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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642037/testosterone-regulates-3t3-l1pre-adipocyte-differentiation-and-epididymal-fat-accumulation-in-mice-through-modulating-macrophage-polarization
#1
Xiaojiao Ren, Xiaojian Fu, Xinhua Zhang, Shiqiang Chen, Shuguang Huang, Lun Yao, Guoquan Liu
Low testosterone levels are strongly related to obesity in males. The balance between the classically M1 and alternatively M2 polarized macrophages also plays a critical role in obesity. It is not clear whether testosterone regulates macrophage polarization and then affects adipocyte differentiation. In this report, we demonstrate that testosterone strengthens interleukin (IL) -4-induced M2 polarization and inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced M1 polarization, but has no direct effect on adipocyte differentiation...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640866/diet-induced-adipose-tissue-expansion-is-mitigated-in-mice-with-a-targeted-inactivation-of-mesoderm-specific-transcript-mest
#2
Rea P Anunciado-Koza, Justin Manuel, Randall L Mynatt, Jingying Zhang, Leslie P Kozak, Robert A Koza
Interindividual variation of white adipose tissue (WAT) expression of mesoderm specific transcript (Mest), a paternally-expressed imprinted gene belonging to the α/β-hydrolase fold protein family, becomes apparent among genetically inbred mice fed high fat diet (HFD) and is positively associated with adipose tissue expansion (ATE). To elucidate a role for MEST in ATE, mice were developed with global and adipose tissue inactivation of Mest. Mice with homozygous (MestgKO) and paternal allelic (MestpKO) inactivation of Mest were born at expected Mendelian frequencies, showed no behavioral or physical abnormalities, and did not perturb expression of the Mest locus-derived microRNA miR-335...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637651/pivotal-role-of-o-glcnac-modification-in-cold-induced-thermogenesis-by-brown-adipose-tissue-through-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#3
Natsuko Ohashi, Katsutaro Morino, Shogo Ida, Osamu Sekine, Mengistu Lemecha, Shinji Kume, Shi-Young Park, Cheol Soo Choi, Satoshi Ugi, Hiroshi Maegawa
Adipose tissues considerably influence metabolic homeostasis, and both white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) play significant roles in lipid and glucose metabolism. O-GlcNAc modification is characterized by the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to various proteins by O-GlcNAc transferase (Ogt), subsequently modulating various cellular processes. However, little is known about the role of O-GlcNAc modification in adipose tissues. Here, we report the critical role of O-GlcNAc modification in cold-induced thermogenesis...
June 21, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636668/microbiota-in-anorexia-nervosa-the-triangle-between-bacterial-species-metabolites-and-psychological-tests
#4
Francesca Borgo, Alessandra Riva, Alberto Benetti, Maria Cristina Casiraghi, Sara Bertelli, Stefania Garbossa, Simona Anselmetti, Silvio Scarone, Antonio E Pontiroli, Giulia Morace, Elisa Borghi
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disease with devastating physical consequences, with a pathophysiological mechanism still to be elucidated. Metagenomic studies on anorexia nervosa have revealed profound gut microbiome perturbations as a possible environmental factor involved in the disease. In this study we performed a comprehensive analysis integrating data on gut microbiota with clinical, anthropometric and psychological traits to gain new insight in the pathophysiology of AN. Fifteen AN women were compared with fifteen age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635127/cardiovascular-risk-score-is-linked-to-subcutaneous-adipocyte-size-and-lipid-metabolism
#5
Mikael Rydén, Peter Arner
OBJECTIVE: Although white adipose tissue mass and distribution correlates with cardiovascular disease, the fat cell-specific perturbations underlying this association are not known. We determined the relationship between adipocyte size and lipid metabolism with cardiovascular risk. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: Adipocyte size as well as spontaneous (basal) and hormone-stimulated effects on adipocyte lipid metabolism (lipolysis and lipogenesis) were investigated in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of 304 men and 775 women...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630699/nutritional-correlates-of-monetary-diet-cost-in-young-middle-aged-and-older-japanese-women
#6
Keiko Shiraki, Kentaro Murakami, Hitomi Okubo, M Barbara E Livingstone, Satomi Kobayashi, Hitomi Suga, Satoshi Sasaki
