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climate change human health impacts

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814655/identifying-climate-drivers-of-infectious-disease-dynamics-recent-advances-and-challenges-ahead
#1
REVIEW
C Jessica E Metcalf, Katharine S Walter, Amy Wesolowski, Caroline O Buckee, Elena Shevliakova, Andrew J Tatem, William R Boos, Daniel M Weinberger, Virginia E Pitzer
Climate change is likely to profoundly modulate the burden of infectious diseases. However, attributing health impacts to a changing climate requires being able to associate changes in infectious disease incidence with the potentially complex influences of climate. This aim is further complicated by nonlinear feedbacks inherent in the dynamics of many infections, driven by the processes of immunity and transmission. Here, we detail the mechanisms by which climate drivers can shape infectious disease incidence, from direct effects on vector life history to indirect effects on human susceptibility, and detail the scope of variation available with which to probe these mechanisms...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810512/co-digestion-of-rice-straw-and-cow-dung-to-supply-cooking-fuel-and-fertilizers-in-rural-india-impact-on-human-health-resource-flows-and-climate-change
#2
Sophie Sfez, Steven De Meester, Jo Dewulf
Anaerobic digestion of cow dung with new feedstock such as crop residues to increase the biogas potential is an option to help overcoming several issues faced by India. Anaerobic digestion provides biogas that can replace biomass cooking fuels and reduce indoor air pollution. It also provides digestate, a fertilizer that can contribute to compensate nutrient shortage on agricultural land. Moreover, it avoids the burning of rice straw in the fields which contributes to air pollution in India and climate change globally...
August 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808479/a-multiscale-model-for-the-world-s-first-parasitic-disease-targeted-for-eradication-guinea-worm-disease
#3
Rendani Netshikweta, Winston Garira
Guinea worm disease (GWD) is both a neglected tropical disease and an environmentally driven infectious disease. Environmentally driven infectious diseases remain one of the biggest health threats for human welfare in developing countries and the threat is increased by the looming danger of climate change. In this paper we present a multiscale model of GWD that integrates the within-host scale and the between-host scale. The model is used to concurrently examine the interactions between the three organisms that are implicated in natural cases of GWD transmission, the copepod vector, the human host, and the protozoan worm parasite (Dracunculus medinensis), and identify their epidemiological roles...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806483/mandate-for-the-nursing-profession-to-address-climate-change-through-nursing-education
#4
Jeanne Leffers, Ruth McDermott Levy, Patrice K Nicholas, Casey F Sweeney
PURPOSE: The adverse health effects from climate change demand action from the nursing profession. This article examines the calls to action, the status of climate change in nursing education, and challenges and recommendations for nursing education related to climate change and human health. ORGANIZING CONSTRUCT: Discussion paper. FINDINGS: The integration of climate change into nursing education is essential so that knowledge, skills, and insights critical for clinical practice in our climate-changing world are incorporated in curricula, practice, research, and policy...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800413/the-impact-of-climate-change-and-emissions-control-on-future-ozone-levels-implications-for-human-health
#5
Jennifer D Stowell, Young-Min Kim, Yang Gao, Joshua S Fu, Howard H Chang, Yang Liu
Overwhelming evidence has shown that, from the Industrial Revolution to the present, human activities influence ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations. Past studies demonstrate links between O3 exposure and health. However, knowledge gaps remain in our understanding concerning the impacts of climate change mitigation policies on O3 concentrations and health. Using a hybrid downscaling approach, we evaluated the separate impact of climate change and emission control policies on O3 levels and associated excess mortality in the US in the 2050s under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs)...
August 8, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796635/detecting-and-attributing-health-burdens-to-climate-change
#6
Kristie L Ebi, Nicholas H Ogden, Jan C Semenza, Alistair Woodward
BACKGROUND: Detection and attribution of health impacts caused by climate change uses formal methods to determine a) whether the occurrence of adverse health outcomes has changed, and b) the extent to which that change could be attributed to climate change. There have been limited efforts to undertake detection and attribution analyses in health. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to show a range of approaches for conducting detection and attribution analyses. RESULTS: Case studies for heatwaves, Lyme disease in Canada, and Vibrio emergence in northern Europe highlight evidence that climate change is adversely affecting human health...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796442/total-environmental-impacts-of-biofuels-from-corn-stover-using-a-hybrid-life-cycle-assessment-lca-model-combining-process-lca-and-economic-input-output-lca
#7
Changqi Liu, Yaji Huang, Xinye Wang, Yang Tai, Lingqin Liu, Hao Liu
Studies on the environmental analysis of biofuels by fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing (BFPH) have so far only focused on the environmental impacts from direct emissions and included few indirect emissions. The influence of ignoring some indirect emissions on the environmental performance of BFPH has not been well investigated and hence is not really understood. In addition, in order to avoid shifting environmental problems from one media to another, a comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts caused by the processes must quantify the environmental emissions to all media (air, water, and land) in relation to each life cycle stage...
