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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438993/air-quality-health-and-climate-implications-of-china-s-synthetic-natural-gas-development
#1
Yue Qin, Fabian Wagner, Noah Scovronick, Wei Peng, Junnan Yang, Tong Zhu, Kirk R Smith, Denise L Mauzerall
Facing severe air pollution and growing dependence on natural gas imports, the Chinese government plans to increase coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG) production. Although displacement of coal with SNG benefits air quality, it increases CO2 emissions. Due to variations in air pollutant and CO2 emission factors and energy efficiencies across sectors, coal replacement with SNG results in varying degrees of air quality benefits and climate penalties. We estimate air quality, human health, and climate impacts of SNG substitution strategies in 2020...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429985/attitude-of-us-obstetricians-and-gynaecologists-to-global-warming-and-medical-waste
#2
Cassandra Thiel, Paula Duncan, Noe Woods
Objectives Global warming (or climate change) is a major public health issue, and health services are one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions in high-income countries. Despite the scale of the health care sector's resource consumption, little is known about the attitude of physicians and their willingness to participate in efforts to reduce the environmental impact of health services. Methods A survey of 236 obstetricians and gynaecologists at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Western Pennsylvania, USA...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413725/trypanosoma-cruzi-reservoir-triatomine-vector-co-occurrence-networks-reveal-meta-community-effects-by-synanthropic-mammals-on-geographic-dispersal
#3
Carlos N Ibarra-Cerdeña, Leopoldo Valiente-Banuet, Víctor Sánchez-Cordero, Christopher R Stephens, Janine M Ramsey
Contemporary patterns of land use and global climate change are modifying regional pools of parasite host species. The impact of host community changes on human disease risk, however, is difficult to assess due to a lack of information about zoonotic parasite host assemblages. We have used a recently developed method to infer parasite-host interactions for Chagas Disease (CD) from vector-host co-occurrence networks. Vector-host networks were constructed to analyze topological characteristics of the network and ecological traits of species' nodes, which could provide information regarding parasite regional dispersal in Mexico...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398839/foundational-and-translational-research-opportunities-to-improve-plant-health
#4
Richard W Michelmore, Gitta Coaker, Rebecca Bart, Gwyn A Beattie, Andrew Bent, Toby Bruce, Duncan Cameron, Jeff Dangl, Savithramma Dinesh-Kumar, Robert Edwards, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Walter Gassmann, Jean Greenberg, Richard Harrison, Ping He, Jagger Harvey, Alisa Huffaker, Scot Hulbert, Roger Innes, Jonathan D Jones, Isgouhi Kaloshian, Sophien Kamoun, Fumiaki Katagiri, Jan E Leach, Wenbo Ma, John M McDowell, June Medford, Blake Meyers, Rebecca Nelson, Richard Peter Oliver, Yiping Qi, Diane Saunders, Michael Shaw, Prasanta Subudhi, Leslie Torrance, Brett M Tyler, John Walsh
This whitepaper reports the deliberations of a workshop focused on biotic challenges to plant health held in Washington, D.C. in September 2016. Ensuring health of food plants is critical to maintaining the quality and productivity of crops and for sustenance of the rapidly growing human population. There is a close linkage between food security and societal stability; however, global food security is threatened by the vulnerability of our agricultural systems to numerous pests, pathogens, weeds, and environmental stresses...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387181/preharvest-food-safety-under-the-influence-of-a-changing-climate
#5
Kalmia E Kniel, Patrick Spanninger
Ensuring food safety and addressing the impact of climate change are both immense concepts. Food production systems must continue to evolve in order to develop food safety management programs and identify emerging risks linked to climate change. There are an infinite number of crosscutting issues regarding climate change and health. The changing climate of the globe manifests itself in fluctuating temperatures, intense storms, droughts, and fluctuating sea levels. These environmental variables in turn may increase the risk of foodborne disease transmission through our foods and increase the need for vigilance and risk mitigation at the preharvest level...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381631/climate-change-mitigation-potential-benefits-and-pitfalls-of-enhanced-rock-weathering-in-tropical-agriculture
#6
REVIEW
David P Edwards, Felix Lim, Rachael H James, Christopher R Pearce, Julie Scholes, Robert P Freckleton, David J Beerling
Restricting future global temperature increase to 2°C or less requires the adoption of negative emissions technologies for carbon capture and storage. We review the potential for deployment of enhanced weathering (EW), via the application of crushed reactive silicate rocks (such as basalt), on over 680 million hectares of tropical agricultural and tree plantations to offset fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Warm tropical climates and productive crops will substantially enhance weathering rates, with potential co-benefits including decreased soil acidification and increased phosphorus supply promoting higher crop yields sparing forest for conservation, and reduced cultural eutrophication...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357050/heat-remains-unaccounted-for-in-thermal-physiology-and-climate-change-research
#7
Andreas D Flouris, Glen P Kenny
In the aftermath of the Paris Agreement, there is a crucial need for scientists in both thermal physiology and climate change research to develop the integrated approaches necessary to evaluate the health, economic, technological, social, and cultural impacts of 1.5°C warming. Our aim was to explore the fidelity of remote temperature measurements for quantitatively identifying the continuous redistribution of heat within both the Earth and the human body. Not accounting for the regional distribution of warming and heat storage patterns can undermine the results of thermal physiology and climate change research...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335428/an-updated-review-of-ciguatera-fish-poisoning-clinical-epidemiological-environmental-and-public-health-management
#8
REVIEW
Melissa A Friedman, Mercedes Fernandez, Lorraine C Backer, Robert W Dickey, Jeffrey Bernstein, Kathleen Schrank, Steven Kibler, Wendy Stephan, Matthew O Gribble, Paul Bienfang, Robert E Bowen, Stacey Degrasse, Harold A Flores Quintana, Christopher R Loeffler, Richard Weisman, Donna Blythe, Elisa Berdalet, Ram Ayyar, Danielle Clarkson-Townsend, Karen Swajian, Ronald Benner, Tom Brewer, Lora E Fleming
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients...
