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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232695/integrative-assessment-of-climate-change-for-fast-growing-urban-areas-measurement-and-recommendations-for-future-research
#1
Sebastian Scheuer, Dagmar Haase, Martin Volk
Over the 20th century, urbanization has substantially shaped the surface of Earth. With population rapidly shifting from rural locations towards the cities, urban areas have dramatically expanded on a global scale and represent crystallization points of social, cultural and economic assets and activities. This trend is estimated to persist for the next decades, and particularly the developing countries are expected to face rapid urban growth. The management of this growth will require good governance strategies and planning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223902/people-pollution-and-pathogens-global-change-impacts-in-mountain-freshwater-ecosystems
#2
REVIEW
Dirk S Schmeller, Adeline Loyau, Kunshan Bao, Werner Brack, Antonis Chatzinotas, Francois De Vleeschouwer, Jan Friesen, Laure Gandois, Sophia V Hansson, Marilen Haver, Gaël Le Roux, Ji Shen, Roman Teisserenc, Vance T Vredenburg
Mountain catchments provide for the livelihood of more than half of humankind, and have become a key destination for tourist and recreation activities globally. Mountain ecosystems are generally considered to be less complex and less species diverse due to the harsh environmental conditions. As such, they are also more sensitive to the various impacts of the Anthropocene. For this reason, mountain regions may serve as sentinels of change and provide ideal ecosystems for studying climate and global change impacts on biodiversity...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219105/impact-of-extreme-weather-events-and-climate-change-for-health-and-social-care-systems
#3
REVIEW
Sarah Curtis, Alistair Fair, Jonathan Wistow, Dimitri V Val, Katie Oven
This review, commissioned by the Research Councils UK Living With Environmental Change (LWEC) programme, concerns research on the impacts on health and social care systems in the United Kingdom of extreme weather events, under conditions of climate change. Extreme weather events considered include heatwaves, coldwaves and flooding. Using a structured review method, we consider evidence regarding the currently observed and anticipated future impacts of extreme weather on health and social care systems and the potential of preparedness and adaptation measures that may enhance resilience...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219103/climate-change-impacts-on-human-health-over-europe-through-its-effect-on-air-quality
#4
REVIEW
Ruth M Doherty, Mathew R Heal, Fiona M O'Connor
This review examines the current literature on the effects of future emissions and climate change on particulate matter (PM) and O3 air quality and on the consequent health impacts, with a focus on Europe. There is considerable literature on the effects of climate change on O3 but fewer studies on the effects of climate change on PM concentrations. Under the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th assessment report (AR5) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), background O3 entering Europe is expected to decrease under most scenarios due to higher water vapour concentrations in a warmer climate...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219100/food-borne-disease-and-climate-change-in-the-united-kingdom
#5
REVIEW
Iain R Lake
This review examined the likely impact of climate change upon food-borne disease in the UK using Campylobacter and Salmonella as example organisms. Campylobacter is an important food-borne disease and an increasing public health threat. There is a reasonable evidence base that the environment and weather play a role in its transmission to humans. However, uncertainty as to the precise mechanisms through which weather affects disease, make it difficult to assess the likely impact of climate change. There are strong positive associations between Salmonella cases and ambient temperature, and a clear understanding of the mechanisms behind this...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189970/climate-change-induced-heat-risks-for-migrant-populations-working-at-brick-kilns-in-india-a-transdisciplinary-approach
#6
Karin Lundgren-Kownacki, Siri M Kjellberg, Pernille Gooch, Marwa Dabaieh, Latha Anandh, Vidhya Venugopal
During the summer of 2015, India was hit by a scorching heat wave that melted pavements in Delhi and caused thousands of deaths, mainly among the most marginalized populations. One such group facing growing heat risks from both occupational and meteorological causes are migrant brick kiln workers. This study evaluates both current heat risks and the potential future impacts of heat caused by climate change, for the people working at brick kilns in India. A case study of heat stress faced by people working at brick kilns near Chennai, India, is the anchor point around which a transdisciplinary approach was applied...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186670/changes-in-extreme-events-and-the-potential-impacts-on-human-health
#7
Jesse E Bell, Claudia Langford Brown, Kathryn Conlon, Stephanie Herring, Kenneth E Kunkel, Jay Lawrimore, George Luber, Carl Schreck, Adam Smith, Christopher Uejio
Extreme weather and climate-related events affect human health by causing death, injury, and illness, as well as having large socioeconomic impacts. Climate change has caused changes in extreme event frequency, intensity and geographic distribution, and will continue to be a driver for change in the future. Some of these events include heat waves, droughts, wildfires, dust storms, flooding rains, coastal flooding, storm surge, and hurricanes. The pathways connecting extreme events to health outcomes and economic losses can be diverse and complex...
