-technique
#13
Kitae Kim, Siddhartha Bikram Panday, In-Sik Shin, Jin-Hae Kim, Hye-Young Kim, Gwang-Jae Yu
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 40-minute race on muscle activity and spatiotemporal cycle variables at four-time points during a 12-km roller skiing test using the double-poling technique. [Subjects and Methods] Five elite cross-country (XC) skiers on the Korean National reserve team participated in the study. Part of a biathlon course that consisted of both flat land and slopes was selected, and three measurements were recorded after every 4-km lap. Spatiotemporal variables, mean frequency and mean amplitude of 6 muscles were the chosen computational parameters...
May 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597234/an-automated-approach-to-measuring-child-movement-and-location-in-the-early-childhood-classroom
#14
Dwight W Irvin, Stephen A Crutchfield, Charles R Greenwood, William D Kearns, Jay Buzhardt
Children's movement is an important issue in child development and outcome in early childhood research, intervention, and practice. Digital sensor technologies offer improvements in naturalistic movement measurement and analysis. We conducted validity and feasibility testing of a real-time, indoor mapping and location system (Ubisense, Inc.) within a preschool classroom. Real-time indoor mapping has several implications with respect to efficiently and conveniently: (a) determining the activity areas where children are spending the most and least time per day (e...
June 8, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596078/identification-of-an-oxytocinase-vasopressinase-like-leucyl-cystinyl-aminopeptidase-lnpep-in-teleost-fish-and-evidence-for-hypothalamic-mrna-expression-linked-to-behavioral-social-status
#15
Emma A Elkins, Kayla A Walti, Kathryn E Newberry, Sean C Lema
The vasotocin/vasopressin and isotocin/mesotocin/oxytocin family of nonapeptides regulate social behaviors and physiological functions associated with reproductive physiology and osmotic balance. While experimental and correlative studies provide evidence for these nonapeptides as modulators of behavior across all classes of vertebrates, mechanisms for nonapeptide inactivation in regulating these functions have been largely overlooked. Leucyl-cystinyl aminopeptidase (LNPEP) - also known as vasopressinase, oxytocinase, placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP), and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) - is a membrane-bound zinc-dependent metalloexopeptidase enzyme that inactivates vasopressin, oxytocin, and select other cyclic polypeptides...
June 6, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595865/profiling-of-translational-and-rotational-head-accelerations-in-youth-bmx-with-and-without-neck-brace
#16
Howard T Hurst, Lee Rylands, Stephen Atkins, Kevin Enright, Simon J Roberts
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of BMX helmets and neck braces on translational and rotational accelerations in youth riders. DESIGN: Mixed model, repeated measure and correlation. METHODS: Twenty three competitive youth BMX riders classified by age group (6-9 years, 10-13 years and 14-18 years) completed 6 laps of an indoor BMX track at race pace, 3 laps without a neck brace (NB) and 3 without brace (WB). A triaxial accelerometer with gyroscope was placed behind the right ear to determine the mean number of accelerations, translational and rotational, of the head between conditions and by age group...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594581/learning-curve-analysis-of-laparoscopic-kasai-portoenterostomy
#17
Zhihan Li, Yongqin Ye, Zhouguang Wu, Bin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the surgical outcomes of Kasai Portoenterostomy (PE) and investigate the learning curve of laparoscopic Kasai Portoenterostomy (Lap-PE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 80 cases of biliary atresia (type III) undergoing Lap-PE at Shenzhen Children's Hospital from January 2011 to June 2015, all of which were performed by the same surgical team. According to the operative sequences, the cases were equally divided into four phases (Phase I, II, III, and IV), which contain 20 cases in each...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593723/imbalanced-nutrient-recycling-in-a-warmer-ocean-driven-by-differential-response-of-extracellular-enzymatic-activities
#18
Begoña Ayo, Naiara Abad, Itxaso Artolozaga, Iñigo Azua, Zuriñe Baña, Marian Unanue, Josep M Gasol, Carlos M Duarte, Juan Iriberri
Ocean oligotrophication concurrent with warming weakens the capacity of marine primary producers to support marine food webs and act as a CO2 sink, and is believed to result from reduced nutrient inputs associated to the stabilization of the thermocline. However, nutrient supply in the oligotrophic ocean is largely dependent on the recycling of organic matter. This involves hydrolytic processes catalyzed by extracellular enzymes released by bacteria, which temperature-dependence has not yet been evaluated. Here we report a global assessment of the temperature-sensitivity, as represented by the activation energies (Ea ), of extracellular β-glucosidase (βG), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) enzymatic activities, which enable the uptake by bacteria of substrates rich in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively...
June 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588418/biological-imaging-using-light-addressable-potentiometric-sensors-and-scanning-photo-induced-impedance-microscopy
#19
REVIEW
Fan Wu, Inmaculada Campos, De-Wen Zhang, Steffi Krause
Light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPS) and scanning photo-induced impedance microscopy (SPIM) use photocurrent measurements at electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor substrates for spatio-temporal imaging of electrical potentials and impedance. The techniques have been used for the interrogation of sensor arrays and the imaging of biological systems. Sensor applications range from the detection of different types of ions and the label-free detection of charged molecules such as DNA and proteins to enzyme-based biosensors...
May 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587343/alteration-of-stomach-microbiota-compositions-in-the-progression-of-gastritis-induces-nitric-oxide-in-gastric-cell
#20
Tianyi Dong, Qiang Feng, Fengyan Liu, Lap Kam Chang, Xiangyu Zhou, Mingyong Han, Xingsong Tian, Ning Zhong, Shili Liu
Atrophic gastritis is considered to be an antecedent to intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. A previous study identified that Helicobacter pylori was absent at the severe atrophic gastritis stage, and alterations in the gastric microbial composition resembled those in gastric cancer. To explore the role of the bacteria absence of H. pylori in gastric carcinogenesis, in the current study, we compared the microbiota of clinically collected H. pylori-free gastric fluids from 30 patients with non-atrophic gastritis (N) and 22 patients with severe atrophic gastritis (S)...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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