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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679917/possible-impacts-of-sea-level-rise-on-disease-transmission-and-potential-adaptation-strategies-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Ana C Dvorak, Helena M Solo-Gabriele, Andrea Galletti, Bernardo Benzecry, Hannah Malone, Vicki Boguszewski, Jason Bird
Sea levels are projected to rise in response to climate change, causing the intrusion of sea water into land. In flat coastal regions, this would generate an increase in shallow water covered areas with limited circulation. This scenario raises a concern about the consequences it could have on human health, specifically the possible impacts on disease transmission. In this review paper we identified three categories of diseases which are associated with water and whose transmission can be affected by sea level rise...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627535/environmental-and-sustainability-evaluation-of-livestock-waste-management-practices-in-cyprus
#2
Lucía Lijó, Nicola Frison, Francesco Fatone, Sara González-García, Gumersindo Feijoo, Maria Teresa Moreira
The aim of this study was to compare the environmental performance and sustainability of different management options for livestock waste in Cyprus. The two most common practices in the country, i.e. the use of anaerobic lagoons and conventional biogas plants, were compared with the innovative scheme developed in the LiveWaste project (LIFE12 ENV/CY/000544), which aims not only to produce bioenergy, but also to treat the digestate for nutrient recovery and water reuse. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was combined with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to compare the performance of these alternatives...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623683/essential-ocean-variables-for-global-sustained-observations-of-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-changes
#3
Patricia Miloslavich, Nicholas J Bax, Samantha E Simmons, Eduardo Klein, Ward Appeltans, Octavio Aburto-Oropeza, Melissa Andersen Garcia, Sonia D Batten, Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi, David M Checkley, Sanae Chiba, J Emmett Duffy, Daniel C Dunn, Albert Fischer, John Gunn, Raphael Kudela, Francis Marsac, Frank E Muller-Karger, David Obura, Yunne-Jai Shin
Sustained observations of marine biodiversity and ecosystems focused on specific conservation and management problems are needed around the world to effectively mitigate or manage changes resulting from anthropogenic pressures. These observations, while complex and expensive, are required by the international scientific, governance and policy communities to provide baselines against which the effects of human pressures and climate change may be measured and reported, and resources allocated to implement solutions...
April 5, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623477/future-heat-stress-arising-from-climate-change-on-iran-s-population-health
#4
Reza Modarres, Mohammad Ghadami, Sohrab Naderi, Mohammad Naderi
Climate change-induced extreme heat events are becoming a major issue in different parts of the world, especially in developing countries. The assessment of regional and temporal past and future change in heat waves is a crucial task for public health strategies and managements. The historical and future heat index (HI) time series are investigated for temporal change across Iran to study the impact of global warming on public health. The heat index is calculated, and the nonparametric trend assessment is carried out for historical time series (1981-2010)...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621957/climate-change-a-brief-overview-of-the-science-and-health-impacts-for-australia
#5
Elizabeth G Hanna, Lachlan J McIver
The scientific relationship between atmospheric CO2 and global temperatures has been understood for over a century. Atmospheric concentrations of CO2 due to burning of fossil fuels have contributed to 75% of the observed 1°C rise in global temperatures since the start of the industrial era (about 1750). Global warming is associated with intensifying climatic extremes and disruption to human society and human health. Mitigation is vital for human health as continued current emission rates are likely to lead to 4°C of warming by 2100...
April 9, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615216/the-lancet-countdown-on-pm-2%C3%A2-5-pollution-related-health-impacts-of-china-s-projected-carbon-dioxide-mitigation-in-the-electric-power-generation-sector-under-the-paris-agreement-a-modelling-study
#6
Wenjia Cai, Jingxuan Hui, Can Wang, Yixuan Zheng, Xin Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Peng Gong
BACKGROUND: Except for comparing the implementation costs of the Paris Agreement with potential health benefits at the national levels, previous studies have not explored the health impacts of the nationally determined contributions (NDCs) by countries and in regional details. In this Lancet Countdown study, we aimed to estimate and monetise the health benefits of China's NDCs in the electric power generation sector, and then compare them with the implementation costs, both at the national and regional levels...
