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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231177/the-goal-of-adequate-nutrition-can-it-be-made-affordable-sustainable-and-universal
#1
REVIEW
Ian McFarlane
Until about 1900, large proportions of the world population endured hunger and poverty. The 20th century saw world population increase from 1.6 to 6.1 billion, accompanied and to some extent made possible by rapid improvements in health standards and food supply, with associated advances in agricultural and nutrition sciences. In this paper, I use the application of linear programming (LP) in preparation of rations for farm animals to illustrate a method of calculating the lowest cost of a human diet selected from locally available food items, constrained to provide recommended levels of food energy and nutrients; then, to find a realistic minimum cost, I apply the further constraint that the main sources of food energy in the costed diet are weighted in proportion to the actual reported consumption of food items in that area...
November 30, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228144/incorporating-one-health-into-medical-education
#2
EDITORIAL
Peter M Rabinowitz, Barbara J Natterson-Horowitz, Laura H Kahn, Richard Kock, Marguerite Pappaioanou
One Health is an emerging concept that stresses the linkages between human, animal, and environmental health, as well as the need for interdisciplinary communication and collaboration to address health issues including emerging zoonotic diseases, climate change impacts, and the human-animal bond. It promotes complex problem solving using a systems framework that considers interactions between humans, animals, and their shared environment. While many medical educators may not yet be familiar with the concept, the One Health approach has been endorsed by a number of major medical and public health organizations and is beginning to be implemented in a number of medical schools...
February 23, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212462/climate-change-contaminant-interactions-in-marine-food-webs-towards-a-conceptual-framework
#3
Juan José Alava, William W L Cheung, Peter S Ross, Rashid U Sumaila
Climate change is reshaping the way in which contaminants move through the global environment, in large part by changing the chemistry of the oceans and affecting the physiology, health and feeding ecology of marine biota. Climate change-associated impacts on structure and function of marine food webs, with consequent changes in contaminant transport, fate and effects, is likely to have significant repercussions to those human populations that rely on fisheries resources for food, recreation or culture. Published studies on climate change-contaminant interactions with a focus on food web bioaccumulation were systematically reviewed to explore how climate change and ocean acidification may impact contaminant levels in marine food webs...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182667/environmental-and-social-change-drive-the-explosive-emergence-of-zika-virus-in-the-americas
#4
REVIEW
Sofia Ali, Olivia Gugliemini, Serena Harber, Alexandra Harrison, Lauren Houle, Javarcia Ivory, Sierra Kersten, Rebia Khan, Jenny Kim, Chris LeBoa, Emery Nez-Whitfield, Jamieson O'Marr, Emma Rothenberg, R Max Segnitz, Stephanie Sila, Anna Verwillow, Miranda Vogt, Adrienne Yang, Erin A Mordecai
Since Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected in Brazil in 2015, it has spread explosively across the Americas and has been linked to increased incidence of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In one year, it has infected over 500,000 people (suspected and confirmed cases) in 40 countries and territories in the Americas. Along with recent epidemics of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which are also transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, the emergence of ZIKV suggests an ongoing intensification of environmental and social factors that have given rise to a new regime of arbovirus transmission...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167772/spatially-resolved-air-water-emissions-tradeoffs-improve-regulatory-impact-analyses-for-electricity-generation
#5
Daniel B Gingerich, Xiaodi Sun, A Patrick Behrer, Inês L Azevedo, Meagan S Mauter
Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) generate air, water, and solids emissions that impose substantial human health, environmental, and climate change (HEC) damages. This work demonstrates the importance of accounting for cross-media emissions tradeoffs, plant and regional emissions factors, and spatially variation in the marginal damages of air emissions when performing regulatory impact analyses for electric power generation. As a case study, we assess the benefits and costs of treating wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater at US CFPPs using the two best available treatment technology options specified in the 2015 Effluent Limitation Guidelines (ELGs)...
February 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142318/climate-change-and-public-health
#6
Timothy Ciesielski
It is clear that the public health community is concerned about the human health impacts of climate change, but are we inadvertently underestimating the scope of the problem and obfuscating potentially useful interventions by using a narrow intellectual frame in our discussions with policy makers? If we take a more holistic approach, we see that the public health impacts of climate change are only one subset of the enormous public health impacts of fossil fuel burning. This broader perspective can provide a more accurate and comprehensive assessment that is more useful for decision making in public policy settings...
