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climate change human health impacts

Shakoor Hajat, Ceri Whitmore, Christophe Sarran, Andy Haines, Brian Golding, Harriet Gordon-Brown, Anthony Kessel, Lora E Fleming
BACKGROUND: Improved data linkages between diverse environment and health datasets have the potential to provide new insights into the health impacts of environmental exposures, including complex climate change processes. Initiatives that link and explore big data in the environment and health arenas are now being established. OBJECTIVES: To encourage advances in this nascent field, this article documents the development of a web browser application to facilitate such future research, the challenges encountered to date, and how they were addressed...
October 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Mona Sarfaty, Jennifer Kreslake, Gary Ewart, Tee L Guidotti, George D Thurston, John R Balmes, Edward W Maibach
The American Thoracic Society (ATS), in collaboration with George Mason University, surveyed international members of the society to assess perceptions, clinical experiences, and preferred policy responses related to global climate change. A recruitment email was sent by the ATS President in October 2015 to 5,013 international members. Subsequently, four reminder emails were sent to nonrespondents. Responses were received from 489 members in 68 countries; the response rate was 9.8%. Half of respondents reported working in countries in Asia (25%) or Europe (25%), with the remainder in South America (18%), North America (Canada and Mexico) (18%), Australia or New Zealand (9%), and Africa (6%)...
October 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Caio Graco Zeppelini, Alzira Maria Paiva de Almeida, Pedro Cordeiro-Estrela
As a zoonosis, Plague is also an ecological entity, a complex system of ecological interactions between the pathogen, the hosts, and the spatiotemporal variations of its ecosystems. Five reservoir system models have been proposed: (i) assemblages of small mammals with different levels of susceptibility and roles in the maintenance and amplification of the cycle; (ii) species-specific chronic infection models; (ii) flea vectors as the true reservoirs; (iii) Telluric Plague, and (iv) a metapopulation arrangement for species with a discrete spatial organization, following a source-sink dynamic of extinction and recolonization with naïve potential hosts...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Eric M Wilcox, Rick M Thomas, Puppala S Praveen, Kristina Pistone, Frida A-M Bender, Veerabhadran Ramanathan
The introduction of cloud condensation nuclei and radiative heating by sunlight-absorbing aerosols can modify the thickness and coverage of low clouds, yielding significant radiative forcing of climate. The magnitude and sign of changes in cloud coverage and depth in response to changing aerosols are impacted by turbulent dynamics of the cloudy atmosphere, but integrated measurements of aerosol solar absorption and turbulent fluxes have not been reported thus far. Here we report such integrated measurements made from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) during the CARDEX (Cloud Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Dynamics Experiment) investigation conducted over the northern Indian Ocean...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Corey J A Bradshaw, Boris Leroy, Céline Bellard, David Roiz, Céline Albert, Alice Fournier, Morgane Barbet-Massin, Jean-Michel Salles, Frédéric Simard, Franck Courchamp
Insects have presented human society with some of its greatest development challenges by spreading diseases, consuming crops and damaging infrastructure. Despite the massive human and financial toll of invasive insects, cost estimates of their impacts remain sporadic, spatially incomplete and of questionable quality. Here we compile a comprehensive database of economic costs of invasive insects. Taking all reported goods and service estimates, invasive insects cost a minimum of US$70.0 billion per year globally, while associated health costs exceed US$6...
October 4, 2016: Nature Communications
Nicoletta Vonesch, Maria Concetta D'Ovidio, Paola Melis, Maria Elena Remoli, Maria Grazia Ciufolini, Paola Tomao
INTRODUCTION: Risks associated with climate change are increasing worldwide and the global effects include altered weather and precipitation patterns, rising temperatures and others; human health can be affected directly and indirectly. This paper is an overview of literature regarding climate changes, their interaction with vector-borne diseases and impact on working population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Articles regarding climate changes as drivers of vector-borne diseases and evidences of occupational cases have been picked up by public databank...
