Read by QxMD icon Read


Margaret McAuley, Noel Mesa-Torres, Aisling McFall, Sarah Morris, Meilan Huang, Angel Pey, David J Timson
Galactokinase catalyses the site- and stereospecific phosphorylation of α-D-galactose. As such it has attracted interest as a biocatalyst for the introduction of phosphate groups into monosaccharides. However, attempts to broaden the substrate range of human galactokinase have generally resulted in substantially reduced activity. The enzyme also has biotechnological potential in enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for type II galactosemia. The return-to-consensus approach can be used to identify residues which can be altered to increase protein stability and enzyme activity...
March 5, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Didem Demirbas, William J Brucker, Gerard T Berry
The liver is one of the most essential organs in metabolism and is responsible for metabolizing a wide variety of molecules from amino acids to sugars. Although it is responsible for many essential metabolic processes, it is one of the most severely affected by metabolic disease because, in many cases, it is the first to be exposed to the toxic intermediates. The metabolism of galactose, fructose, and tyrosine involve the liver and although there are systemic findings in metabolic disease involved with these substrates, severe hepatopathy is a common presenting aspect of galactosemia, hereditary fructose intolerance, and tyrosinemia type I...
April 2018: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Nouf Althonaian, Abdulrahman Alsultan, Eva Morava, Majid Alfadhel
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare but potentially fatal disease that is characterized by proliferation and infiltration of hyperactivated macrophages and T-lymphocytes. Clinically, it is characterized by prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly, hypertriglyceridemia, hypofibrinogenemia, pancytopenia, and hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow, spleen, or lymph nodes. It can be classified as primary if it is due to a genetic defect, or secondary if it is due to a different etiology such as severe infection, immune deficiency syndrome, rheumatological disorder, malignancy, and inborn errors of metabolism such as galactosemia, multiple sulfatase deficiency, lysinuric protein intolerance, Gaucher disease, Niemann-Pick disease, Wolman disease, propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia, biotinidase deficiency, cobalamin C defect, galactosialidosis, Pearson syndrome, and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency...
February 15, 2018: JIMD Reports
Didem Demirbas, Ana I Coelho, M Estrela Rubio-Gozalbo, Gerard T Berry
Hereditary galactosemia is an inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism. Galactose is metabolized by Leloir pathway enzymes; galactokinase (GALK), galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) and UDP-galactose 4-epimerase (GALE). The defects in these enzymes cause galactosemia in an autosomal recessive manner. The common and severe GALT deficiency, or classic galactosemia, is life-threatening in the newborn period. The treatment for classic galactosemia is dietary restriction of lactose. Although implementation of lactose restricted diet is efficient in resolving the acute complications, it is not sufficient to prevent long-term complications affecting the brain and female gonads, the two main target organs of damage...
January 30, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Tatiana Yuzyuk, Krista Viau, Ashley Andrews, Marzia Pasquali, Nicola Longo
Impaired activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) causes galactosemia, an autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism. Early initiation of a galactose-restricted diet can prevent or resolve neonatal complications. Despite therapy, patients often experience long-term complications including speech impairment, learning disabilities, and premature ovarian insufficiency in females. This study evaluates clinical outcomes in 34 galactosemia patients with markedly reduced GALT activity and compares outcomes between patients with different levels of mean galactose-1-phosphate in red blood cells (GAL1P) using logistic regression: group 1 (n = 13) GAL1P ≤1...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Marzia Pasquali, Chunli Yu, Bradford Coffee
Disclaimer: These ACMG Standards and Guidelines are developed primarily as an educational resource for clinical laboratory geneticists to help them provide quality clinical laboratory genetic services. Adherence to these Standards and Guidelines is voluntary and does not necessarily assure a successful medical outcome. These Standards and Guidelines should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results...
October 26, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Sharon Anderson
Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism that results from a deficiency in one of three enzymes, uridine diphosphate galactose 4'epimerase, galactokinase, or galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT). This article focuses on classical, clinical variant, and biochemical variant (Duarte) galactosemias caused by GALT enzyme deficiency. A brief overview of galactosemia and newborn screening is presented, followed by detailed information about each of the conditions. Confirmatory testing, acute and long-term management, and outcome for these galactosemia types are discussed as well as the importance of genetic counseling and testing for the infant and family to refine reproductive risk...
January 2018: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Erika Kiss, Lídia Balogh, Péter Reismann
Classical galactosemia is an inherited disorder of the carbohydrate metabolism, most often caused by the deficient activity of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase. Classical galactosemia presents in the neonatal period with life threatening illness after galactose is introduced in the diet. Symptoms and signs include poor feeding, vomiting, and diarrhea, weight loss, jaundice, hypotension, cataracts, hepatosplenomegaly, hepatocellular insufficiency, and encephalopathy. Since 1975 the testing for galactosemia is part of the neonatal screening program in Hungary...
November 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
Róbert Kubinec, Peter Kotora, Viktória Ferenczy, Jaroslav Blaško, Peter Podolec, Alexandra Hengerics Szabó, Darina Behúlová, Václav Bierhanzl, Radomír Čabala, Stanislav Stuchlík, Wojciech Filipiak, Ngô Mạnh Thắng
A simple method for the simultaneous derivatization of carbohydrates, polyols, amines and amino acids using hexamethyldisilazane and N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide was developed. This method allows the direct derivatization of urine samples without sample pretreatment before derivatization. The method was successfully used for analysis of the selected metabolites in urine samples of healthy individuals and neonates suffering from galactosemia. The limits of detection by positive chemical ionization gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry analysis were in the range of 1...
