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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540749/aflatoxins-contamination-of-maize-in-serbia-the-impact-of-weather-conditions-in-2015
#1
Elizabet Janić Hajnal, Jovana Kos, Jelena Krulj, Saša Krstović, Igor Jajić, Lato Pezo, Bojana Šarić, Nataša Nedeljković
In recent years climate changes recorded in temperate regions of Europe have led to aflatoxin (AF) contamination of maize. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of weather conditions on levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) in 180 maize samples collected from the main maize growing regions (Western Bačka, North Banat, South Banat and Central Serbia) in Serbia after harvest in 2015. The concentrations of aflatoxins were determined by a validated HPLC method with post column derivatization and fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD)...
May 25, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486185/biomass-burning-in-indo-china-peninsula-and-its-impacts-on-regional-air-quality-and-global-climate-change-a-review
#2
Ishwar Chandra Yadav, Ningombam Linthoingambi Devi, Jun Li, Jabir Hussain Syed, Gan Zhang, Hirozumi Watanabe
Although, many biomass burning (BB) emissions products (particulate matter and trace gases) are believed to be trans-boundary pollutants that originates from India and China (the two most populous countries in Asia), the information about BB emission and related contents is limited for Indo-China Peninsula (ICP) region. This motivated us to review this region pertaining to BB emission. The main objective of the review is to document the current status of BB emission in ICP region. In order to highlight the impact of BB on regional air quality and global climate change, the role of BB emission in ICP region is also discussed...
May 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468126/airborne-dust-absorption-by-semi-arid-forests-reduces-pm-pollution-in-nearby-urban-environments
#3
Daphna Uni, Itzhak Katra
Dust storms are a major source of global atmospheric particulate matter (PM), having significant impacts on air pollution and human health. During dust storms, daily averages of atmospheric PM concentrations can reach high levels above the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline for air quality. The objective of this study was to explore the impact of forests on PM distribution following dust events in a region that is subjected to frequent dust storms (Northern Negev, Israel). Dust was measured in a forest transect including urban environments that are nearby the forest and at a distal location...
April 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455556/fusarium-diseases-of-maize-associated-with-mycotoxin-contamination-of-agricultural-products-intended-to-be-used-for-food-and-feed
#4
REVIEW
Elisabeth Oldenburg, Frank Höppner, Frank Ellner, Joachim Weinert
Infections of maize with phytopathogenic and toxinogenic Fusarium spp. may occur throughout the cultivation period. This can cause different types of diseases in vegetative and generative organs of the plant. Along with these infections, mycotoxins are often produced and accumulated in affected tissues, which could pose a significant risk on human and animal health when entering the food and feed chain. Most important fungal species infecting European maize belong to the Fusarium sections Discolour and Liseola, the first being more prevalent in cooler and humid climate regions than the second predominating in warmer and dryer areas...
April 28, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447137/-climate-change-physical-and-mental-consequences
#5
REVIEW
Maxie Bunz, Hans-Guido Mücke
Climate change has already had a large influence on the human environmental system and directly or indirectly affects physical and mental health. Triggered by extreme meteorological conditions, for example, storms, floods, earth slides and heat periods, the direct consequences range from illnesses to serious accidents with injuries, or in extreme cases fatalities. Indirectly, a changed environment due to climate change affects, amongst other things, the cardiovascular system and respiratory tract, and can also cause allergies and infectious diseases...
April 26, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446229/expanding-protection-motivation-theory-investigating-an-application-to-animal-owners-and-emergency-responders-in-bushfire-emergencies
#6
Rachel Westcott, Kevin Ronan, Hilary Bambrick, Melanie Taylor
BACKGROUND: Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) was developed by Rogers in 1975, to describe how individuals are motivated to react in a self-protective way towards a perceived health threat. Rogers expected the use of PMT to diversify over time, which has proved true over four decades. The purpose of this paper is to explore how PMT can be used and expanded to inform and improve public safety strategies in natural hazards. As global climate change impacts on the Australian environment, natural hazards seem to be increasing in scale and frequency, and Emergency Services' public education campaigns have necessarily escalated to keep pace with perceived public threat...