August 10, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782134/gut-microbiomes-of-free-ranging-and-captive-namibian-cheetahs-diversity-putative-functions-and-occurrence-of-potential-pathogens
#8
Wasim Uddin, Sebastian Menke, Jörg Melzheimer, Susanne Thalwitzer, Sonja Heinrich, Bettina Wachter, Simone Sommer
Although the significance of the gut microbiome for host health is well acknowledged, the impact of host traits and environmental factors on the inter-individual variation of gut microbiomes of wildlife species is not well understood. Such information is essential, however, since changes in the composition of these microbial communities beyond the natural range might cause dysbiosis leading to increased susceptibility to infections. We examined the potential influence of sex, age, genetic relatedness, spatial tactics, and the environment on the natural range of the gut microbiome diversity in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)...
August 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769039/systematic-assessment-of-the-climate-sensitivity-of-important-human-and-domestic-animals-pathogens-in-europe
#9
K Marie McIntyre, Christian Setzkorn, Philip J Hepworth, Serge Morand, Andrew P Morse, Matthew Baylis
Climate change is expected to threaten human health and well-being via its effects on climate-sensitive infectious diseases, potentially changing their spatial distributions, affecting annual/seasonal cycles, or altering disease incidence and severity. Climate sensitivity of pathogens is a key indicator that diseases might respond to climate change, but the proportion of pathogens that is climate-sensitive, and their characteristics, are not known. The climate sensitivity of European human and domestic animal infectious pathogens, and the characteristics associated with sensitivity, were assessed systematically in terms of selection of pathogens and choice of literature reviewed...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766042/estimating-population-heat-exposure-and-impacts-on-working-people-in-conjunction-with-climate-change
#10
Tord Kjellstrom, Chris Freyberg, Bruno Lemke, Matthias Otto, David Briggs
Increased environmental heat levels as a result of climate change present a major challenge to the health, wellbeing and sustainability of human communities in already hot parts of this planet. This challenge has many facets from direct clinical health effects of daily heat exposure to indirect effects related to poor air quality, poor access to safe drinking water, poor access to nutritious and safe food and inadequate protection from disease vectors and environmental toxic chemicals. The increasing environmental heat is a threat to environmental sustainability...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760144/poultry-red-mite-dermanyssus-gallinae-infestation-a-broad-impact-parasitological-disease-that-still-remains-a-significant-challenge-for-the-egg-laying-industry-in-europe
#11
REVIEW
Annie Sigognault Flochlay, Emmanuel Thomas, Olivier Sparagano
The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, has been described for decades as a threat to the egg production industry, posing serious animal health and welfare concerns, adversely affecting productivity, and impacting public health. Research activities dedicated to controlling this parasite have increased significantly. Their veterinary and human medical impact, more particularly their role as a disease vector, is better understood. Nevertheless, red mite infestation remains a serious concern, particularly in Europe, where the prevalence of red mites is expected to increase, as a result of recent hen husbandry legislation changes, increased acaricide resistance, climate warming, and the lack of a sustainable approach to control infestations...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752239/biometeorology-for-cities
#12
David M Hondula, Robert C Balling, Riley Andrade, E Scott Krayenhoff, Ariane Middel, Aleš Urban, Matei Georgescu, David J Sailor
Improvements in global sustainability, health, and equity will largely be determined by the extent to which cities are able to become more efficient, hospitable, and productive places. The development and evolution of urban areas has a significant impact on local and regional weather and climate, which subsequently affect people and other organisms that live in and near cities. Biometeorologists, researchers who study the impact of weather and climate on living creatures, are well positioned to help evaluate and anticipate the consequences of urbanization on the biosphere...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752018/project-house-water-a-novel-interdisciplinary-framework-to-assess-the-environmental-and-socioeconomic-consequences-of-flood-related-impacts
#13
Sarah E Crawford, Catrina Brüll Nee Cofalla, Benedikt Aumeier, Markus Brinkmann, Elisa Classen, Verena Esser, Caroline Ganal, Elena Kaip, Roger Häussling, Frank Lehmkuhl, Peter Letmathe, Anne-Katrin Müller, Ilja Rabinovitch, Klaus Reicherter, Jan Schwarzbauer, Marco Schmitt, Georg Stauch, Matthias Wessling, Süleyman Yüce, Markus Hecker, Karen A Kidd, Rolf Altenburger, Werner Brack, Holger Schüttrumpf, Henner Hollert
Protecting our water resources in terms of quality and quantity is considered one of the big challenges of the twenty-first century, which requires global and multidisciplinary solutions. A specific threat to water resources, in particular, is the increased occurrence and frequency of flood events due to climate change which has significant environmental and socioeconomic impacts. In addition to climate change, flooding (or subsequent erosion and run-off) may be exacerbated by, or result from, land use activities, obstruction of waterways, or urbanization of floodplains, as well as mining and other anthropogenic activities that alter natural flow regimes...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749596/climate-change-climate-justice-and-environmental-health-implications-for-the-nursing-profession
#14
Patrice K Nicholas, Suellen Breakey
PURPOSE: Climate change is an emerging challenge linked to negative outcomes for the environment and human health. Since the 1960s, there has been a growing recognition of the need to address climate change and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions implicated in the warming of our planet. There are also deleterious health outcomes linked to complex climate changes that are emerging in the 21st century. This article addresses the social justice issues associated with climate change and human health and discussion of climate justice...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742491/the-canary-in-the-coalmine-bee-declines-as-an-indicator-of-environmental-health
#15
Dave Goulson, Elizabeth Nicholls
Bee declines have received much attention of late, but there is considerable debate and confusion as to the extent, significance and causes of declines. In part, this reflects conflation of data for domestic honeybees, numbers of which are largely driven by economic factors, with those for wild bees, many of which have undergone marked range contractions but for the majority of which we have no good data on population size. There is no doubt that bees are subject to numerous pressures in the modern world. The abundance and diversity of flowers has declined along with availability of suitable nest sites, bees are chronically exposed to cocktails of agrochemicals, and they are simultaneously exposed to novel parasites and pathogens accidentally spread by humans...
