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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894161/climate-and-season-the-effects-on-ophthalmic-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Ayub Qassim, Mthulisi Viki, Soo Khai Ng, Hubertus Jersmann, Robert J Casson
Seasonal changes and climate have a significant impact on human health. Diseases influenced by temperature and climate conditions are likely to undergo dynamic pattern shifts with consequent impact on human health. A number of infectious and non-infectious ophthalmic diseases are influenced by temperature and seasonality. Awareness of this is important from public and global health perspective in addition to resource allocation strategies. We examine the evidence for a seasonal pattern to ophthalmic diseases and assess the possible impact of climate change...
November 28, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889086/impacts-of-regional-transport-on-black-carbon-in-huairou-beijing-china
#2
Yuqin Wang, Benjamin de Foy, James J Schauer, Michael R Olson, Yang Zhang, Zhengqiang Li, Yuanxun Zhang
The 22(nd) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Conference was held near Yanqi Lake, Huairou, in Beijing, China during November 10-11, 2014. To guarantee haze-free days during the APEC Conference, the Beijing government and the governments of the surrounding provinces implemented a series of controls. Three months of Aethalometer 880 nm black carbon (BC) measurements were examined to understand the hourly fluctuations in BC concentrations that resulted from emission controls and meteorology changes. Measurements were collected at the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences near the APEC Conference site and in Central Beijing at the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth of the Chinese Academy of Sciences...
November 23, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886592/the-intersection-of-climate-environment-food-nutrition-and-health-crisis-and-opportunity
#3
REVIEW
Daniel J Raiten, Ashley M Aimone
Climate/environmental change (C-E-C) is affecting human health and quality of life. Significant attention has been given to the impact of C-E-C on food supply, and food as a vehicle for exposure. However, C-E-C has been superimposed on prevalent malnutrition, infectious and non-communicable diseases. We discuss why nutrition is not synonymous with food and must be viewed as a biological variable that affects and is affected by both C-E-C as well as the current global health challenges. The nexus of C-E-C, food, nutrition and health must be considered in the development of safe and efficacious interventions...
November 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871750/biogeochemical-and-hydrological-drivers-of-the-dynamics-of-vibrio-species-in-two-patagonian-estuaries
#4
Germán A Kopprio, M Eugenia Streitenberger, Kentaro Okuno, Mónica Baldini, Florencia Biancalana, Anna Fricke, Ana Martínez, Sucharit B Neogi, Boris P Koch, Shinji Yamasaki, Rubén J Lara
The ecology of the most relevant Vibrio species for human health and their relation to water quality and biogeochemistry were studied in two estuaries in Argentinian Patagonia. Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were reported in >29% of cases at the Río Colorado and Río Negro estuaries. Neither the pandemic serogroups of Vibrio cholerae O1, Vibrio cholerae O139 nor the cholera toxin gene were detected in this study. However, several strains of V. cholerae (not O1 or O139) are able to cause human disease or acquire pathogenic genes by horizontal transfer...
November 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863533/ecological-niche-modelling-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-vectors-in-baringo-kenya
#5
Alfred O Ochieng, Mark Nanyingi, Edwin Kipruto, Isabella M Ondiba, Fred A Amimo, Christopher Oludhe, Daniel O Olago, Isaac K Nyamongo, Benson B A Estambale
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that has an impact on human health and animal productivity. Here, we explore the use of vector presence modelling to predict the distribution of RVF vector species under climate change scenario to demonstrate the potential for geographic spread of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of climate change on RVF vector distribution in Baringo County, Kenya, with an aim of developing a risk map for spatial prediction of RVF outbreaks...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845409/effects-of-seasonal-meteorological-variables-on-e-coli-persistence-in-livestock-faeces-and-implications-for-environmental-and-human-health
#6
David M Oliver, Trevor Page
Agriculture contributes significant volumes of livestock faeces to land. Understanding how faecal microbes respond to shifts in meteorological patterns of contrasting seasons is important in order to gauge how environmental (and human health) risks may alter under a changing climate. The aim of this study was to: (i) quantify the temporal pattern of E. coli growth within dairy faeces post defecation; and (ii) derive E. coli seasonal population change profiles associated with contrasting environmental drivers...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843166/climate-change-food-water-and-population-health-in-china
#7
Shilu Tong, Helen L Berry, Kristie Ebi, Hilary Bambrick, Wenbiao Hu, Donna Green, Elizabeth Hanna, Zhiqiang Wang, Colin D Butler
Anthropogenic climate change appears to be increasing the frequency, duration and intensity of extreme weather events. Such events have already had substantial impacts on socioeconomic development and population health. Climate change's most profound impacts are likely to be on food, health systems and water. This paper explores how climate change will affect food, human health and water in China. Projections indicate that the overall effects of climate change, land conversion and reduced water availability could reduce Chinese food production substantially - although uncertainty is inevitable in such projections...