Studies in many Western countries have consistently shown that monetary diet cost is positively associated with diet quality, but this may not necessarily be the case in Japan. This cross-sectional study examined the nutritional correlates of monetary diet cost among 3963 young (all 18 years old), 3800 middle-aged (mean age 48 years) and 2211 older (mean age 74 years) Japanese women. Dietary intakes were assessed using a comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire for young and middle-aged women and a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire for older women...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630003/effects-of-mild-calorie-restriction-on-lipid-metabolism-and-inflammation-in-liver-and-adipose-tissue
#7
Chan Yoon Park, Soyoung Park, Min Soo Kim, Hye-Kyeong Kim, Sung Nim Han
Calorie restriction (CR) has been reported to improve lipid metabolism and to decrease inflammatory diseases. However, most existing CR models use 30-50% calorie reduction, which is hard to achieve in humans. We investigated the effects of mild CR on lipid metabolism and inflammatory responses. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed control diet (10% kcal fat, Control) or high fat diet (60% kcal fat, HFD) ad libitum or reduced amount of control diet to achieve 15% CR for 16 wks. Body weights, white adipose tissue weights, liver triacylglycerol levels, and serum fetuin-A levels were lower in CR than in the Control...
June 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626215/genetic-variation-in-the-obesity-gene-fto-is-not-associated-with-decreased-fat-oxidation-the-neo-study
#8
L L Blauw, R Noordam, S Trompet, J F P Berbée, F R Rosendaal, D van Heemst, K W van Dijk, D O Mook-Kanamori, R de Mutsert, P C N Rensen
BACKGROUND: The FTO gene harbours the strongest common genetic variant associated with obesity. Recently, rs1421085-T to -C substitution mapped in FTO was shown to induce a developmental shift of human adipocytes from an energy-combusting beige to an energy-storing white phenotype in vitro. As browning of adipocytes selectively enhances fat oxidation (FatOx), we hypothesized that rs1421085-C in FTO is associated with deceased FatOx compared with carbohydrate oxidation (CarbOx) and an increased respiratory quotient (RQ)...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626141/dietary-starfish-oil-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-and-hyperlipidemia-in-c57bl-6n-mice-fed-high-fat-diet
#9
Fumiaki Beppu, Haoqi Li, Kazuaki Yoshinaga, Toshiharu Nagai, Akihiko Yoshinda, Atsushi Kubo, Jota Kanda, Naohiro Gotoh
Starfish oil (SO) is characterized by functional lipids, including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (both in the form of triacylglycerol and in the form of phospholipid), and carotenoids, which may exert beneficial effects on metabolic disorders in obesity-associated diseases. In the present study, the effect of SO on dysregulation of lipid metabolism was examined using C57BL/6N mice treated with high-fat (HF) diet. Mice were fed HF, HF with 2% SO, or HF with 5% SO diet for 8 weeks. Weight gain, blood glucose, serum and hepatic lipid contents, and hepatic fatty acid composition were measured...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624283/effect-of-pasture-versus-indoor-feeding-systems-on-quality-characteristics-nutritional-composition-and-sensory-and-volatile-properties-of-full-fat-cheddar-cheese
#10
Tom F O'Callaghan, David T Mannion, Deirdre Hennessy, Stephen McAuliffe, Maurice G O'Sullivan, Natasha Leeuwendaal, Tom P Beresford, Pat Dillon, Kieran N Kilcawley, Jeremiah J Sheehan, R Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pasture-based versus indoor total mixed ration (TMR) feeding systems on the chemical composition, quality characteristics, and sensory properties of full fat Cheddar cheeses. Fifty-four multiparous and primiparous Friesian cows were divided into 3 groups (n = 18) for an entire lactation. Group 1 was housed indoors and fed a TMR diet of grass silage, maize silage, and concentrates; group 2 was maintained outdoors on perennial ryegrass only pasture (GRS); and group 3 was maintained outdoors on perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture (CLV)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622745/sex-differences-in-vascular-stiffness-and-relationship-to-the-risk-of-renal-functional-decline-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#11
Kenneth A Earle, Lauren Ng, Sarah White, Karima Zitouni
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that the higher risk of end-stage renal disease in women compared with men is associated with waist circumference. We investigated whether vascular stiffness which is linked to visceral fat accumulation is gender specific and associated with a loss in renal function. METHODS: We studied 166 patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk of progressive renal disease. A vascular stiffness index was derived from measurement of the peripheral arterial pulse waveform using infrared finger photoplethysmography...
