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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918492/decreased-plasma-neuregulin-4-concentration-is-associated-with-increased-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-in-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Pi-Jun Yan, Yong Xu, Qin Wan, Jian Feng, Hua Li, Chen-Lin Gao, Jun Yang, Hai-Hua Zhong, Zhi-Hong Zhang
AIMS: Inflammation has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This principal objective of this study was to investigate if the secretion of neuregulin 4 (Nrg4), a soluble protein associated with metabolic syndrome and subclinical cardiovascular disease, is correlated with the inflammation marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (nT2DM). METHODS: A study group of 311 nT2DM patients was divided into three subgroups based on hs-CRP tertiles...
September 16, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915325/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-in-health-and-disease
#2
Liangyou Rui
Brown and beige adipocytes arise from distinct developmental origins. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) develops embryonically from precursors that also give to skeletal muscle. Beige fat develops postnatally and is highly inducible. Beige fat recruitment is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including de novo beige adipogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiaiton. Beige precursors reside around vasculatures, and proliferate and differentiate into beige adipocytes. PDGFRα+Ebf2+ precursors are restricted to beige lineage cells, while another PDGFRα+ subset gives rise to beige adipocytes, white adipocytes, or fibrogenic cells...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915232/effects-of-early-nutrition-and-growth-on-brain-volumes-white-matter-microstructure-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-in-preterm-newborns
#3
Caterina Coviello, Kristin Keunen, Karina J Kersbergen, Floris Groenendaal, Alexander Leemans, Barbara Peels, Ivana Isgum, Max A Viergever, Linda S de Vries, Giuseppe Buonocore, Virgilio P Carnielli, Manon J N L Benders
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effect of nutrition and growth during the first 4 weeks after birth on cerebral volumes and white matter maturation at term equivalent age(TEA) and on neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years corrected age(CA), in preterm infants. METHODS: 131 infants born at a gestational age(GA)<31weeks with MRI at TEA were studied. Cortical gray matter volumes(CGM), basal ganglia and thalami(BGT) volumes, cerebellar volumes and total brain volume(TBV) were computed...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913858/relationships-between-mineral-concentrations-and-physicochemical-characteristics-in-the-longissimus-thoracis-muscle-of-japanese-black-cattle
#4
Takashi Kitagawa, Masayuki Funaba, Tohru Matsui
The relationship between mineral concentrations, and the relationship of mineral concentrations with physicochemical characteristics in muscles were investigated using the Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle of 44 Japanese Black steers. We determined moisture content, fat content, meat color, fatty acid composition and mineral concentrations in the LT muscle. Magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and zinc (Zn) concentrations had negative correlations with fat content, but sodium (Na), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and molybdenum (Mo) concentrations were not correlated with fat content...
September 15, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911249/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-the-molecular-mechanism-of-hepatic-fat-metabolism-disorder-caused-by-muscovy-duck-reovirus-infection
#5
Quanxi Wang, Mengxi Liu, Lihui Xu, Yijian Wu, Yifan Huang
The aim of this work was to clarify the molecular mechanism underlying the fatty degeneration of livers infected with Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV), which produces obvious white necrotic foci in the liver. Transcriptome data for MDRV-infected Muscovy duck livers and control livers were sequenced, assembled, and annotated with Illumina® HiSeq 2000. The differentially expressed genes were screened and their functions analysed. We also determined and confirmed the molecular mechanism of the hepatic fat metabolism disorder caused by MDRV infection...
September 15, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910820/prospective-investigation-of-risk-factors-for-prostate-cancer-in-the-uk-biobank-cohort-study
#6
Aurora Perez-Cornago, Timothy J Key, Naomi E Allen, Georgina K Fensom, Kathryn E Bradbury, Richard M Martin, Ruth C Travis
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in British men but its aetiology is not well understood. We aimed to identify risk factors for prostate cancer in British males. METHODS: We studied 219 335 men from the UK Biobank study who were free from cancer at baseline. Exposure data were collected at recruitment. Prostate cancer risk by the different exposures was estimated using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: In all, 4575 incident cases of prostate cancer occurred during 5...