October 1, 2016: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835976/an-integrated-risk-and-vulnerability-assessment-framework-for-climate-change-and-malaria-transmission-in-east-africa
#8
Esther Achieng Onyango, Oz Sahin, Alex Awiti, Cordia Chu, Brendan Mackey
BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the key research concerns in climate change-health relationships. Numerous risk assessments and modelling studies provide evidence that the transmission range of malaria will expand with rising temperatures, adversely impacting on vulnerable communities in the East African highlands. While there exist multiple lines of evidence for the influence of climate change on malaria transmission, there is insufficient understanding of the complex and interdependent factors that determine the risk and vulnerability of human populations at the community level...
November 11, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834843/economic-evaluations-of-the-health-impacts-of-weather-related-extreme-events-a-scoping-review
#9
Laetitia H M Schmitt, Hilary M Graham, Piran C L White
The frequency and severity of extreme events is expected to increase under climate change. There is a need to understand the economic consequences of human exposure to these extreme events, to underpin decisions on risk reduction. We undertook a scoping review of economic evaluations of the adverse health effects from exposure to weather-related extreme events. We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases with no restrictions to the type of evaluations. Twenty studies were included, most of which were recently published...
November 8, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816864/drivers-of-self-reported-heat-stress-in-the-australian-labour-force
#10
Kerstin K Zander, Simon A Moss, Stephen T Garnett
Heat stress causes reductions in well-being and health. As average annual temperatures increase, heat stress is expected to affect more people. While most research on heat stress has explored how exposure to heat affects functioning of the human organism, stress from heat can be manifest long before clinical symptoms are evident, with profound effects on behavior. Here we add to the little research conducted on these subclinical effects of environmental heat using results from an Australian-wide cross-sectional study of nearly 2000 respondents on their self-reported level of heat stress...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793827/bacteria-as-emerging-indicators-of-soil-condition
#11
Syrie M Hermans, Hannah L Buckley, Bradley S Case, Fiona Curran-Cournane, Matthew Taylor, Gavin Lear
: Bacterial communities are important for the health and productivity of soil ecosystems, and have great potential as novel indicators of environmental perturbations. To assess how they are affected by anthropogenic activity, and determine their ability to provide alternative metrics of environmental health, we sought to define which soil variables bacteria respond to across multiple soil types and land uses. We determined, through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, the composition of bacterial communities in soil samples from 110 natural or human-impacted sites, located up to 300 km apart...
October 28, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782970/hospital-cultural-competency-as-a-systematic-organizational-intervention-key-findings-from-the-national-center-for-healthcare-leadership-diversity-demonstration-project
#12
Robert Weech-Maldonado, Janice L Dreachslin, Josué Patien Epané, Judith Gail, Shivani Gupta, Joyce Anne Wainio
BACKGROUND: Cultural competency or the ongoing capacity of health care systems to provide for high-quality care to diverse patient populations (National Quality Forum, 2008) has been proposed as an organizational strategy to address disparities in quality of care, patient experience, and workforce representation. But far too many health care organizations still do not treat cultural competency as a business imperative and driver of strategy. PURPOSES: The aim of the study was to examine the impact of a systematic, multifaceted, and organizational level cultural competency initiative on hospital performance metrics at the organizational and individual levels...
October 25, 2016: Health Care Management Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782166/modeling-analysis-of-secondary-inorganic-aerosols-over-china-pollution-characteristics-and-meteorological-and-dust-impacts
#13
Xiao Fu, Shuxiao Wang, Xing Chang, Siyi Cai, Jia Xing, Jiming Hao
Secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) are the predominant components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and have significant impacts on air quality, human health, and climate change. In this study, the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) was modified to incorporate SO2 heterogeneous reactions on the surface of dust particles. The revised model was then used to simulate the spatiotemporal characteristics of SIA over China and analyze the impacts of meteorological factors and dust on SIA formation...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781216/dynamic-viscosity-mapping-of-the-oxidation-of-squalene-aerosol-particles
#14
Athanasios Athanasiadis, Clare Fitzgerald, Nicholas M Davidson, Chiara Giorio, Stanley W Botchway, Andrew D Ward, Markus Kalberer, Francis D Pope, Marina K Kuimova
Organic aerosols (OAs) play important roles in multiple atmospheric processes, including climate change, and can impact human health. The physico-chemical properties of OAs are important for all these processes and can evolve through reactions with various atmospheric components, including oxidants. The dynamic nature of these reactions makes it challenging to obtain a true representation of their composition and surface chemistry. Here we investigate the microscopic viscosity of the model OA composed of squalene, undergoing chemical aging...