January 1, 2017: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134828/exploring-the-impacts-of-anthropogenic-disturbance-on-seawater-and-sediment-microbial-communities-in-korean-coastal-waters-using-metagenomics-analysis
#7
Nam-Il Won, Ki-Hwan Kim, Ji Hyoun Kang, Sang Rul Park, Hyuk Je Lee
The coastal ecosystems are considered as one of the most dynamic and vulnerable environments under various anthropogenic developments and the effects of climate change. Variations in the composition and diversity of microbial communities may be a good indicator for determining whether the marine ecosystems are affected by complex forcing stressors. DNA sequence-based metagenomics has recently emerged as a promising tool for analyzing the structure and diversity of microbial communities based on environmental DNA (eDNA)...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125383/climate-change-and-global-food-systems-potential-impacts-on-food-security-and-undernutrition
#8
Samuel S Myers, Matthew R Smith, Sarah Guth, Christopher D Golden, Bapu Vaitla, Nathaniel D Mueller, Alan D Dangour, Peter Huybers
Great progress has been made in addressing global undernutrition over the past several decades, in part because of large increases in food production from agricultural expansion and intensification. Food systems, however, face continued increases in demand and growing environmental pressures. Most prominently, human-caused climate change will influence the quality and quantity of food we produce and our ability to distribute it equitably. Our capacity to ensure food security and nutritional adequacy in the face of rapidly changing biophysical conditions will be a major determinant of the next century's global burden of disease...
January 6, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120830/characterizing-the-impact-of-projected-changes-in-climate-and-air-quality-on-human-exposures-to-ozone
#9
Kathie L Dionisio, Christopher G Nolte, Tanya L Spero, Stephen Graham, Nina Caraway, Kristen M Foley, Kristin K Isaacs
The impact of climate change on human and environmental health is of critical concern. Population exposures to air pollutants both indoors and outdoors are influenced by a wide range of air quality, meteorological, behavioral, and housing-related factors, many of which are also impacted by climate change. An integrated methodology for modeling changes in human exposures to tropospheric ozone (O3) owing to potential future changes in climate and demographics was implemented by linking existing modeling tools for climate, weather, air quality, population distribution, and human exposure...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111002/more-surprises-in-the-global-greenhouse-human-health-impacts-from-recent-toxic-marine-aerosol-formations-due-to-centennial-alterations-of-world-wide-coastal-food-webs
#10
REVIEW
J J Walsh, J M Lenes, R H Weisberg, L Zheng, C Hu, K A Fanning, R Snyder, J Smith
Reductions of zooplankton biomasses and grazing pressures were observed during overfishing-induced trophic cascades and concurrent oil spills at global scales. Recent phytoplankton increments followed, once Fe-, P-, and N-nutrient limitations of commensal diazotrophs and dinoflagellates were also eliminated by respective human desertification, deforestation, and eutrophication during climate changes. Si-limitation of diatoms instead ensued during these last anthropogenic perturbations of agricultural effluents and sewage loadings...
January 19, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092757/climate-change-threats-to-family-farmers-sense-of-place-and-mental-wellbeing-a-case-study-from-the-western-australian-wheatbelt
#11
Neville R Ellis, Glenn A Albrecht
'Sense of place' has become a central concept in the analysis of the cultural, personal and mental health risks posed by a changing climate. However, such place-related understandings of mental health and wellbeing remain largely limited to Indigenous health contexts. In this article we argue the relevance of sense of place in understanding the mental health impacts of climate change on family farmers who retain close living and working relationships to the land. We conducted a community-based qualitative case study located in the Western Australian Wheatbelt - a region that has experienced some of the most significant climate change in Australia...
January 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073526/prevalence-of-algal-toxins-in-alaskan-marine-mammals-foraging-in-a-changing-arctic-and-subarctic-environment
#12
Kathi A Lefebvre, Lori Quakenbush, Elizabeth Frame, Kathy Burek Huntington, Gay Sheffield, Raphaela Stimmelmayr, Anna Bryan, Preston Kendrick, Heather Ziel, Tracey Goldstein, Jonathan A Snyder, Tom Gelatt, Frances Gulland, Bobette Dickerson, Verena Gill
Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051192/global-warming-and-its-health-impact
#13
Antonella Rossati
Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients...
January 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031695/mitigating-climate-change-at-the-carbon-water-nexus-a-call-to-action-for-the-environmental-engineering-community
#14
Andres F Clarens, Catherine A Peters
Environmental engineers have played a critical role in improving human and ecosystem health over the past several decades. These contributions have focused on providing clean water and air as well as managing waste streams and remediating polluted sites. As environmental problems have become more global in scale and more deeply entrenched in sociotechnical systems, the discipline of environmental engineering must grow to be ready to respond to the challenges of the coming decades. Here we make the case that environmental engineers should play a leadership role in the development of climate change mitigation technologies at the carbon-water nexus (CWN)...