November 29, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178979/unique-pulmonary-immunotoxicological-effects-of-urban-pm-are-not-recapitulated-solely-by-carbon-black-diesel-exhaust-or-coal-fly-ash
#8
Naina Gour, Kuladeep Sudini, Syed Muaz Khalil, Ana M Rule, Peter Lees, Edward Gabrielson, John D Groopman, Stephane Lajoie, Anju Singh
BACKGROUND: Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is increasing worldwide as a result of increased human activity, the rapid industrialization of developing countries, and effects of climate change. Adverse effects of PM on human health are well documented, and because PM exposure occurs mostly through the airways, PM has especially deleterious impact on the lungs. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether surrogate PM particles like carbon black (CB), diesel exhaust particle (DEP), coal fly ash (CFA) can recapitulate the allergic airway inflammatory response induced by urban particulate matter...
November 24, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177967/perspective-for-future-research-direction-about-health-impact-of-ambient-air-pollution-in-china
#9
Guang-Hui Dong
Air pollution has become one of the major risks to human health because of the progressive increase in the use of vehicles powered by fossil fuels. Although lots of works on the health impact of ambient air pollution have been done in China, the following recommendations for future research were identified in this chapter: (1) the synergistic effect of indoor air pollution with climate change; (2) develop new technologies to improve accurate assessment of air pollution exposure; (3) well-designed cohort study of sensitive populations including children, older people, and people with chronic health problems; (4) multi-omics technologies in the underlying mechanisms study; and (5) benefits evaluation of improvement of air quality...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172157/new-particle-formation-and-growth-at-a-suburban-site-and-a-background-site-in-hong-kong
#10
X P Lyu, H Guo, H R Cheng, D W Wang
Atmospheric nanoparticles have great impacts on human health and global climate change. The number concentrations and size distributions of nanoparticles in the size range of 5.5-350.4 nm were detected at a background site and a suburban site in Hong Kong from summer to winter in 2011 and in autumn of 2013, respectively. Significantly higher particle number concentrations in all modes were observed at the suburban site (p < 0.05) during the sampling periods, possibly due to stronger primary emissions/regional transport and more intensive new particle formation (NPF)...
November 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170507/increased-core-body-temperature-in-astronauts-during-long-duration-space-missions
#11
Alexander C Stahn, Andreas Werner, Oliver Opatz, Martina A Maggioni, Mathias Steinach, Victoria Weller von Ahlefeld, Alan Moore, Brian E Crucian, Scott M Smith, Sara R Zwart, Thomas Schlabs, Stefan Mendt, Tobias Trippel, Eberhard Koralewski, Jochim Koch, Alexander Choukèr, Günther Reitz, Peng Shang, Lothar Röcker, Karl A Kirsch, Hanns-Christian Gunga
Humans' core body temperature (CBT) is strictly controlled within a narrow range. Various studies dealt with the impact of physical activity, clothing, and environmental factors on CBT regulation under terrestrial conditions. However, the effects of weightlessness on human thermoregulation are not well understood. Specifically, studies, investigating the effects of long-duration spaceflight on CBT at rest and during exercise are clearly lacking. We here show that during exercise CBT rises higher and faster in space than on Earth...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124450/stepwise-strategy-for-monitoring-toxic-cyanobacterial-blooms-in-lentic-water-bodies
#12
Inês P E Macário, Bruno B Castro, Isabel M S Nunes, Cristina Pizarro, Carla Coelho, Fernando Gonçalves, Daniela R de Figueiredo
Climate change has been causing the increase in frequency, severity, and duration of harmful algal blooms, which makes the establishment of water management strategies indispensable. For cyanobacteria, several methods are currently used in monitoring programs. However, these methods are time-consuming and require specialists, and results are usually not provided within an adequate timeframe for taking timely mitigation actions. This work proposes a strategy for a faster, easier, and more cost-effective monitoring of cyanobacterial blooms, using a stepwise approach based on fluorometric determination of phycocyanin at an early stage...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089167/mortality-burden-of-diurnal-temperature-range-and-its-temporal-changes-a-multi-country-study
#13
Whanhee Lee, Michelle L Bell, Antonio Gasparrini, Ben G Armstrong, Francesco Sera, Sunghee Hwang, Eric Lavigne, Antonella Zanobetti, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho, Paulo Hilario Nascimento Saldiva, Samuel Osorio, Aurelio Tobias, Ariana Zeka, Patrick G Goodman, Bertil Forsberg, Joacim Rocklöv, Masahiro Hashizume, Yasushi Honda, Yue-Liang Leon Guo, Xerxes Seposo, Do Van Dung, Tran Ngoc Dang, Shilu Tong, Yuming Guo, Ho Kim
Although diurnal temperature range (DTR) is a key index of climate change, few studies have reported the health burden of DTR and its temporal changes at a multi-country scale. Therefore, we assessed the attributable risk fraction of DTR on mortality and its temporal variations in a multi-country data set. We collected time-series data covering mortality and weather variables from 308 cities in 10 countries from 1972 to 2013. The temporal change in DTR-related mortality was estimated for each city with a time-varying distributed lag model...
