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Occupational Safety and Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925149/behavioural-interventions-to-promote-workers-use-of-respiratory-protective-equipment
#1
REVIEW
Bao Yen Luong Thanh, Malinee Laopaiboon, David Koh, Pornpun Sakunkoo, Hla Moe
BACKGROUND: Respiratory hazards are common in the workplace. Depending on the hazard and exposure, the health consequences may include: mild to life-threatening illnesses from infectious agents, acute effects ranging from respiratory irritation to chronic lung conditions, or even cancer from exposure to chemicals or toxins. Use of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) is an important preventive measure in many occupational settings. RPE only offers protection when worn properly, when removed safely and when it is either replaced or maintained regularly...
December 7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924237/an-investigation-of-health-and-safety-measures-in-a-hydroelectric-power-plant
#2
Amevi Acakpovi, Lucky Dzamikumah
BACKGROUND: Occupational risk management is known as a catalyst in generating superior returns for all stakeholders on a sustainable basis. A number of companies in Ghana implemented health and safety measures adopted from international companies to ensure the safety of their employees. However, there exist great threats to employees' safety in these companies. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the level of compliance of Occupational Health and Safety management systems and standards set by international and local legislation in power producing companies in Ghana...
December 2016: Safety and Health At Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915361/neuroscience-literacy-brain-tells-as-signals-of-brain-dysfunction-affecting-daily-life
#3
Charlotte B Royeen, James R Brašić, Leah Dvorak, Casey Provoziak-O'Brien, Chetna Sethi, S Omar Ahmad
The structures and circuits of the central and the peripheral nervous systems provide the basis for thinking, speaking, experiencing sensations, and performing perceptual and motor activities in daily life. Healthy people experience normal functioning without giving brain functions a second thought, while dysfunction of the neural circuits may lead to marked impairments in cognition, communication, sensory awareness, and performing perceptual and motor tasks. Neuroscience literacy provides the knowledge to associate the deficits observed in patients with the underlying deficits in the structures and circuits of the nervous system...
2016: Journal of Allied Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906856/radiation-exposure-and-lung-disease-in-today-s-nuclear-world
#4
Steven D Deas, Nikhil Huprikar, Andrew Skabelund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ionizing radiation poses important health risks. The per capita annual dose rate has increased in the United States and there is increasing concern for the risks posed by low-dose occupational exposure among workers in nuclear industries and healthcare. Recent nuclear accidents and concern for terrorism have heightened concern for catastrophic, high-dose ionizing radiation exposure. This review will highlight recent research into the risks to lung health posed by ionizing radiation exposure and into potential treatments...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906533/walking-working-surfaces-and-personal-protective-equipment-fall-protection-systems-final-rule
#5
(no author information available yet)
OSHA is revising and updating its general industry standards on walking-working surfaces to prevent and reduce workplace slips, trips, and falls, as well as other injuries and fatalities associated with walking-working surface hazards. The final rule includes revised and new provisions addressing, for example, fixed ladders; rope descent systems; fall protection systems and criteria, including personal fall protection systems; and training on fall hazards and fall protection systems. In addition, the final rule adds requirements on the design, performance, and use of personal fall protection systems...
November 18, 2016: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905189/occupational-violence-and-aggression-experienced-by-nursing-and-caring-professionals
#6
Tracey Shea, Cathy Sheehan, Ross Donohue, Brian Cooper, Helen De Cieri
PURPOSE: To examine the extent and source of occupational violence and aggression (OVA) experienced by nursing and caring professionals. This study also examines the relative contributions of demographic characteristics and workplace and individual safety factors in predicting OVA. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design with data collected using an online survey of employees in the nursing and caring professions in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: Survey data collected from 4,891 members of the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation (Victorian branch) were analyzed using logistic regression...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903012/-shift-work-among-men-and-women-on-the-threshold-to-higher-working-age-working-conditions-and-health-status
#7
C Leser, A Tisch, S Tophoven
Background: The number of older employees in shift and night work has increased significantly in recent years. Furthermore, the proportion of women in shift and night work has increased markedly. This is due to the aging workforce and the expansion of shift work in the tertiary sector. Previous research shows that shift work is often associated with health risks. Against this background, the aim of the present study is to examine the situation of working men and women on the threshold to higher working age with regard to the relationship between shift work and physical health...
