keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Opioid pharmacology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049114/alternatives-to-opioids-in-the-pharmacologic-management-of-chronic-pain-syndromes-a-narrative-review-of-randomized-controlled-and-blinded-clinical-trials
#1
Andrea L Nicol, Robert W Hurley, Honorio T Benzon
Chronic pain exerts a tremendous burden on individuals and societies. If one views chronic pain as a single disease entity, then it is the most common and costly medical condition. At present, medical professionals who treat patients in chronic pain are recommended to provide comprehensive and multidisciplinary treatments, which may include pharmacotherapy. Many providers use nonopioid medications to treat chronic pain; however, for some patients, opioid analgesics are the exclusive treatment of chronic pain...
November 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045256/a-quality-improvement-initiative-to-increase-scoring-consistency-and-accuracy-of-the-finnegan-tool-challenges-in-obtaining-reliable-assessments-of-drug-withdrawal-in-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome
#2
Wendy Timpson, Cheryl Killoran, Louise Maranda, Alan Picarillo, Elisabeth Bloch-Salisbury
BACKGROUND: Current practice for diagnosing neonatal abstinence syndrome and guiding pharmacological management of neonatal drug withdrawal is dependent on nursing assessments and repeated evaluation of clinical signs. PURPOSE: This single-center quality improvement initiative was designed to improve accuracy and consistency of Finnegan scores among neonatal nurses. METHODS: One-hundred seventy neonatal nurses participated in a single-session withdrawal-assessment program that incorporated education, scoring guidelines, and a restructured Finnegan scale...
October 17, 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038035/biochemical-and-pharmacological-characterization-of-three-opioid-nociceptin-hybrid-peptide-ligands-reveals-substantially-differing-modes-of-their-actions
#3
Anna I Erdei, Adina Borbély, Anna Magyar, Nóra Taricska, András Perczel, Ottó Zsíros, Győző Garab, Edina Szűcs, Ferenc Ötvös, Ferenc Zádor, Mihály Balogh, Mahmoud Al-Khrasani, Sándor Benyhe
In an attempt to design opioid-nociceptin hybrid peptides, three novel bivalent ligands, H-YGGFGGGRYYRIK-NH2, H-YGGFRYYRIK-NH2 and Ac-RYYRIKGGGYGGFL-OH were synthesized and studied by biochemical, pharmacological, biophysical and molecular modelling tools. These chimeric molecules consist of YGGF sequence, a crucial motif in the N-terminus of natural opioid peptides, and Ac-RYYRIK-NH2, which was isolated from a combinatorial peptide library as an antagonist or partial agonist that inhibits the biological activity of the endogenously occurring heptadecapeptide nociceptin...
October 13, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037662/effects-of-pharmacological-manipulation-of-the-kappa-opioid-receptors-on-the-aversive-effects-of-nicotine
#4
Melissa Ward, Haval Norman, Manoranjan D'Souza
Nicotine, an addictive component of tobacco smoke, produces both rewarding and aversive effects. Increasing the aversive effects of nicotine may help in promoting smoking cessation. However, neural targets mediating the aversive effects of nicotine have not been fully identified. In this study, we evaluated the role of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in the aversive effects of nicotine using the nicotine-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) model in Wistar rats. The KORs were activated using the selective KOR agonist (±)U-50,488H (0, 0...
October 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035918/dopaminergic-mechanisms-in-periaqueductal-gray-mediated-antinociception
#5
Glaucia Tobaldini, Rafael A Reis, Natalia F Sardi, Mayla K Lazzarim, Dabna H Tomim, Marcelo M S Lima, Luana Fischer
As important as perceiving pain is the ability to modulate this perception in some contextual salient situations. The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is perhaps the most important site of endogenous pain modulation; however, little is known about dopaminergic mechanisms underlying PAG-mediated antinociception. In this study, we used a pharmacological approach to evaluate this subject. We found that µ-opioid receptor-induced antinociception (DAMGO, 0.3 μg) from PAG was blocked by the coadministration of either D1-like or D2-like dopaminergic antagonists (SCH23390, 2, 4, and 6 μg or raclopride, 2 and 4 μg, respectively) both in the tail-flick and in the mechanical paw-withdrawal test...
October 13, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033544/eluxadoline-in-the-treatment-of-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Ayşe Elif Özdener, Anastasia Rivkin
Eluxadoline is a novel drug approved for the management of diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). It has unique pharmacology and works on three different opioid receptors. Several Phase II and III clinical trials have demonstrated eluxadoline's efficacy in reducing symptoms related to IBS-D. Clinical trial results and postmarketing reports show a risk of pancreatitis in patients without a gallbladder or those abusing alcohol. This review article will include information on clinical trial results related to IBS-D management as well as eluxadoline's limitations...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033356/intraoperative-analgesia-guided-by-the-analgesia-nociception-index-in-bariatric-surgery-an-unmatched-case-control-study
#7
Lisa Le Gall, Anaëlle David, Pauline Carles, Sébastien Leuillet, Brigitte Chastel, Catherine Fleureau, Antoine Dewitte, Alexandre Ouattara
INTRODUCTION: Analgesia Nociception Index (ANI) has been proposed for the evaluation of the nociception-antinociception balance in the perioperative period. In obese patient, where the management of analgesia may be rendered difficult by pharmacological changes, we hypothesized that the monitoring of analgesia with ANI would reduce intraoperative opioid consumption during bariatric surgery. METHODS: This monocentric, observational, unmatched case-control study aimed to compare perioperative data from obese subjects (body mass index ≥ 35kg...