September 14, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903959/effect-of-prior-meal-macronutrient-composition-on-postprandial-glycemic-responses-and-glycemic-index-and-glycemic-load-value-determinations
#7
Huicui Meng, Nirupa R Matthan, Lynne M Ausman, Alice H Lichtenstein
Background: The potential impact of prior meal composition on the postprandial glycemic response and glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations remains unclear.Objective: We determined the effect of meals that varied in macronutrient composition on the glycemic response and determination of GI and GL values of a subsequent standard test food.Design: Twenty healthy participants underwent 6 test sessions within 12 wk. The subjects received each of 3 isocaloric breakfast meals (i.e., high carbohydrate, high fat, or high protein) on separate days in a random order, which was followed by a standard set of challenges (i...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900540/treatment-of-diabetic-mice-with-the-sglt2-inhibitor-ta-1887-antagonizes-diabetic-cachexia-and-decreases-mortality
#8
Taichi Sugizaki, Shunshun Zhu, Ge Guo, Akiko Matsumoto, Jiabin Zhao, Motoyoshi Endo, Haruki Horiguchi, Jun Morinaga, Zhe Tian, Tsuyoshi Kadomatsu, Keishi Miyata, Hiroshi Itoh, Yuichi Oike
A favorable effect of an inhibitor of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2i) on mortality of diabetic patients was recently reported, although mechanisms underlying that effect remained unclear. Here, we examine SGLT2i effects on survival of diabetic mice and assess factors underlying these outcomes. To examine SGLT2i treatment effects in a model of severe diabetes, we fed genetically diabetic db/db mice a high-fat diet and then assessed outcomes including diabetic complications between SGLT2i TA-1887-treated and control mice...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898867/cerebral-fat-embolism-clinical-presentation-diagnostic-steps-and-long-term-follow-up
#9
Juliane Dunkel, Christian Roth, Frank Erbguth, Wenke Dietrich, Monika Hügens-Penzel, Andreas Ferbert
OBJECTIVE: Symptomatic cerebral fat embolism (CFE) is a rare complication that occurs after a traumatic injury or orthopaedic surgery and is diagnostically challenging. No data is currently available concerning long-term follow-up. METHODS: We identified from medical records 9 patients with CFE and revised the clinical signs and the diagnostic process. We then analysed long-term follow-up data, targeting clinical course after discharge, neurological impairment, and current quality of life, using the Barthel index and the modified Rankin Scale...
September 12, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895791/general-lack-of-correlations-between-age-and-signs-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-subjects-with-non-diabetic-fasting-glucose-values
#10
Harry G Preuss, Nate Mrvichin, Dallas Clouatre, Debasis Bagchi, Jeffrey M Preuss, Nicholas V Perricone, Anand Swaroop, Gilbert R Kaats
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance and advancing age are well-recognized risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Recent reports indicate that fasting glucose levels in non-diabetic patients correlate appropriately with the development of certain elements in metabolic syndrome, which suggest a cause-effect relationship with insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: The present investigation assessed whether a significant association exists between chronological age and various elements of metabolic syndrome in this same group of subjects possessing non-diabetic fasting glucose levels...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895785/preclinical-pharmacokinetic-characterization-of-an-adipose-tissue-targeting-monoclonal-antibody-in-obese-and-non-obese-animals
#11
Sharmila Rajan, Danielle Mandikian, Amos Baruch, Thomas R Gelzleichter, Dale Stevens, Junichiro Sonoda, Kyra Cowan, C Andrew Boswell, Eric Stefanich
Target receptor levels can influence pharmacokinetics (PK) or pharmacodynamics (PD) of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and can affect drug development of this class of molecules. We generated an effector-less humanized bispecific antibody that selectively activates fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)1 and βKlotho receptor, a FGF21 receptor complex highly expressed in both white and brown adipocytes. The molecule shows cross-species binding with comparable equilibrium binding affinity (Kd) for human, cynomolgus monkey, and mouse FGFR1/βKlotho...
September 12, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894290/association-of-proton-density-fat-fraction-in-adipose-tissue-with-imaging-based-and-anthropometric-obesity-markers-in-adults
#12
D Franz, D Weidlich, F Freitag, C Holzapfel, T Drabsch, T Baum, H Eggers, A Witte, E J Rummeny, H Hauner, D C Karampinos
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of the proton density fat fraction (PDFF), measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), of supraclavicular and gluteal adipose tissue with subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (SAT and VAT) volumes, liver fat fraction and anthropometric obesity markers. The supraclavicular fossa was selected as a typical location where brown adipocytes may be present in humans and the gluteal region was selected as a typical location enclosing primarily white adipocytes...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894286/intermittent-hypoxia-induced-insulin-resistance-is-associated-with-alterations-in-white-fat-distribution
#13
Laureline Poulain, Hervé Mathieu, Amandine Thomas, Anne-Laure Borel, Chantal Remy, Patrick Levy, Claire Arnaud, Maurice Dematteis
Sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive upper airway collapses during night leading to intermittent hypoxia (IH). The latter is responsible for metabolic disturbances that rely, at least in part, on abdominal white fat inflammation. Besides qualitative alterations, we hypothesized that IH could also modify body fat distribution, a key factor for metabolic complications. C57BL6 mice exposed to IH (21-5% FiO2, 60 s cycle, 8 h/day) or air for 6 weeks were investigated for topographic fat alterations (whole-body MRI)...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888593/digestibility-and-clover-proportion-determine-milk-production-when-silages-of-different-grass-and-clover-species-are-fed-to-dairy-cows
#14
M Johansen, K Søegaard, P Lund, M R Weisbjerg
This study examined how silages of different grass and clover species affect dry matter (DM) intake, milk production, and eating behavior in dairy cows. The primary growth of perennial ryegrass (early and late harvested), festulolium, tall fescue, red clover, and white clover swards were cut, wilted, and ensiled without additives. Thirty-six Danish Holstein cows were fed ad libitum with total mixed rations containing 70% forage on DM basis in an incomplete Latin square design. The forage source was either 1 of the 6 pure silages or late perennial ryegrass silage mixed (50:50 on DM basis) with either red clover or white clover silage...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885565/tracking-dietary-patterns-over-20-years-from-childhood-through-adolescence-into-young-adulthood-the-saskatchewan-pediatric-bone-mineral-accrual-study
#15
Elham Z Movassagh, Adam D G Baxter-Jones, Saija Kontulainen, Susan J Whiting, Hassanali Vatanparast
Dietary patterns established during adolescence might play a role in adulthood disease. We examined the stability of dietary patterns (DPs) from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood (from age 8 to 34 years). Data from 130 participants (53 females) of Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (aged 8-15 years, at baseline) were included. Multiple 24-h recalls were collected annually from 1991 to 1997, 2002 to 2005, and 2010 and 2011. Using principal component analysis, "Vegetarian-style", "Western-like", "High-fat, high-protein", "Mixed", and "Snack" DPs were derived at baseline...