October 1, 2016: Environmental Engineering Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011805/climate-change-and-human-health-what-are-the-research-trends-a-scoping-review-protocol
#15
Niamh Herlihy, Avner Bar-Hen, Glenn Verner, Helen Fischer, Rainer Sauerborn, Anneliese Depoux, Antoine Flahault, Stefanie Schütte
INTRODUCTION: For 28 years, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been assessing the potential risks associated with anthropogenic climate change. Although interest in climate change and health is growing, the implications arising from their interaction remain understudied. Generating a greater understanding of the health impacts of climate change could be key step in inciting some of the changes necessary to decelerate global warming. A long-term and broad overview of the existing scientific literature in the field of climate change and health is currently missing in order to ensure that all priority areas are being adequately addressed...
December 23, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009103/experts-perceptions-on-china-s-capacity-to-manage-emerging-and-re-emerging-zoonotic-diseases-in-an-era-of-climate-change
#16
A Hansen, J Xiang, Q Liu, M X Tong, Y Sun, X Liu, K Chen, S Cameron, S Hanson-Easey, G-S Han, P Weinstein, C Williams, P Bi
Zoonotic diseases transmitted by arthropods and rodents are a major public health concern in China. However, interventions in recent decades have helped lower the incidence of several diseases despite the country's large, frequently mobile population and socio-economic challenges. Increasing globalization, rapid urbanization and a warming climate now add to the complexity of disease control and prevention and could challenge China's capacity to respond to threats of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. To investigate this notion, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 30 infectious disease experts in four cities in China...
December 23, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008371/mindful-climate-action-health-and-environmental-co-benefits-from-mindfulness-based-behavioral-training
#17
Bruce Barrett, Maggie Grabow, Cathy Middlecamp, Margaret Mooney, Mary M Checovich, Alexander K Converse, Bob Gillespie, Julia Yates
Greenhouse gases from human activities are causing climate change, creating risks for people around the globe. Behaviors involving transportation, diet, energy use, and purchasing drive greenhouse gas emissions, but are also related to health and well-being, providing opportunity for co-benefits. Replacing shorter automobile trips with walking or cycling, or eating plants rather than animals, for example, may increase personal health, while also reducing environmental impact. Mindfulness-based practices have been shown to enhance a variety of health outcomes, but have not been adapted towards environmental purposes...
October 2016: Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993762/smartphone-apps-for-measuring-human-health-and-climate-change-co-benefits-a-comparison-and-quality-rating-of-available-apps
#18
Rachel K Sullivan, Samantha Marsh, Jakob Halvarsson, Michelle Holdsworth, Wilma Waterlander, Maartje P Poelman, Jennifer Ann Salmond, Hayley Christian, Lenny Sc Koh, Janet E Cade, John C Spence, Alistair Woodward, Ralph Maddison
BACKGROUND: Climate change and the burden of noncommunicable diseases are major global challenges. Opportunities exist to investigate health and climate change co-benefits through a shift from motorized to active transport (walking and cycling) and a shift in dietary patterns away from a globalized diet to reduced consumption of meat and energy dense foods. Given the ubiquitous use and proliferation of smartphone apps, an opportunity exists to use this technology to capture individual travel and dietary behavior and the associated impact on the environment and health...
December 19, 2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988975/response-of-vegetation-phenology-to-urbanization-in-the-conterminous-united-states
#19
Xuecao Li, Yuyu Zhou, Ghassem R Asrar, Jiafu Mao, Xiaoma Li, Wenyu Li
The influence of urbanization on vegetation phenology is gaining considerable attention due to its implications for human health, cycling of carbon and other nutrients in Earth system. In this study, we examined the relationship between change in vegetation phenology and urban size, an indicator of urbanization, for the conterminous United States. We studied more than 4500 urban clusters of varying size to determine the impact of urbanization on plant phenology, with the aids of remotely sensed observations since 2003-2012...
December 18, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974141/new-approaches-in-human-health-risk-assessment
#20
Khaled Abass, Anders Carlsen, Arja Rautio
Studies on the precise impact of environmental pollutants on human health are difficult to undertake and interpret, because many genetic and environmental factors influence health at the same time and to varying degrees. Our chapter in the AMAP report was based on new approaches to describe risks and future needs. In this paper, we will introduce the issues associated with risk assessment of single chemicals, and present suggestions for future studies as well as a summary of lessons learned during the health-related parts of the European Union-funded FP7 project ArcRisk (Arctic Health Risks: Impacts on health in the Arctic and Europe owing to climate-induced changes in contaminant cycling, 2009-2014; www...
2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
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