October 12, 2017: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031796/peptide-welding-technology-a-simple-strategy-for-generating-innovative-ligands-for-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#8
REVIEW
Girolamo Calo, Anna Rizzi, Chiara Ruzza, Federica Ferrari, Salvatore Pacifico, Elaine C Gavioli, Severo Salvadori, Remo Guerrini
Based on their high selectivity of action and low toxicity, naturally occurring peptides have great potential in terms of drug development. However, the pharmacokinetic properties of peptides, in particular their half life, are poor. Among different strategies developed for reducing susceptibility to peptidases, and thus increasing the duration of action of peptides, the generation of branched peptides has been described. However, the synthesis and purification of branched peptides is extremely complicated thus limiting their druggability...
October 12, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030938/opioid-use-disorder-and-misuse-a-review-of-the-epidemiology-and-medical-implications-for-pediatric-anesthesiologists
#9
REVIEW
Emily Knipper, Caleb J Banta-Green, Nathalia Jimenez
This educational review presents an overview of opioid use disorder, misuse and overdose among adolescents, and the clinical implications for anesthesiologists. It provides definitions, discusses the epidemiology worldwide, (focusing on North America), and emphasizes the clinical implications of patients with chronic opioid exposure, including perioperative pain management, as well as opioid overdose and prolonged use of opioids after acute exposure. In the USA, opioid use disorder and negative outcomes related to opioids rose dramatically from 1999-2010; concomitantly heroin use and fatal overdoses have increased as heroin use is associated with the disordered use of licit opioids...
November 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029586/use-and-misuse-of-opioids-in-chronic-pain
#10
Nora Volkow, Helene Benveniste, A Thomas McLellan
The prescribing of opioid analgesics for pain management-particularly for management of chronic noncancer pain (CNCP)-has increased more than fourfold in the United States since the mid-1990s. Yet there is mounting evidence that opioids have only limited effectiveness in the management of CNCP, and the increased availability of prescribed opioids has contributed to upsurges in opioid-related addiction cases and overdose deaths. These concerns have led to critical revisiting and modification of prior pain management practices (e...
October 13, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025923/plasticity-of-signaling-by-spinal-estrogen-receptor-alpha-kappa-opioid-receptor-and-mglurs-over-the-rat-reproductive-cycle-regulates-spinal-endomorphin-2-antinociception-relevance-of-endogenous-biased-agonism
#11
Nai-Jiang Liu, Vijaya Murugaiyan, Emiliya M Storman, Stephen A Schnell, Arjun Kumar, Martin W Wessendorf, Alan R Gintzler
We previously showed that intrathecal application of endomorphin 2 [EM2; the highly specific endogenous mu-opioid receptor (MOR) ligand] induces antinociception that varies with stage of the rat estrous cycle -- minimal during diestrus and prominent during proestrus. Earlier studies, however, did not identify proestrus-activated signaling strategies that enable spinal EM2 antinociception. We now report that in female rats, increased spinal dynorphin release and kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) signaling, as well as the emergence of glutamate-activated mGluR1 signaling, are critical to the transition from an EM2 non-responsive (during diestrus) to an analgesically responsive state (during proestrus)...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024681/potentiation-of-morphine-induced-antinociception-and-locomotion-by-citalopram-is-accompanied-by-anxiolytic-like-effects
#12
María J Varela, Arlet M Acanda de la Rocha, Alvaro Díaz, Juan F Lopez-Gimenez
Morphine and related opioids are the mainstay of analgesic treatment, especially in patients suffering chronic pain. Besides their antinociceptive effects they may also exhibit anxiolytic-like properties that could contribute to pain relief. The pharmacological manipulation of the serotonergic system may not only modulate pain transmission and processing but also other behavioral effects of opioids. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of the concurrent treatment with citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on the antinociceptive, locomotor and anxiety-related effects induced by acute and subchronic administration of morphine in mice...