July 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Maria Pia Gatto, Renato Cabella, Monica Gherardi
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the possible influence of global climate change (GCC) on exposure to plant protection products (PPP) in the workplace. METHODS: The paper has evaluated the main potential relationships between GCC and occupational exposure to pesticides, by highlighting how global warming might affect their future use and by reviewing its possible consequence on workers' exposure. RESULTS: Global warming, influencing the spatial and temporal distribution and proliferation of weeds, the impact of already present insect pests and pathogens and the introduction of new infesting species, could cause a changed use of pesticides in terms of higher amounts, doses and types of products applied, so influencing the human exposure to them during agricultural activities...
July 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Enrico Marchetti, Pasquale Capone, Daniela Freda
INTRODUCTION: Climate change is a global emergency that influences human health and occupational safety. Global warming characterized by an increase in temperature of the ambience and humidity affects human health directly impairing body thermoregulation with serious consequences: dehydration, fatigue, heat stroke and even death. Several studies have demonstrated negative effects of climate change on working populations in a wide variety of workplaces with particular regard to outdoor and uncooled indoor workplaces...
July 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Stephen J Price, Trenton W J Garner, Andrew A Cunningham, Tom E S Langton, Richard A Nichols
There have been few reconstructions of wildlife disease emergences, despite their extensive impact on biodiversity and human health. This is in large part attributable to the lack of structured and robust spatio-temporal datasets. We overcame logistical problems of obtaining suitable information by using data from a citizen science project and formulating spatio-temporal models of the spread of a wildlife pathogen (genus Ranavirus, infecting amphibians). We evaluated three main hypotheses for the rapid increase in disease reports in the UK: that outbreaks were being reported more frequently, that climate change had altered the interaction between hosts and a previously widespread pathogen, and that disease was emerging due to spatial spread of a novel pathogen...
September 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Elisabeth Rataj, Katharina Kunzweiler, Susan Garthus-Niegel
BACKGROUND: Due to climate change, extreme weather events have an incremental impact on human health. Injuries and mental health disorders are a particular burden of disease, which is broadly investigated in high income countries. Most distressed populations are, however, those in developing countries. Therefore, this study investigates mental and physical health impacts arising from extreme weather events in these populations. METHOD: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), injury [primary outcomes], anxiety and depressive disorders [secondary outcomes], caused by weather extremes were systematically analyzed in people of developing countries...
September 29, 2016: BMC Public Health
Jorge Hernández de Anda
The 14th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics (ISVEE 14) was held in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico during 3-7 November. 2015. The purpose of ISVEE 14 Yucatan 2015 was to provide a global forum for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, junior and senior investigators, as well as health policymakers to exchange information that can advance the fields of veterinary epidemiology and economics, and other disciplines in the health and social sciences. The main theme of ISVEE 14 was Planning Our Future...
September 20, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Delali B K Dovie, Mawuli Dzodzomenyo, Oladele A Ogunseitan
There is accumulating evidence that the emerging burden of global climate change threatens the fidelity of routine indicators for disease detection and management of risks to public health. The threat partially reflects the conservative character of the health sector and the reluctance to adopt new indicators, despite the growing awareness that existing environmental health indicators were developed to respond to risks that may no longer be relevant, and are too simplistic to also act as indicators for newer global-scale risk factors...
September 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
J L Edmondson, I Stott, Z G Davies, K J Gaston, J R Leake
Urban areas are major contributors to air pollution and climate change, causing impacts on human health that are amplified by the microclimatological effects of buildings and grey infrastructure through the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Urban greenspaces may be important in reducing surface temperature extremes, but their effects have not been investigated at a city-wide scale. Across a mid-sized UK city we buried temperature loggers at the surface of greenspace soils at 100 sites, stratified by proximity to city centre, vegetation cover and land-use...