November 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893255/the-relationship-between-sleep-and-work-a-meta-analysis
#8
Brett Litwiller, Lori Anderson Snyder, William D Taylor, Logan M Steele
Sleep has tremendous importance to organizations because of its relationship with employee performance, safety, health, and attitudes. Moreover, sleep is a malleable behavior that may be improved by individual and organizational changes. Despite the consequential and modifiable nature of sleep, little consensus exists regarding its conceptualization, and how the choice of conceptualization may impact relationships with organizational antecedents and outcomes. To offer a stronger foundation for future theory and research about employee sleep, this study calculated meta-analytic correlations of sleep quality and sleep quantity from 152 primary studies of sleep among workers in organizations...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892832/pushing-and-pulling-an-assessment-tool-for-ohs-practitioners
#9
Carl Mikael Lind
A tool has been developed for supporting practitioners when assessing manual pushing and pulling operations based on an initiative by two global companies in the manufacturing industry. The aim of the tool is to support occupational health and safety practitioners in risk assessment and risk management of pushing and pulling operations in the manufacturing and logistics industries. It is based on a nine-multiplier equation that includes a wide range of factors affecting an operator's health risk and capacity in pushing and pulling...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891239/two-cases-of-methyl-alcohol-intoxication-by-sub-chronic-inhalation-and-dermal-exposure-during-aluminum-cnc-cutting-in-a-small-sized-subcontracted-factory
#10
Jia Ryu, Key Hwan Lim, Dong-Ryeol Ryu, Hyang Woon Lee, Ji Young Yun, Seoung-Wook Kim, Ji-Hoon Kim, Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Hyunjoo Kim
BACKGROUND: Methyl alcohol poisoning has been mainly reported in community. Two cases of methyl alcohol poisoning occurred in a small-sized subcontracted factory which manufactured smartphone parts in Korea. CASE PRESENTATION: One young female patient presented with dyspnea and visual disturbance. Another young male patient presented with visual disturbance and myalgia. They treated with sodium bicarbonate infusion and hemodialysis for metabolic acidosis. In addition, he received ethyl alcohol per oral treatment...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891237/the-impact-of-fire-suppression-tasks-on-firefighter-hydration-a-critical-review-with-consideration-of-the-utility-of-reported-hydration-measures
#11
REVIEW
Adam Walker, Rodney Pope, Robin Marc Orr
BACKGROUND: Firefighting is a highly stressful occupation with unique physical challenges, apparel and environments that increase the potential for dehydration. Dehydration leaves the firefighter at risk of harm to their health, safety and performance. The purpose of this review was to critically analyse the current literature investigating the impact of fighting 'live' fires on firefighter hydration. METHODS: A systematic search was performed of four electronic databases for relevant published studies investigating the impact of live fire suppression on firefighter hydration...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891236/morbidity-patterns-among-the-welders-of-eastern-nepal-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Shyam Sundar Budhathoki, Suman Bahadur Singh, Surya Raj Niraula, Paras K Pokharel
BACKGROUND: Welding process has many hazards that the welders are exposed to resulting in numbers of health effects and diseases. Safety measures and practices among welders are important ways of preventing or reducing the health hazards associated with this occupation. We conducted this study to find out the morbidity patterns among the welders working in eastern Nepal. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 welders using semi structured questionnaire...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891232/prevalence-of-transfusion-transmissible-infections-in-blood-donors-of-pakistan
#13
Aisha Arshad, Munira Borhany, Nida Anwar, Imran Naseer, Rehan Ansari, Samson Boota, Naveena Fatima, Mustansir Zaidi, Tahir Shamsi
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted infections threaten the safety of patients requiring blood transfusion, which in turn imposes serious challenges for the availability of safe blood products that are still affordable in health care systems with limited resources. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections in blood donors and to evaluate the demographic characteristics of reactive and non-reactive blood donors. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted at our institute in Karachi, Pakistan...
2016: BMC Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884937/implementation-of-icrp-116-dose-conversion-coefficients-for-reconstructing-organ-dose-in-a-radiation-compensation-program
#14
Timothy D Taulbee, Keith A McCartney, Richard Traub, Matthew H Smith, James W Neton
Since 2000, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has used dose conversion coefficients published by the International Commission on Radiation Protection in report 74 (ICRP 74) to determine organ dose from external radiation sources. In 2010, the ICRP issued publication 116 using more realistic phantoms than ICRP 74. NIOSH has developed a Monte Carlo method to sample the energy-organ-specific distribution of the ICRP 116 conversion coefficients to determine the organ dose and the associated uncertainty...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884191/gender-differences-in-load-carriage-injuries-of-australian-army-soldiers
#15
Robin Marc Orr, Rodney Pope
BACKGROUND: With the removal of gender restrictions and the changing nature of warfare potentially increasing female soldier exposure to heavy military load carriage, the aim of this research was to determine relative risks and patterns of load carriage related injuries in female compared to male soldiers. METHODS: The Australian Defence Force Occupational Health, Safety and Compensation Analysis and Reporting workplace injury database was searched to identify all reported load carriage injuries...