March 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321366/climate-change-induced-range-shifts-of-three-allergenic-ragweeds-ambrosia-l-in-europe-and-their-potential-impact-on-human-health
#9
Karen Rasmussen, Jakob Thyrring, Robert Muscarella, Finn Borchsenius
Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species (Ambrosia spp.) in Europe and discuss the potential associated health impact. We built species distribution models based on presence-only data for three ragweed species, using MAXENT software. Future climatic habitat suitability was modeled under two IPCC climate change scenarios (RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5). We quantify the extent of the increase in 'high allergy risk' (HAR) areas, i...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317479/climate-changes-and-human-health-a-review-of-the-effect-of-environmental-stressors-on-cardiovascular-diseases-across-epidemiology-and-biological-mechanisms
#10
Paolo Giorgini, Paolo Di Giosia, Marco Petrarca, Francesco Lattanzio, Cosimo Andrea Stamerra, Claudio Ferri
BACKGROUND: Climate change is rapidly affecting all the regions of our planet. The most relevant example is global warming, which impacts on the earth's ecosystems, threatening human health. Other effects include extreme variations in temperature and increases in air pollution. These events may negatively impact mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: In this review, we discuss the main effects of climate changes on cardiovascular diseases, reporting the epidemiological evidences and the biological mechanisms linking climate change consequences to hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart diseases, heart failure and stroke...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283973/how-hard-they-hit-perception-adaptation-and-public-health-implications-of-heat-waves-in-urban-and-peri-urban-pakistan
#11
Sara Rauf, Khuda Bakhsh, Azhar Abbas, Sarfraz Hassan, Asghar Ali, Harald Kächele
Heat waves threaten human health given the fast changing climatic scenarios in the recent past. Adaptation to heat waves would take place when people perceive their impacts based on their knowledge. The present study examines perception level and its determinants resulting in adaptation to heat waves in Pakistan. The study used cross-sectional data from urban and peri-urban respondents of Faisalabad District. The study employs a health belief model to assess risk perception among the respondents. Logistic model is used to determine factors affecting level of knowledge, perception and adaptation to heat waves...
March 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242682/co-occurrence-of-extremes-in-surface-ozone-particulate-matter-and-temperature-over-eastern-north-america
#12
Jordan L Schnell, Michael J Prather
Heat waves and air pollution episodes pose a serious threat to human health and may worsen under future climate change. In this paper, we use 15 years (1999-2013) of commensurately gridded (1° x 1°) surface observations of extended summer (April-September) surface ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and maximum temperature (TX) over the eastern United States and Canada to construct a climatology of the coincidence, overlap, and lag in space and time of their extremes. Extremes of each quantity are defined climatologically at each grid cell as the 50 d with the highest values in three 5-y windows (∼95th percentile)...
March 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241983/unraveling-the-metabolic-health-benefits-of-fasting-related-to-religious-beliefs-a-narrative-review
#13
REVIEW
Angeliki Persynaki, Spyridon Karras, Claude Pichard
Periodic fasting, under a religious aspect, has been adopted by humans for centuries as a crucial pathway of spiritual purification. Caloric restriction, with or without exclusion of certain types of food, is often a key component. Fasting varies significantly among different populations according to cultural habits and local climate conditions. Religious fasting in terms of patterns (continuous versus intermittent) and duration can vary from 1 to 200 d; thus, the positive and negative impact on health can be considerable...