January 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Mihaela Boca, Alan Whone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Ishwar Chander Verma, Preeti Paliwal, Kanika Singh
The authors review the utility of genetic testing in ophthalmic disorders - precise diagnosis, accurate prognosis, genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis, and entry into gene-specific therapeutic trials. The prerequisites for a successful outcome of a genetic test are an accurate clinical diagnosis, a careful family history that guides which genes to study, and genetic counseling (both pre-test and post-test). The common eye disorders for which genetic testing is commonly requested are briefly discussed - anophthalmia, microphthalmia, coloboma, anterior segment dysgenesis, corneal dystrophies, cataracts, optic atrophy, congenital glaucoma, congenital amaurosis, retinitis pigmentosa, color blindness, juvenile retinoshisis, retinoblastoma etc...
October 2, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Antonio d'Acierno, Bernardina Scafuri, Angelo Facchiano, Anna Marabotti
Galactosemia Proteins Database 2.0 is a Web-accessible resource collecting information about the structural and functional effects of the known variations associated to the three different enzymes of the Leloir pathway encoded by the genes GALT, GALE, and GALK1 and involved in the different forms of the genetic disease globally called "galactosemia." It represents an evolution of two available online resources we previously developed, with new data deriving from new structures, new analysis tools, and new interfaces and filters in order to improve the quality and quantity of information available for different categories of users...
January 2018: Human Mutation
Mili Thakur, Gerald Feldman, Elizabeth E Puscheck
Classic galactosemia is an inborn error of the metabolism with devastating consequences. Newborn screening has been successful in markedly reducing the acute neonatal symptoms from this disorder. The dramatic response to dietary treatment is one of the major success stories of newborn screening. However, as children with galactosemia achieve adulthood, they face long-term complications. A majority of women with classic galactosemia develop primary ovarian insufficiency and resulting morbidity. The underlying pathophysiology of this complication is not clear...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Jo M Vanoevelen, M Estela Rubio-Gozalbo, Britt van Erven, Jörgen Bierau, Xiaoping Huang, Gerard T Berry, Rein Vos, Ana I Coelho
Classic galactosemia is a genetic disorder of galactose metabolism, caused by severe deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) enzyme activity due to mutations of the GALT gene. Its pathogenesis is still not fully elucidated, and a therapy that prevents chronic impairments is lacking. In order to move research forward, there is a high need for a novel animal model, which allows organ studies throughout development and high-throughput screening of pharmacologic compounds. Here, we describe the generation of a galt knockout zebrafish model and present its phenotypical characterization...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
B Balakrishnan, C Nicholas, A Siddiqi, W Chen, E Bales, M Feng, J Johnson, K Lai
Classic Galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deleterious mutations in the GALT gene, which encodes galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase enzyme (GALT: EC Recent studies of primary skin fibroblasts isolated from the GalT-deficient mice demonstrated a slower growth rate, a higher level of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and down-regulation of the Phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway. In this study, we compared the expression levels of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in normal and GalT-deficient mouse tissues...
August 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Britt van Erven, Bernadette M Jansma, M Estela Rubio-Gozalbo, Inge Timmers
Patients with classic galactosemia, a genetic metabolic disorder, encounter cognitive impairments, including motor (speech), language, and memory deficits. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate spontaneous functional connectivity during rest to investigate potential abnormalities in neural networks. We characterized networks using seed-based correlation analysis in 13 adolescent patients and 13 matched controls. Results point towards alterations in several networks, including well-known resting-state networks (e...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rula V Kanj, Nana Ama Ofei-Tenkorang, Mekibib Altaye, Catherine M Gordon
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical features associated with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) and collect data on the evaluation and treatment received. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. Data abstracted on etiology of POI, history, laboratory evaluation, imaging results, return for clinical care, and treatment plans. SETTING: Urban children's hospital in Cincinnati, Ohio. PARTICIPANT: s: 50 females, age 11-26 years, with initial presentation of POI between January 1, 2006-December 31, 2015...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Jennifer M Taber, William M P Klein, Katie L Lewis, Jennifer J Johnston, Leslie G Biesecker, Barbara B Biesecker
PurposeAs genome science advances, people receiving personalized genetic information may receive reinterpretations of pathogenicity. Little is known about responses to adjusted results. We examined how reinterpretations might affect attitudes about genetic testing and intentions to share results with family.MethodsData were collected from high-socioeconomic-status participants (n = 58) in a genome sequencing study. Twenty-nine originally learned they were carriers of Duarte variant galactosemia, based on a variant that was reclassified as benign...
August 3, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Allison B Frederick, David J Cutler, Judith L Fridovich-Keil
One of many vexing decisions faced by parents of an infant with classic galactosemia (CG) is how carefully to restrict non-dairy galactose from their growing child's diet. Until recently, many experts recommended vigorous lifelong dietary restriction of milk and all high-galactose dairy products as well as some non-dairy sources of galactose such as legumes and specific fruits and vegetables. Recently, experts have begun to relax their recommendations. The new recommendations, that restrict only high galactose dairy products, were made in the face of uncertainty, however, because no sufficiently powered study had been reported testing for possible association between rigor of non-dairy galactose restriction and severity of long-term outcomes in CG...
November 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"