October 9, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020799/is-there-a-role-for-5-ht3-receptor-antagonists-in-the-treatment-of-opioid-induced-pruritus
#13
Saima Rashid, Disha D Trivedi, Mudher Al-Shathir, Marie Moulton, Steven J Baumrucker
Pruritus is an unpleasant irritation symptom that can be related to various systemic and dermatological conditions. Although underreported, pruritus is a common adverse event noted after use of opioid pain medications. This article reviews the current understanding of the mechanism of opioid-induced pruritus (OIP) and various pharmacological therapies. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists are potentially effective for treating OIP and may be a valuable treatment option if further controlled studies are encouraging...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991118/truncated-%C3%AE-opioid-receptors-with-6-transmembrane-domains-are-essential-for-opioid-analgesia
#14
Zhigang Lu, Jin Xu, Mingming Xu, Grace C Rossi, Susruta Majumdar, Gavril W Pasternak, Ying-Xian Pan
BACKGROUND: Most clinical opioids act through μ-opioid receptors. They effectively relieve pain but are limited by side effects, such as constipation, respiratory depression, dependence, and addiction. Many efforts have been made toward developing potent analgesics that lack side effects. Three-iodobenzoyl-6β-naltrexamide (IBNtxA) is a novel class of opioid active against thermal, inflammatory, and neuropathic pain, without respiratory depression, physical dependence, and reward behavior...
October 4, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989282/spotlight-on-eluxadoline-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhea
#15
REVIEW
Konstantinos C Fragkos
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) has limited options for treatment currently, including mainly anti-motility medications, antispasmodics, and antidepressants. This review discusses the properties of a new drug, eluxadoline, a gut-targeting mu- and kappa-opioid receptor agonist and a delta-opioid receptor antagonist, and its efficacy and safety in patients with IBS-D. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify studies that had investigated eluxadoline as a treatment in IBS-D...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985323/identification-of-mt-45-metabolites-in-silico-prediction-in-vitro-incubation-with-rat-hepatocytes-and-in-vivo-confirmation
#16
Camilla Montesano, Gabriele Vannutelli, Federico Fanti, Flaminia Vincenti, Adolfo Gregori, Anna Rita Togna, Isabella Canazza, Matteo Marti, Manuel Sergi
MT-45 is a synthetic opioid with a pharmacological activity comparable to morphine and it has been involved in intoxications and fatalities reported in Europe and in USA. It was recently subject to control measures, but to date the metabolic pathways of the substance are still unknown. Using rat hepatocytes and LC-HRMS, 14 novel Phase I and II MT-45 metabolites were identified, products of monohydroxylation, dihydroxylation and N-dealkylation; glucuronide conjugation of mono- and dihydroxylated metabolites also occurred...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980364/neuropathic-pain-medication-use-does-not-alter-outcomes-of-spinal-cord-stimulation-for-lower-extremity-pain
#17
Dermot P Maher, Yuri Chaves Martins, Tina Doshi, Mark Bicket, Kui Zhang, George Hanna, Shihab Ahmed
INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for the treatment of lower extremity pain is believed to the result of increased activity in the descending inhibitory and decreased activity in the ascending excitatory tracts. Evidence suggests that the analgesia afforded by SCS may be altered using certain neuropathic pain medications that also modulate neurotransmitters in these sensory tracts. We hypothesize that neuropathic pain medications may alter the response to SCS therapy. METHODS: One hundred and fifteen subjects undergoing SCS therapy for lower extremity pain were retrospectively examined...
October 4, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977743/uptake-and-metabolism-of-human-pharmaceuticals-by-fish-a-case-study-with-the-opioid-analgesic-tramadol
#18
Rumi Tanoue, Luigi Margiotta-Casaluci, Belinda Huerta, Tamsin J Runnalls, Kei Nomiyama, Tatsuya Kunisue, Shinsuke Tanabe, John P Sumpter
Recent species-extrapolation approaches to predict the potential effects of pharmaceuticals present in the environment on wild fish are based on the assumption that pharmacokinetics and metabolism in humans and fish are comparable. To test this hypothesis, we exposed fathead minnows to the opiate pro-drug tramadol and examined uptake from the water into the blood and brain, and metabolism of the drug into its main metabolites. We found that plasma concentrations could be predicted reasonably accurately based on the lipophilicity of the drug, once the pH of the water was taken into account...
October 4, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977432/quantification-of-loperamide-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#19
Rachel Beck, Daniel S Atherton, Susan Kloda, Daniel W Dye, C Andrew Robinson
Due to reported pharmacological activity similar to classical opioids at supratherapeutic concentrations, abuse of the anti-diarrheal medication loperamide (Imodium AD™) has become a target in the opioid epidemic. While this phenomenon is not new, published quantitative analytical methods use liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Described here is an 11 min method for quantification of loperamide in postmortem whole blood by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Validation studies performed followed SWGTOX guidelines and included: accuracy, specificity, limit of detection (LOD), regression model analysis, stability, and matrix recovery enhancement and/or suppression...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971215/-differential-indications-of-opioids-in-pain-therapy
#20
REVIEW
J Heyn, S C Azad
Due to their strong analgesic potency opioids are highly effective in the therapy of acute and particularly cancer-induced chronic pain; however, the individual opioids differ considerably with respect to their pharmacokinetic and physicochemical properties and may therefore not be equally applicable for every patient. Caution should be taken especially in patients with impaired organ function. Furthermore, the metabolism of opioids leads to active or inactive metabolites. This process can be substantially influenced by genetic polymorphisms or drug interactions...
October 2, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
keyword
keyword
60011
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"