April 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604158/ozone-pollution-will-compromise-efforts-to-increase-global-wheat-production
#7
Gina Mills, Katrina Sharps, David Simpson, Håkan Pleijel, Malin Broberg, Johan Uddling, Fernando Jaramillo, William J Davies, Frank Dentener, Maurits Van den Berg, Madhoolika Agrawal, S B Agrawal, Elizabeth A Ainsworth, Patrick Büker, Lisa Emberson, Zhaozhong Feng, Harry Harmens, Felicity Hayes, Kazuhiko Kobayashi, Elena Paoletti, Rita Van Dingenen
Introduction of high-performing crop cultivars and crop/soil water management practices that increase the stomatal uptake of carbon dioxide and photosynthesis will be instrumental in realizing the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) of achieving food security. To date, however, global assessments of how to increase crop yield have failed to consider the negative effects of tropospheric ozone, a gaseous pollutant that enters the leaf stomatal pores of plants along with carbon dioxide, and is increasing in concentration globally, particularly in rapidly developing countries...
March 31, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601546/assessing-vulnerability-to-urban-heat-a-study-of-disproportionate-heat-exposure-and-access-to-refuge-by-socio-demographic-status-in-portland-oregon
#8
Jackson Voelkel, Dana Hellman, Ryu Sakuma, Vivek Shandas
Extreme urban heat is a powerful environmental stressor which poses a significant threat to human health and well-being. Exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, heat events are expected to become more intense and frequent as climate change progresses, though we have limited understanding of the impact of such events on vulnerable populations at a neighborhood or census block group level. Focusing on the City of Portland, Oregon, this study aimed to determine which socio-demographic populations experience disproportionate exposure to extreme heat, as well as the level of access to refuge in the form of public cooling centers or residential central air conditioning...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574605/climate-change-and-the-impact-on-respiratory-and-allergic-disease-2018
#9
REVIEW
Jeffrey G Demain
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to review allergic respiratory disease related to indoor and outdoor exposures and to examine the impact of known and projected changes in climate. The global burden of disease directly attributed to climate change is very difficult to measure and becomes more challenging when the capacity of humans to adapt to these changes is taken into consideration. Allergic respiratory disease, such as asthma, is quite heterogenous, though closely associated with environmental and consequently immunologic interaction...
March 24, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562727/projecting-drivers-of-human-vulnerability-under-the-shared-socioeconomic-pathways
#10
Guillaume Rohat
The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) are the new set of alternative futures of societal development that inform global and regional climate change research. They have the potential to foster the integration of socioeconomic scenarios within assessments of future climate-related health impacts. To date, such assessments have primarily superimposed climate scenarios on current socioeconomic conditions only. Until now, the few assessments of future health risks that employed the SSPs have focused on future human exposure-i...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547592/commonalities-between-disaster-and-climate-change-risks-for-health-a-theoretical-framework
#11
Nicola Banwell, Shannon Rutherford, Brendan Mackey, Roger Street, Cordia Chu
Disasters and climate change have significant implications for human health worldwide. Both climate change and the climate-sensitive hazards that result in disasters, are discussed in terms of direct and indirect impacts on health. A growing body of literature has argued for the need to link disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. However, there is limited articulation of the commonalities between these health impacts. Understanding the shared risk pathways is an important starting point for developing joint strategies for adapting to, and reducing, health risks...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541063/occurrence-of-harmful-cyanobacteria-in-drinking-water-from-a-severely-drought-impacted-semi-arid-region
#12
Juline M Walter, Fabyano A C Lopes, Mônica Lopes-Ferreira, Lívia M Vidal, Luciana Leomil, Fabiana Melo, Girlene S de Azevedo, Rossandra M S Oliveira, Alba J Medeiros, Adriana S O Melo, Carlos E De Rezende, Amilcar Tanuri, Fabiano L Thompson
Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have become increasingly common in freshwater ecosystems in recent decades, mainly due to eutrophication and climate change. Water becomes unreliable for human consumption. Here, we report a comprehensive study carried out to investigate the water quality of several Campina Grande reservoirs. Our approach included metagenomics, microbial abundance quantification, ELISA test for three cyanotoxins (microcystin, nodularins, and cylindrospermopsin), and in vivo ecotoxicological tests with zebrafish embryos...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514680/environmental-suitability-for-lutzomyia-nyssomyia-whitmani-diptera-psychodidae-phlebotominae-and-the-occurrence-of-american-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-brazil
#13
Simone Miranda da Costa, José Luís Passos Cordeiro, Elizabeth Ferreira Rangel
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis represents an important public health problem in Brazil. The continuous process of urbanization and expansion of human activities in forest areas impacts natural habitats, modifying the ecology of some species of Leishmania, as well as its vectors and reservoirs and, consequently, changes the epidemiological pattern that contributes to the expansion of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Here, we discuss Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani, the main vector of ACL, transmitting two dermotropic Leishmania species including Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (V...