2016: Scientific Reports
Michael T Schmeltz, Elisaveta P Petkova, Janet L Gamble
Understanding how heat waves affect morbidity and mortality, as well as the associated economic costs, is essential for characterizing the human health impacts of extreme heat under a changing climate. Only a handful of studies have examined healthcare costs associated with exposures to high temperatures. This research explores costs associated with hospitalizations for heat-related illness (HRI) in the United States using the 2001 to 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Descriptive statistics of patient data for HRI hospitalizations were examined and costs of hospitalizations were reported using the all-payer inpatient cost-to-charge ratio...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tamma A Carleton, Solomon M Hsiang
For centuries, thinkers have considered whether and how climatic conditions-such as temperature, rainfall, and violent storms-influence the nature of societies and the performance of economies. A multidisciplinary renaissance of quantitative empirical research is illuminating important linkages in the coupled climate-human system. We highlight key methodological innovations and results describing effects of climate on health, economics, conflict, migration, and demographics. Because of persistent "adaptation gaps," current climate conditions continue to play a substantial role in shaping modern society, and future climate changes will likely have additional impact...
September 9, 2016: Science
Ankie Sterk, Heleen de Man, Jack F Schijven, Ton de Nijs, Ana Maria de Roda Husman
Climate change is expected to influence infection risks while bathing downstream of sewage emissions from combined sewage overflows (CSOs) or waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) due to changes in pathogen influx, rising temperatures and changing flow rates of the receiving waters. In this study, climate change impacts on the surface water concentrations of Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium and norovirus originating from sewage were modelled. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was used to assess changes in risks of infection...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Iain R Lake, Natalia R Jones, Maureen Agnew, Clare M Goodess, Filippo Giorgi, Lynda Hamaoui-Laguel, Mikhail A Semenov, Fabien Solomon, Jonathan Storkey, Robert Vautard, Michelle M Epstein
BACKGROUND: Globally pollen allergy is a major public health problem, but a fundamental unknown is the likely impact of climate change. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the consequences of climate change upon pollen allergy in humans. OBJECTIVES: To produce quantitative estimates of the potential impact of climate change upon pollen allergy in humans, focusing upon common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in Europe. METHODS: A process-based model estimated the change in ragweed's range under climate change...
August 24, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Élise Lépy, Sinikka Rantala, Antti Huusko, Pentti Nieminen, Marjo Hippi, Arja Rautio
(1) BACKGROUND: In Finland, slippery snowy or icy ground surface conditions can be quite hazardous to human health during wintertime. We focused on the impacts of the variability in weather conditions on tourists' health via documented accidents during the winter season in the Sotkamo area. We attempted to estimate the slipping hazard in a specific context of space and time focusing on the weather and other possible parameters, responsible for fluctuations in the numbers of injuries/accidents; (2) METHODS: We used statistical distributions with graphical illustrations to examine the distribution of visits to Kainuu Hospital by non-local patients and their characteristics/causes; graphs to illustrate the distribution of the different characteristics of weather conditions; questionnaires and interviews conducted among health care and safety personnel in Sotkamo and Kuusamo; (3) RESULTS: There was a clear seasonal distribution in the numbers and types of extremity injuries of non-local patients...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Carina Félix, Ana S Duarte, Rui Vitorino, Ana C L Guerreiro, Pedro Domingues, António C M Correia, Artur Alves, Ana C Esteves
Environmental alterations modulate host-microorganism interactions. Little is known about how climate changes can trigger pathogenic features on symbiont or mutualistic microorganisms. Current climate models predict increased environmental temperatures. The exposing of phytopathogens to these changing conditions can have particularly relevant consequences for economically important species and for humans. The impact on pathogen/host interaction and the shift on their biogeographical range can induce different levels of virulence in new hosts, allowing massive losses in agricultural and health fields...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ross Boyce, Raquel Reyes, Michael Matte, Moses Ntaro, Edgar Mulogo, Joshua P Metlay, Lawrence Band, Mark J Siedner
BACKGROUND:  There are several mechanisms by which global climate change may impact malaria transmission. We sought to assess how the increased frequency of extreme precipitation events associated with global climate change will impact malaria transmission in highland areas of East Africa METHODS:  We used a differences-in-differences, quasi-experimental design to examine spatial variability in the incidence rate of laboratory-confirmed malaria cases and malaria-related hospitalizations comparing villages at (1) high vs...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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