September 1, 2016: Science Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732402/characteristics-of-black-carbon-in-snow-from-laohugou-no-12-glacier-on-the-northern-tibetan-plateau
#16
Yulan Zhang, Shichang Kang, Chaoliu Li, Tanguang Gao, Zhiyuan Cong, Michael Sprenger, Yajun Liu, Xiaofei Li, Junming Guo, Mika Sillanpää, Kun Wang, Jizu Chen, Yang Li, Shiwei Sun
Black carbon (BC) emitted from the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuel impacts the climate system, cryospheric change, and human health. This study documents black carbon deposition in snow from a benchmark glacier on the northern Tibetan Plateau. Significant seasonality of BC concentrations indicates different input or post-depositional processes. BC particles deposited in snow had a mass volume median diameter slightly larger than that of black carbon particles typically found in the atmosphere...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717366/interrelationship-between-climatic-ecologic-social-and-cultural-determinants-affecting-dengue-emergence-and-transmission-in-puerto-rico-and-their-implications-for-zika-response
#17
REVIEW
Angela Matysiak, Amira Roess
OBJECTIVE: The global resurgence of dengue has been attributed to rapid population growth, urban expansion, increased air travel, globalization, and climate change. Dengue is now endemic in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico is at risk for Zika, another emerging arbovirus. The interrelationship between climatic, ecological, social, and cultural factors that affect dengue and other arboviruses' transmission is understudied. DESIGN: The objective of this systematic review is to examine the interrelationship between climatic, ecological, social, and cultural factors on dengue transmission in Puerto Rico and to draw lessons for Zika response...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689035/causative-impact-of-air-pollution-on-evapotranspiration-in-the-north-china-plain
#18
Ling Yao
Atmospheric dispersion conditions strongly impact air pollution under identical surface emissions. The degree of air pollution in the Jing-Jin-Ji region is so severe that it may impose feedback on local climate. Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) plays a significant role in the estimation of crop water requirements, as well as in studies on climate variation and change. Since the traditional correlation analysis cannot capture the causality, we apply the convergent cross mapping method (CCM) in this study to observationally investigate whether the air pollution impacts ET0...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686249/introductory-lecture-atmospheric-chemistry-in-the-anthropocene
#19
Barbara J Finlayson-Pitts
The term "Anthropocene" was coined by Professor Paul Crutzen in 2000 to describe an unprecedented era in which anthropogenic activities are impacting planet Earth on a global scale. Greatly increased emissions into the atmosphere, reflecting the advent of the Industrial Revolution, have caused significant changes in both the lower and upper atmosphere. Atmospheric reactions of the anthropogenic emissions and of those with biogenic compounds have significant impacts on human health, visibility, climate and weather...
July 7, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683145/geographical-distribution-of-culicoides-diptera-ceratopogonidae-in-mainland-portugal-presence-absence-modelling-of-vector-and-potential-vector-species
#20
David W Ramilo, Telmo Nunes, Sara Madeira, Fernando Boinas, Isabel Pereira da Fonseca
Vector-borne diseases are not only accounted responsible for their burden on human health-care systems, but also known to cause economic constraints to livestock and animal production. Animals are affected directly by the transmitted pathogens and indirectly when animal movement is restricted. Distribution of such diseases depends on climatic and social factors, namely, environmental changes, globalization, trade and unplanned urbanization. Culicoides biting midges are responsible for the transmission of several pathogenic agents with relevant economic impact...
2017: PloS One
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