January 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072934/global-to-local-public-health-on-the-front-lines-of-climate-change
#14
Thomas A Burke, Mary A Fox
The classic visual representation of climate change is a dramatic video of distant melting glaciers and stranded polar bears. The public health reality is that the environment is a key determinant of human health, and climate change is now affecting the health and well-being of communities throughout the world. On the global level, the increasing concentrations of heat-entrapping greenhouse gases affect the climate drivers of increased temperatures, increased precipitation, and extreme weather events. Although the local-level impacts are widely variable, climate change contributes to the frequency and extent of extreme heat, unhealthy air quality, reduced water and food quality, and exposure to infectious agents...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044370/the-ecology-and-epidemiology-of-ross-river-and-murray-valley-encephalitis-viruses-in-western-australia-examples-of-one-health-in-action
#15
John S Mackenzie, Michael D A Lindsay, David W Smith, Allison Imrie
Arboviruses are maintained and transmitted through an alternating biological cycle in arthropods and vertebrates, with largely incidental disease in humans and animals. As such, they provide excellent examples of One Health, as their health impact is inextricably linked to their vertebrate hosts, their arthropod vectors and the environment. Prevention and control requires a comprehensive understanding of these interactions, and how they may be effectively and safely modified. This review concentrates on human disease due to Ross River and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses, the two major arboviral pathogens in Australia...
June 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040950/green-spaces-are-not-all-the-same-for-the-provision-of-air-purification-and-climate-regulation-services-the-case-of-urban-parks
#16
Joana Vieira, Paula Matos, Teresa Mexia, Patrícia Silva, Nuno Lopes, Catarina Freitas, Otília Correia, Margarida Santos-Reis, Cristina Branquinho, Pedro Pinho
The growing human population concentrated in urban areas lead to the increase of road traffic and artificial areas, consequently enhancing air pollution and urban heat island effects, among others. These environmental changes affect citizen's health, causing a high number of premature deaths, with considerable social and economic costs. Nature-based solutions are essential to ameliorate those impacts in urban areas. While the mere presence of urban green spaces is pointed as an overarching solution, the relative importance of specific vegetation structure, composition and management to improve the ecosystem services of air purification and climate regulation are overlooked...
October 15, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020041/how-will-climate-change-pathways-and-mitigation-options-alter-incidence-of-vector-borne-diseases-a-framework-for-leishmaniasis-in-south-and-meso-america
#17
Bethan V Purse, Dario Masante, Nicholas Golding, David Pigott, John C Day, Sergio Ibañez-Bernal, Melanie Kolb, Laurence Jones
The enormous global burden of vector-borne diseases disproportionately affects poor people in tropical, developing countries. Changes in vector-borne disease impacts are often linked to human modification of ecosystems as well as climate change. For tropical ecosystems, the health impacts of future environmental and developmental policy depend on how vector-borne disease risks trade off against other ecosystem services across heterogeneous landscapes. By linking future socio-economic and climate change pathways to dynamic land use models, this study is amongst the first to analyse and project impacts of both land use and climate change on continental-scale patterns in vector-borne diseases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987403/effects-of-prescribed-fire-and-post-fire-rainfall-on-mercury-mobilization-and-subsequent-contamination-assessment-in-a-legacy-mine-site-in-victoria-australia
#18
Joji Abraham, Kim Dowling, Singarayer Florentine
Prescribed fire conducted in fire-prone areas is a cost-effective choice for forest management, but it also affects many of the physicochemical and bio-geological properties of the forest soil, in a similar manner to wild fires. The aim of this study is to investigate the nature of the mercury mobilization after a prescribed fire and the subsequent temporal changes in concentration. A prescribed fire was conducted in a legacy mine site in Central Victoria, Australia, in late August 2015 and soil sample collection and analyses were carried out two days before and two days after the fire, followed by collection at the end of each season and after an intense rainfall event in September 2016...
September 26, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965155/changes-in-relative-fit-of-human-heat-stress-indices-to-cardiovascular-respiratory-and-renal-hospitalizations-across-five-australian-urban-populations
#19
James Goldie, Lisa Alexander, Sophie C Lewis, Steven C Sherwood, Hilary Bambrick
Various human heat stress indices have been developed to relate atmospheric measures of extreme heat to human health impacts, but the usefulness of different indices across various health impacts and in different populations is poorly understood. This paper determines which heat stress indices best fit hospital admissions for sets of cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal diseases across five Australian cities. We hypothesized that the best indices would be largely dependent on location. We fit parent models to these counts in the summers (November-March) between 2001 and 2013 using negative binomial regression...
September 30, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960761/planetary-health-and-the-role-of-nursing-a-call-to-action
#20
Ann E Kurth
PURPOSE: To discuss the drivers of planetary health, responses, and the role of nursing in making health systems more resilient in an era of increasing stresses. As health providers, scientists, educators, and leaders, nurses have an obligation to prepare for climate change and other impacts of ecosystem strain on human health. DESIGN AND METHODS: Review of literature relevant to a planetary health framework. FINDINGS: Population displacement, new disease patterns and health needs, stresses on air quality, food production and water systems, and equity concerns, as well as the generation of sustainable energy, are all intimately related to health...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
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