March 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231177/the-goal-of-adequate-nutrition-can-it-be-made-affordable-sustainable-and-universal
#14
REVIEW
Ian McFarlane
Until about 1900, large proportions of the world population endured hunger and poverty. The 20th century saw world population increase from 1.6 to 6.1 billion, accompanied and to some extent made possible by rapid improvements in health standards and food supply, with associated advances in agricultural and nutrition sciences. In this paper, I use the application of linear programming (LP) in preparation of rations for farm animals to illustrate a method of calculating the lowest cost of a human diet selected from locally available food items, constrained to provide recommended levels of food energy and nutrients; then, to find a realistic minimum cost, I apply the further constraint that the main sources of food energy in the costed diet are weighted in proportion to the actual reported consumption of food items in that area...
November 30, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228144/incorporating-one-health-into-medical-education
#15
Peter M Rabinowitz, Barbara J Natterson-Horowitz, Laura H Kahn, Richard Kock, Marguerite Pappaioanou
One Health is an emerging concept that stresses the linkages between human, animal, and environmental health, as well as the need for interdisciplinary communication and collaboration to address health issues including emerging zoonotic diseases, climate change impacts, and the human-animal bond. It promotes complex problem solving using a systems framework that considers interactions between humans, animals, and their shared environment. While many medical educators may not yet be familiar with the concept, the One Health approach has been endorsed by a number of major medical and public health organizations and is beginning to be implemented in a number of medical schools...
February 23, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212462/climate-change-contaminant-interactions-in-marine-food-webs-toward-a-conceptual-framework
#16
REVIEW
Juan José Alava, William W L Cheung, Peter S Ross, U Rashid Sumaila
Climate change is reshaping the way in which contaminants move through the global environment, in large part by changing the chemistry of the oceans and affecting the physiology, health, and feeding ecology of marine biota. Climate change-associated impacts on structure and function of marine food webs, with consequent changes in contaminant transport, fate, and effects, are likely to have significant repercussions to those human populations that rely on fisheries resources for food, recreation, or culture...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182667/environmental-and-social-change-drive-the-explosive-emergence-of-zika-virus-in-the-americas
#17
REVIEW
Sofia Ali, Olivia Gugliemini, Serena Harber, Alexandra Harrison, Lauren Houle, Javarcia Ivory, Sierra Kersten, Rebia Khan, Jenny Kim, Chris LeBoa, Emery Nez-Whitfield, Jamieson O'Marr, Emma Rothenberg, R Max Segnitz, Stephanie Sila, Anna Verwillow, Miranda Vogt, Adrienne Yang, Erin A Mordecai
Since Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected in Brazil in 2015, it has spread explosively across the Americas and has been linked to increased incidence of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In one year, it has infected over 500,000 people (suspected and confirmed cases) in 40 countries and territories in the Americas. Along with recent epidemics of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which are also transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, the emergence of ZIKV suggests an ongoing intensification of environmental and social factors that have given rise to a new regime of arbovirus transmission...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167772/spatially-resolved-air-water-emissions-tradeoffs-improve-regulatory-impact-analyses-for-electricity-generation
#18
Daniel B Gingerich, Xiaodi Sun, A Patrick Behrer, Inês L Azevedo, Meagan S Mauter
Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) generate air, water, and solids emissions that impose substantial human health, environmental, and climate change (HEC) damages. This work demonstrates the importance of accounting for cross-media emissions tradeoffs, plant and regional emissions factors, and spatially variation in the marginal damages of air emissions when performing regulatory impact analyses for electric power generation. As a case study, we assess the benefits and costs of treating wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater at US CFPPs using the two best available treatment technology options specified in the 2015 Effluent Limitation Guidelines (ELGs)...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142318/climate-change-and-public-health
#19
Timothy Ciesielski
It is clear that the public health community is concerned about the human health impacts of climate change, but are we inadvertently underestimating the scope of the problem and obfuscating potentially useful interventions by using a narrow intellectual frame in our discussions with policy makers? If we take a more holistic approach, we see that the public health impacts of climate change are only one subset of the enormous public health impacts of fossil fuel burning. This broader perspective can provide a more accurate and comprehensive assessment that is more useful for decision making in public policy settings...
January 1, 2017: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134828/exploring-the-impacts-of-anthropogenic-disturbance-on-seawater-and-sediment-microbial-communities-in-korean-coastal-waters-using-metagenomics-analysis
#20
Nam-Il Won, Ki-Hwan Kim, Ji Hyoun Kang, Sang Rul Park, Hyuk Je Lee
The coastal ecosystems are considered as one of the most dynamic and vulnerable environments under various anthropogenic developments and the effects of climate change. Variations in the composition and diversity of microbial communities may be a good indicator for determining whether the marine ecosystems are affected by complex forcing stressors. DNA sequence-based metagenomics has recently emerged as a promising tool for analyzing the structure and diversity of microbial communities based on environmental DNA (eDNA)...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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