April 26, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444505/occupational-heat-stress-assessment-and-protective-strategies-in-the-context-of-climate-change
#7
Chuansi Gao, Kalev Kuklane, Per-Olof Östergren, Tord Kjellstrom
Global warming will unquestionably increase the impact of heat on individuals who work in already hot workplaces in hot climate areas. The increasing prevalence of this environmental health risk requires the improvement of assessment methods linked to meteorological data. Such new methods will help to reveal the size of the problem and design appropriate interventions at individual, workplace and societal level. The evaluation of occupational heat stress requires measurement of four thermal climate factors (air temperature, humidity, air velocity and heat radiation); available weather station data may serve this purpose...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438993/air-quality-health-and-climate-implications-of-china-s-synthetic-natural-gas-development
#8
Yue Qin, Fabian Wagner, Noah Scovronick, Wei Peng, Junnan Yang, Tong Zhu, Kirk R Smith, Denise L Mauzerall
Facing severe air pollution and growing dependence on natural gas imports, the Chinese government plans to increase coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG) production. Although displacement of coal with SNG benefits air quality, it increases CO2 emissions. Due to variations in air pollutant and CO2 emission factors and energy efficiencies across sectors, coal replacement with SNG results in varying degrees of air quality benefits and climate penalties. We estimate air quality, human health, and climate impacts of SNG substitution strategies in 2020...
May 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429985/attitude-of-us-obstetricians-and-gynaecologists-to-global-warming-and-medical-waste
#9
Cassandra Thiel, Paula Duncan, Noe Woods
Objectives Global warming (or climate change) is a major public health issue, and health services are one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions in high-income countries. Despite the scale of the health care sector's resource consumption, little is known about the attitude of physicians and their willingness to participate in efforts to reduce the environmental impact of health services. Methods A survey of 236 obstetricians and gynaecologists at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Western Pennsylvania, USA...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413725/trypanosoma-cruzi-reservoir-triatomine-vector-co-occurrence-networks-reveal-meta-community-effects-by-synanthropic-mammals-on-geographic-dispersal
#10
Carlos N Ibarra-Cerdeña, Leopoldo Valiente-Banuet, Víctor Sánchez-Cordero, Christopher R Stephens, Janine M Ramsey
Contemporary patterns of land use and global climate change are modifying regional pools of parasite host species. The impact of host community changes on human disease risk, however, is difficult to assess due to a lack of information about zoonotic parasite host assemblages. We have used a recently developed method to infer parasite-host interactions for Chagas Disease (CD) from vector-host co-occurrence networks. Vector-host networks were constructed to analyze topological characteristics of the network and ecological traits of species' nodes, which could provide information regarding parasite regional dispersal in Mexico...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398839/foundational-and-translational-research-opportunities-to-improve-plant-health
#11
Richard W Michelmore, Gitta Coaker, Rebecca Bart, Gwyn A Beattie, Andrew Bent, Toby Bruce, Duncan Cameron, Jeff Dangl, Savithramma Dinesh-Kumar, Robert Edwards, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Walter Gassmann, Jean Greenberg, Richard Harrison, Ping He, Jagger Harvey, Alisa Huffaker, Scot Hulbert, Roger Innes, Jonathan D Jones, Isgouhi Kaloshian, Sophien Kamoun, Fumiaki Katagiri, Jan E Leach, Wenbo Ma, John M McDowell, June Medford, Blake Meyers, Rebecca Nelson, Richard Peter Oliver, Yiping Qi, Diane Saunders, Michael Shaw, Prasanta Subudhi, Leslie Torrance, Brett M Tyler, John Walsh
This whitepaper reports the deliberations of a workshop focused on biotic challenges to plant health held in Washington, D.C. in September 2016. Ensuring health of food plants is critical to maintaining the quality and productivity of crops and for sustenance of the rapidly growing human population. There is a close linkage between food security and societal stability; however, global food security is threatened by the vulnerability of our agricultural systems to numerous pests, pathogens, weeds, and environmental stresses...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387181/preharvest-food-safety-under-the-influence-of-a-changing-climate
#12
Kalmia E Kniel, Patrick Spanninger
Ensuring food safety and addressing the impact of climate change are both immense concepts. Food production systems must continue to evolve in order to develop food safety management programs and identify emerging risks linked to climate change. There are an infinite number of crosscutting issues regarding climate change and health. The changing climate of the globe manifests itself in fluctuating temperatures, intense storms, droughts, and fluctuating sea levels. These environmental variables in turn may increase the risk of foodborne disease transmission through our foods and increase the need for vigilance and risk mitigation at the preharvest level...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381631/climate-change-mitigation-potential-benefits-and-pitfalls-of-enhanced-rock-weathering-in-tropical-agriculture
#13
REVIEW
David P Edwards, Felix Lim, Rachael H James, Christopher R Pearce, Julie Scholes, Robert P Freckleton, David J Beerling
Restricting future global temperature increase to 2°C or less requires the adoption of negative emissions technologies for carbon capture and storage. We review the potential for deployment of enhanced weathering (EW), via the application of crushed reactive silicate rocks (such as basalt), on over 680 million hectares of tropical agricultural and tree plantations to offset fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Warm tropical climates and productive crops will substantially enhance weathering rates, with potential co-benefits including decreased soil acidification and increased phosphorus supply promoting higher crop yields sparing forest for conservation, and reduced cultural eutrophication...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357050/heat-remains-unaccounted-for-in-thermal-physiology-and-climate-change-research
#14
Andreas D Flouris, Glen P Kenny
In the aftermath of the Paris Agreement, there is a crucial need for scientists in both thermal physiology and climate change research to develop the integrated approaches necessary to evaluate the health, economic, technological, social, and cultural impacts of 1.5°C warming. Our aim was to explore the fidelity of remote temperature measurements for quantitatively identifying the continuous redistribution of heat within both the Earth and the human body. Not accounting for the regional distribution of warming and heat storage patterns can undermine the results of thermal physiology and climate change research...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335428/an-updated-review-of-ciguatera-fish-poisoning-clinical-epidemiological-environmental-and-public-health-management
#15
REVIEW
Melissa A Friedman, Mercedes Fernandez, Lorraine C Backer, Robert W Dickey, Jeffrey Bernstein, Kathleen Schrank, Steven Kibler, Wendy Stephan, Matthew O Gribble, Paul Bienfang, Robert E Bowen, Stacey Degrasse, Harold A Flores Quintana, Christopher R Loeffler, Richard Weisman, Donna Blythe, Elisa Berdalet, Ram Ayyar, Danielle Clarkson-Townsend, Karen Swajian, Ronald Benner, Tom Brewer, Lora E Fleming
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients...