September 8, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884411/role-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-energy-metabolism
#16
REVIEW
William Gustavo Lima, Gleuber Henrique Marques-Oliveira, Thaís Marques da Silva, Valéria Ernestânia Chaves
PURPOSE: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide produced by alternative tissue-specific splicing of the primary transcript of the CALC genes. CGRP is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system, as well as in several organs and tissues. The presence of CGRP in the liver and brown and white adipose tissue suggests an effect of this neuropeptide on regulation of energy homeostasis. METHODS: In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the effect of CGRP on the control of energy metabolism, primarily focusing on food intake, thermoregulation and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, liver and muscle...
September 7, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883211/cide-family-mediated-unique-lipid-droplet-morphology-in-white-adipose-tissue-and-brown-adipose-tissue-determines-the-adipocyte-energy-metabolism
#17
Yuki Nishimoto, Yoshikazu Tamori
White adipose tissue (WAT) stores energy as triacylglycerol in preparation for fasting state. In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) consumes energy and produces heat in a cold environment. One of the major differences between these two adipose tissues is the morphology of the intracellular lipid droplet (LD), which is large and unilocular in WAT and small and multilocular in BAT. Although the fat-specific protein 27 alpha (FSP27α), belonging to the cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor A (DFFA)-like effector (Cide) family, was known to be indispensable for large unilocular LD formation in WAT, the mechanism that regulated small multilocular LD formation in BAT remained unknown...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882574/kupffer-cells-activation-promoted-binge-drinking-induced-fatty-liver-by-activating-lipolysis-in-white-adipose-tissues
#18
Yu-Ying Zhao, Rui Yang, Mo Xiao, Min-Jie Guan, Ning Zhao, Tao Zeng
Kupffer cells (KCs) have been suggested to play critical roles in chronic ethanol induced early liver injury, but the role of KCs in binge drinking-induced hepatic steatosis remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the roles of KCs inhibitor (GdCl3) and TNF-α antagonist (etanercept) on binge drinking-induced liver steatosis and to explore the underlying mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to three doses of ethanol (6g/kg body weight) to mimic binge drinking-induced fatty liver. The results showed that both GdCl3 and etanercept partially but significantly alleviated binge drinking-induced increase of hepatic triglyceride (TG) level, and reduced fat droplets accumulation in mice liver...
September 4, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878735/microrna-regulation-of-brown-adipogenesis-and-thermogenic-energy-expenditure
#19
REVIEW
Farnaz Shamsi, Hongbin Zhang, Yu-Hua Tseng
Obesity, diabetes, and associated metabolic diseases have become global epidemics. Obesity results from excess accumulation of white fat, while brown and its related beige fat function to dissipate energy as heat, thus counteracting obesity and its related metabolic disorders. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms for both white and brown adipogenesis provides new insights for prevention and treatment of these metabolic diseases. In addition to traditional gene transcription and translation, microRNA (miRNA) represents a new layer of regulatory mechanism in many biological processes and has attracted a great deal of research interests in exploring their roles in physiological and pathophysiological conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878263/a-progesterone-brown-fat-axis-is-involved-in-regulating-fetal-growth
#20
Saraid McIlvride, Aleena Mushtaq, Georgia Papacleovoulou, Chloe Hurling, Jennifer Steel, Eugène Jansen, Shadi Abu-Hayyeh, Catherine Williamson
Pregnancy is associated with profound maternal metabolic changes, necessary for the growth and development of the fetus, mediated by reproductive signals acting on metabolic organs. However, the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in regulating gestational metabolism is unknown. We show that BAT phenotype is lost in murine pregnancy, while there is a gain of white adipose tissue (WAT)-like features. This is characterised by reduced thermogenic capacity and mitochondrial content, accompanied by increased levels of markers of WAT and lipid accumulation...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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