July 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620356/quantifying-biochemical-alterations-in-brown-and-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissues-of-mice-using-fourier-transform-infrared-widefield-imaging
#12
Ebrahim Aboualizadeh, Owen T Carmichael, Ping He, Diana C Albarado, Christopher D Morrison, Carol J Hirschmugl
Stimulating increased thermogenic activity in adipose tissue is an important biological target for obesity treatment, and label-free imaging techniques with the potential to quantify stimulation-associated biochemical changes to the adipose tissue are highly sought after. In this study, we used spatially resolved Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging to quantify biochemical changes caused by cold exposure in the brown and subcutaneous white adipose tissues (BAT and s-WAT) of 6 week-old C57BL6 mice exposed to 30°C (N = 5), 24°C (N = 5), and 10°C (N = 5) conditions for 10 days...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616059/supramolecular-structure-of-dietary-fat-in-early-life-modulates-expression-of-markers-for-mitochondrial-content-and-capacity-in-adipose-tissue-of-adult-mice
#13
Andrea Kodde, Eline M van der Beek, Esther Phielix, Eefje Engels, Lidewij Schipper, Annemarie Oosting
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that early life nutrition can modulate the development of white adipose tissue and thereby affect the risk on obesity and metabolic disease later in life. For instance, postnatal feeding with a concept infant milk formula with large, phospholipid coated lipid droplets (Concept, Nuturis®), resulted in reduced adiposity in adult mice. The present study investigated whether differences in cell energy metabolism, using markers of mitochondrial content and capacity, may contribute to the observed effects...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614774/new-insight-into-the-direct-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-a-myokine-irisin-against-proinflammatory-activation-of-adipocytes-implication-for-exercise-in-obesity
#14
A I Mazur-Bialy, J Bilski, E Pochec, T Brzozowski
A biological activity of myokine irisin, has been intensively investigated in the context of a browning process occurring in white adipose tissue, but its role as a modulator of immune response has been little studied. The aim of our study was to determine the impact of irisin (0 - 100 nM) on pro-inflammatory activation of adipocyte 3T3 L1 cell line. Irisin reduced in a concentration-dependent manner the expression and activity of major proinflammatory cytokines, e.g. tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) expression and their secretion into cell medium...
April 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612567/-consumptions-of-meat-dietary-fat-and-fatty-acids-and-prevalence-of-overweight-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents-a-cross-sectional-survey-in-chengdu
#15
Yu-Xin Bao, Ruo-Nan Duan, Ming-Zhe Yang, Yan-Rong Chen, Guo Tian, Jiao Luo, Guo Cheng
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents aged 7-15 years in Longquanyi District of Chengdu and its association with consumptions of meat, dietary fat and fatty-acids. METHODS: A total of 1 811 children and adolescents aged 7-15 years in Longquanyi District were selected using stratified cluster sampling strategy. Their body mass, height and waist circumference were measured. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was estimated based on body mass index (BMI), body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)...