November 25, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880833/prioritizing-risk-in-preparation-for-a-demonstration-project-a-mixed-methods-feasibility-study-of-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-among-female-sex-workers-in-south-india
#16
Sushena Reza-Paul, Lisa Lazarus, Monika Doshi, Syed Hafeez Ur Rahman, Manjula Ramaiah, Raviprakash Maiya, Venugopal Ms, K T Venukumar, Sundar Sundararaman, Marissa Becker, Stephen Moses, Robert Lorway
BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) in India remains well above the national average. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a new HIV prevention technology, may help to reduce HIV incidence, but there is a dearth of research that can inform the potential scale-up of PrEP in India. In partnership with Ashodaya Samithi, a local sex worker collective, we conducted a feasibility study to assess acceptance of a planned PrEP demonstration project, willingness to use PrEP, and recommendations for project roll-out among FSWs in southern Karnataka...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879172/polychlorobiphenyls-in-freshwater-fish-a-new-strategy-to-set-maximum-contamination-limits
#17
Virginie Desvignes, Aurélie Mahé, Xavier Laffray, Carole Vigreux-Besret, Cyril Feidt, Pierre-Marie Badot, Jean-Luc Volatier, Gilles Rivière
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants accumulating along the food chain and particularly in fish. Consequently, the European Commission has set regulatory limits for PCBs in both sea and freshwater fish. Focusing on freshwater fish, the French Agency for Food Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety has developed a method to determine the areas in France where the consumption of locally caught freshwater fish is not recommended due to PCB contamination. To determine these areas of potential health concern, an existing statistical model of the relationship between the consumption of local fish by freshwater anglers and their PCB body burden is linked to a newly determined critical PCB body burden threshold for the population...
November 23, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878512/nickel-oxide-nanoparticles-induce-oxidative-dna-damage-and-apoptosis-in-kidney-cell-line-nrk-52e
#18
Mahmoud Abudayyak, Elif Guzel, Gül Özhan
Increasing use of nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles in different applications results in high occupational and environmental exposure to them. However, the effect of NiO nanoparticles on human health is still poorly documented. It was aimed to investigate the toxic potentials of NiO nanoparticles on NRK-52E kidney epithelial cells. The following assays were used: the nanoparticle characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS); the determination of cellular uptake and morphologic changes by TEM and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS); MTT and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays for cytotoxicity; comet assay for genotoxicity; the determination of malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein carbonyl (PC) and glutathione (GSH) levels by enzyme-linked immune sorbent assays (ELISA) for the potential of oxidative damage; and Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection assay with propidium iodide (PI) for apoptosis...
November 22, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869249/a-case-crossover-study-of-sleep-fatigue-and-other-transient-exposures-at-workplace-and-the-risk-of-non-fatal-occupational-injuries-among-the-employees-of-an-italian-academic-hospital
#19
Francesca Valent, Marika Mariuz, Giulia Liva, Fabrizio Bellomo, Daniela De Corti, Stefania Degan, Alberto Ferrazzano, Silvio Brusaferro
OBJECTIVES: Transient exposure with acute effect has been shown to affect the risk of occupational injuries in various industrial settings and at the healthcare workplace. The objective of this study has been to identify transient exposures related to occupational injury risk in an Italian teaching hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case-crossover study was conducted among the employees of the University Hospital of Udine who reported an occupational injury, commuting accident, or incident involving biological risk in a 15-month period in the years 2013 and 2014...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869248/simplified-risk-assessment-of-noise-induced-hearing-loss-by-means-of-2-spreadsheet-models
#20
Arve Lie, Bo Engdahl, Kristian Tambs
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study has been to test 2 spreadsheet models to compare the observed with the expected hearing loss for a Norwegian reference population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The prevalence rates of the Norwegian and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) definitions of hearing outcomes were calculated in terms of sex and age, 20-64 years old, for a screened (with no occupational noise exposure) (N = 18 858) and unscreened (N = 38 333) Norwegian reference population from the Nord-Trøndelag Hearing Loss Study (NTHLS)...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
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