March 7, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510225/effects-of-environment-pollution-on-the-ocular-surface
#14
REVIEW
Se Ji Jung, Jodhbir Mehta, Louis Tong
The twenty-first century is fraught with dangers like climate change and pollution, which impacts human health and mortality. As levels of pollution increase, respiratory illnesses and cardiovascular ailments become more prevalent. Less understood are the eye-related complaints, which are commonly associated with increasing pollution. Affected people may complain of irritation, redness, foreign body sensation, tearing, and blurring of vision. Sources of pollution are varied, ranging from gases (such as ozone and NO2 ) and particulate matter produced from traffic, to some other hazards associated with indoor environments...
March 3, 2018: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508312/climate-change-from-science-to-practice
#15
REVIEW
Nicola Wheeler, Nick Watts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Climate change poses a significant threat to human health. Understanding how climate science can be translated into public health practice is an essential first step in enabling robust adaptation and improving resiliency to climate change. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research highlights the importance of iterative approaches to public health adaptation to climate change, enabling uncertainties of health impacts and barriers to adaptation to be accounted for...
March 5, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499542/minimal-climate-change-impacts-on-natural-organic-matter-forecasted-for-a-potable-water-supply-in-ireland
#16
Connie O'Driscoll, José L J Ledesma, John Coll, John G Murnane, Paul Nolan, Eva M Mockler, Martyn N Futter, Liwen W Xiao
Natural organic matter poses an increasing challenge to water managers because of its potential adverse impacts on water treatment and distribution, and subsequently human health. Projections were made of impacts of climate change on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the primarily agricultural Boyne catchment which is used as a potable water supply in Ireland. The results indicated that excluding a potential rise in extreme precipitation, future projected loads are not dissimilar to those observed under current conditions...
February 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497478/chemical-mechanisms-and-their-applications-in-the-goddard-earth-observing-system-geos-earth-system-model
#17
J Eric Nielsen, Steven Pawson, Andrea Molod, Benjamin Auer, Arlindo M da Silva, Anne R Douglass, Bryan Duncan, Qing Liang, Michael Manyin, Luke D Oman, William Putman, Susan E Strahan, Krzysztof Wargan
NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model (ESM) is a modular, general circulation model (GCM), and data assimilation system (DAS) that is used to simulate and study the coupled dynamics, physics, chemistry, and biology of our planet. GEOS is developed by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It generates near-real-time analyzed data products, reanalyses, and weather and seasonal forecasts to support research targeted to understanding interactions among Earth System processes...
December 2017: Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497240/phenotypic-and-genotypic-diversity-of-airborne-fungal-spores-in-dem%C3%A3-novsk%C3%A3-ice-cave-low-tatras-slovakia
#18
Rafał Ogórek, Bartosz Kozak, Zuzana Višňovská, Dana Tančinová
This paper is the first aero-mycological report from Demänovská Ice Cave. Fungal spores were sampled from the internal and external air of the cave in June, 2014, using the impact method with a microbiological air sampler. Airborne fungi cultured on PDA medium were identified using a combination of classical phenotypic and molecular methods. Altogether, the presence of 18 different fungal spores, belonging to 3 phyla, 9 orders and 14 genera, was detected in the air of the cave. All of them were isolated from the indoor samples, and only 9 were obtained from the outdoor samples...
2018: Aerobiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495396/exploring-heat-stress-relief-measures-among-the-australian-labour-force
#19
Kerstin K Zander, Supriya Mathew, Stephen T Garnett
Australia experiences frequent heat waves and generally high average temperatures throughout the continent with substantial impacts on human health and the economy. People adapt to heat by adopting various relief measures in their daily lives including changing their behaviour. Many labour intensive outdoor industries implement standards for heat stress management for their workforce. However, little is known about how people cope with heat at their workplaces apart from studies targeting some specific industries where labourers are exposed to extreme heat...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487575/long-term-warming-shifts-the-composition-of-bacterial-communities-in-the-phyllosphere-of-galium-album-in-a-permanent-grassland-field-experiment
#20
Ebru L Aydogan, Gerald Moser, Christoph Müller, Peter Kämpfer, Stefanie P Glaeser
Global warming is currently a much discussed topic with as yet largely unexplored consequences for agro-ecosystems. Little is known about the warming effect on the bacterial microbiota inhabiting the plant surface (phyllosphere), which can have a strong impact on plant growth and health, as well as on plant diseases and colonization by human pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate surface warming on the diversity and composition of the bacterial leaf microbiota of the herbaceous plant Galium album ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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