January 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611394/identification-of-the-ectoenzyme-cd38-as-a-marker-of-committed-preadipocytes
#16
A Carrière, Y Jeanson, J-A Côté, C Dromard, A Galinier, S Menzel, C Barreau, S Dupuis-Coronas, E Arnaud, A Girousse, V Cuminetti, J Paupert, B Cousin, C Sengenes, F Koch-Nolte, A Tchernof, L Casteilla
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Characterization of the adipocyte cellular lineage is required for a better understanding of white adipose tissue homeostasis and expansion. While several studies have focused on the phenotype of the most immature adipocyte progenitors, very few tools exist to identify committed cells. In haematopoiesis, the CD38 ectoenzyme is largely used to delineate various stages of stem cell lineage commitment. We hypothesize that this marker could be used to identify committed preadipocytes...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610484/a-nutritional-intervention-programme-at-a-worksite-canteen-to-promote-a-healthful-inspired-by-the-traditional-mediterranean-diet
#17
Marilena Vitale, Marta A Bianchi, Valeria Rapetti, Josè M Pepe, Angela Giacco, Rosalba Giacco, Gabriele Riccardi
This study investigates the effectiveness and long-term impact on the composition of the habitual diet of a nutritional intervention programme - undertaken through panels, totems, and table mats or handout leaflets - based on the promotion at a worksite canteen of healthy food-choices resembling the traditional Mediterranean diet. A significantly higher choice of dishes based on wholegrain cereals, legumes, white meat and fish, and a lower choice of dishes based on refined cereals, red and processed meat, eggs and cheese was observed at the end of the intervention and after six months and three years of follow-ups...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605560/effects-of-dietary-energy-and-lysine-levels-on-growth-performance-and-carcass-yields-of-pekin-ducks-from-hatch-to-21-days-of-age
#18
Z G Wen, T J Rasolofomanana, J Tang, Y Jiang, M Xie, P L Yang, S S Hou
A 2 × 6 factorial experiment, using 2 dietary apparent metabolizable energy (AME) levels (2,750 and 3,050 Kcal/kg) and 6 supplemental lysine (Lys) levels (0, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, and 0.50%), was conducted to study the effects of dietary energy and lysine levels on growth performance and carcass yields of Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 d of age. A total of 576 one-day-old male White Pekin ducks was randomly allotted to 12 dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 21 d of age, body weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were measured, and then 2 ducks selected randomly from each pen were slaughtered to evaluate the yields of abdominal fat, breast meat, and leg meat...
June 9, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603877/effects-of-moringa%C3%A2-oleifera-leaves-as-a-substitute-for-alfalfa-meal-on-nutrient-digestibility-growth-performance-carcass-trait-meat-quality-antioxidant-capacity-and-biochemical-parameters-of-rabbits
#19
B Sun, Y Zhang, M Ding, Q Xi, G Liu, Y Li, D Liu, X Chen
This contribution reports the effects of Moringa oleifera leaves (MOLs) meal on the growth performances, nutrient digestibility, carcass trait, meat quality, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters of growing New Zealand white rabbits. The MOL was substituted for alfalfa meal at levels of 0, 10%, 20% and 30% to obtain respective diets MOL0, MOL10, MOL20 and MOL30. Each treatment was replicated five times with 10 rabbits per replicate. Results showed the average daily weight gain (ADWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of rabbits fed MOL20 diet were significantly better (p < 0...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601097/college-students-health-behavior-clusters-differences-by-sex
#20
Sarah Colby, Wenjun Zhou, Morgan F Sowers, Karla Shelnutt, Melissa D Olfert, Jesse Morrell, Mallory Koenings, Tandalayo Kidd, Tanya M Horacek, Geoffrey W Greene, Onikia Brown, Adrienne A White, Sharon L Hoerr, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Kendra K Kattelmann
OBJECTIVE: The study purpose was to identify clusters of weight-related behaviors by sex in a college student populations. METHODS: We conducted secondary data analysis from online surveys and physical assessments collected in Project Young Adults Eating and Active for Health (YEAH) with a convenience sample of students on 13 college campuses in the United States. We performed 2-step cluster analysis by sex to identify subgroups with homogeneous characteristics and behaviors...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
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