March 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321366/climate-change-induced-range-shifts-of-three-allergenic-ragweeds-ambrosia-l-in-europe-and-their-potential-impact-on-human-health
#16
Karen Rasmussen, Jakob Thyrring, Robert Muscarella, Finn Borchsenius
Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species (Ambrosia spp.) in Europe and discuss the potential associated health impact. We built species distribution models based on presence-only data for three ragweed species, using MAXENT software. Future climatic habitat suitability was modeled under two IPCC climate change scenarios (RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5). We quantify the extent of the increase in 'high allergy risk' (HAR) areas, i...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317479/climate-changes-and-human-health-a-review-of-the-effect-of-environmental-stressors-on-cardiovascular-diseases-across-epidemiology-and-biological-mechanisms
#17
Paolo Giorgini, Paolo Di Giosia, Marco Petrarca, Francesco Lattanzio, Cosimo Andrea Stamerra, Claudio Ferri
BACKGROUND: Climate change is rapidly affecting all the regions of our planet. The most relevant example is global warming, which impacts on the earth's ecosystems, threatening human health. Other effects include extreme variations in temperature and increases in air pollution. These events may negatively impact mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: In this review, we discuss the main effects of climate changes on cardiovascular diseases, reporting the epidemiological evidences and the biological mechanisms linking climate change consequences to hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart diseases, heart failure and stroke...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283973/how-hard-they-hit-perception-adaptation-and-public-health-implications-of-heat-waves-in-urban-and-peri-urban-pakistan
#18
Sara Rauf, Khuda Bakhsh, Azhar Abbas, Sarfraz Hassan, Asghar Ali, Harald Kächele
Heat waves threaten human health given the fast changing climatic scenarios in the recent past. Adaptation to heat waves would take place when people perceive their impacts based on their knowledge. The present study examines perception level and its determinants resulting in adaptation to heat waves in Pakistan. The study used cross-sectional data from urban and peri-urban respondents of Faisalabad District. The study employs a health belief model to assess risk perception among the respondents. Logistic model is used to determine factors affecting level of knowledge, perception and adaptation to heat waves...
March 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242682/co-occurrence-of-extremes-in-surface-ozone-particulate-matter-and-temperature-over-eastern-north-america
#19
Jordan L Schnell, Michael J Prather
Heat waves and air pollution episodes pose a serious threat to human health and may worsen under future climate change. In this paper, we use 15 years (1999-2013) of commensurately gridded (1° x 1°) surface observations of extended summer (April-September) surface ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and maximum temperature (TX) over the eastern United States and Canada to construct a climatology of the coincidence, overlap, and lag in space and time of their extremes. Extremes of each quantity are defined climatologically at each grid cell as the 50 d with the highest values in three 5-y windows (∼95th percentile)...
March 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241983/unraveling-the-metabolic-health-benefits-of-fasting-related-to-religious-beliefs-a-narrative-review
#20
REVIEW
Angeliki Persynaki, Spyridon Karras, Claude Pichard
Periodic fasting, under a religious aspect, has been adopted by humans for centuries as a crucial pathway of spiritual purification. Caloric restriction, with or without exclusion of certain types of food, is often a key component. Fasting varies significantly among different populations according to cultural habits and local climate conditions. Religious fasting in terms of patterns (continuous versus intermittent) and duration can vary from 1 to 200 d; thus, the positive and negative impact on health can be considerable...
March 2017: Nutrition
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