October 26, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741457/development-of-a-browser-application-to-foster-research-on-linking-climate-and-health-datasets-challenges-and-opportunities
#15
Shakoor Hajat, Ceri Whitmore, Christophe Sarran, Andy Haines, Brian Golding, Harriet Gordon-Brown, Anthony Kessel, Lora E Fleming
BACKGROUND: Improved data linkages between diverse environment and health datasets have the potential to provide new insights into the health impacts of environmental exposures, including complex climate change processes. Initiatives that link and explore big data in the environment and health arenas are now being established. OBJECTIVES: To encourage advances in this nascent field, this article documents the development of a web browser application to facilitate such future research, the challenges encountered to date, and how they were addressed...
October 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726439/survey-of-international-members-of-the-american-thoracic-society-on-climate-change-and-health
#16
Mona Sarfaty, Jennifer Kreslake, Gary Ewart, Tee L Guidotti, George D Thurston, John R Balmes, Edward W Maibach
The American Thoracic Society (ATS), in collaboration with George Mason University, surveyed international members of the society to assess perceptions, clinical experiences, and preferred policy responses related to global climate change. A recruitment email was sent by the ATS President in October 2015 to 5,013 international members. Subsequently, four reminder emails were sent to nonrespondents. Responses were received from 489 members in 68 countries; the response rate was 9.8%. Half of respondents reported working in countries in Asia (25%) or Europe (25%), with the remainder in South America (18%), North America (Canada and Mexico) (18%), Australia or New Zealand (9%), and Africa (6%)...
October 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711205/zoonoses-as-ecological-entities-a-case-review-of-plague
#17
Caio Graco Zeppelini, Alzira Maria Paiva de Almeida, Pedro Cordeiro-Estrela
As a zoonosis, Plague is also an ecological entity, a complex system of ecological interactions between the pathogen, the hosts, and the spatiotemporal variations of its ecosystems. Five reservoir system models have been proposed: (i) assemblages of small mammals with different levels of susceptibility and roles in the maintenance and amplification of the cycle; (ii) species-specific chronic infection models; (ii) flea vectors as the true reservoirs; (iii) Telluric Plague, and (iv) a metapopulation arrangement for species with a discrete spatial organization, following a source-sink dynamic of extinction and recolonization with naïve potential hosts...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702889/black-carbon-solar-absorption-suppresses-turbulence-in-the-atmospheric-boundary-layer
#18
Eric M Wilcox, Rick M Thomas, Puppala S Praveen, Kristina Pistone, Frida A-M Bender, Veerabhadran Ramanathan
The introduction of cloud condensation nuclei and radiative heating by sunlight-absorbing aerosols can modify the thickness and coverage of low clouds, yielding significant radiative forcing of climate. The magnitude and sign of changes in cloud coverage and depth in response to changing aerosols are impacted by turbulent dynamics of the cloudy atmosphere, but integrated measurements of aerosol solar absorption and turbulent fluxes have not been reported thus far. Here we report such integrated measurements made from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) during the CARDEX (Cloud Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Dynamics Experiment) investigation conducted over the northern Indian Ocean...
October 18, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698460/massive-yet-grossly-underestimated-global-costs-of-invasive-insects
#19
Corey J A Bradshaw, Boris Leroy, Céline Bellard, David Roiz, Céline Albert, Alice Fournier, Morgane Barbet-Massin, Jean-Michel Salles, Frédéric Simard, Franck Courchamp
Insects have presented human society with some of its greatest development challenges by spreading diseases, consuming crops and damaging infrastructure. Despite the massive human and financial toll of invasive insects, cost estimates of their impacts remain sporadic, spatially incomplete and of questionable quality. Here we compile a comprehensive database of economic costs of invasive insects. Taking all reported goods and service estimates, invasive insects cost a minimum of US$70.0 billion per year globally, while associated health costs exceed US$6...
October 4, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698298/climate-change-vector-borne-diseases-and-working-population
#20
Nicoletta Vonesch, Maria Concetta D'Ovidio, Paola Melis, Maria Elena Remoli, Maria Grazia Ciufolini, Paola Tomao
INTRODUCTION: Risks associated with climate change are increasing worldwide and the global effects include altered weather and precipitation patterns, rising temperatures and others; human health can be affected directly and indirectly. This paper is an overview of literature regarding climate changes, their interaction with vector-borne diseases and impact on working population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Articles regarding climate changes as drivers of vector-borne diseases and evidences of occupational cases have been picked up by public databank...
July 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
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