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Opioid pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900781/the-present-and-future-of-opioid-analgesics-in-small-animal-practice
#1
REVIEW
B T Simon, P V Steagall
Opioids are the cornerstone for the treatment of acute pain in small animal patients. This is primarily because of their remarkable safety profile, high efficacy, and benefit of reversibility. There have been some significant advances in our knowledge on opioid pharmacology and clinical usage in companion animal medicine. This review discusses the progression of opioid use in small animal practice providing current misconceptions and controversies in light of routes of administration. Potential targets for research and drug development and novel therapies are discussed in addition to the concepts of glial cell modulators, individual variability, and opioid tolerance and hyperalgesia...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899885/interacting-cannabinoid-and-opioid-receptors-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-control-adolescent-social-play
#2
Antonia Manduca, Olivier Lassalle, Marja Sepers, Patrizia Campolongo, Vincenzo Cuomo, Giovanni Marsicano, Brigitte Kieffer, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Viviana Trezza, Olivier J J Manzoni
Social play behavior is a highly rewarding, developmentally important form of social interaction in young mammals. However, its neurobiological underpinnings remain incompletely understood. Previous work has suggested that opioid and endocannabinoid neurotransmission interact in the modulation of social play. Therefore, we combined behavioral, pharmacological, electrophysiological, and genetic approaches to elucidate the role of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in social play, and how cannabinoid and opioid neurotransmission interact to control social behavior in adolescent rodents...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898139/farmakologisk-sm%C3%A3-rtlindring-har-central-roll-i-palliativ-v%C3%A3-rd-sm%C3%A3-rtfrihet-i-vila-och-acceptabel-natts%C3%A3-mn-%C3%A3-r-m%C3%A3-let-f%C3%A3-r-behandlingen-%C3%A2-som-b%C3%A3-r-individualiseras
#3
Staffan Lundström
Mechanism-based pain treatment in palliative care Pain is common among patients in palliative care and one of the most feared symptoms. Knowledge about effective pain management is therefore essential for clinicians. Successful pain management is mainly based on the medical history and clinical examination, resulting in an understanding of the present pain mechanism(s). The pain mechanism then forms the basis for the pharmacological treatment strategy which should be individualized and take into account factors such as kidney function, expected side effects, route of administration and concomitant medication...
November 22, 2016: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898136/pharmacological-approaches-for-the-management-of-persistent-pain-in-older-adults-what-nurses-need-to-know
#4
Fabio Guerriero, Ruth Bolier, Janet H Van Cleave, M Cary Reid
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.4 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898135/complementary-and-integrative-therapies-for-persistent-pain-management-in-older-adults-a-review
#5
Patricia Bruckenthal, Marie Ann Marino, Lisa Snelling
Management of persistent pain in older adults is challenging given the prevalence of multiple comorbid painful conditions, polypharmacy, age-related changes restricting pharmacological options, and socioeconomic factors. The influences of these factors along with current concern for the use of opioid analgesics highlight the importance of incorporating complementary and integrative medicine approaches. Evidence suggests efficacy and satisfaction with integrating complementary pain management strategies for older adults, especially yoga, massage, and natural products...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893572/pain-management-in-pediatric-burn-patients-review-of-recent-literature-and-future-directions
#6
Omar Pardesi, Gennadiy Fuzaylov
Childhood burns are a profoundly traumatic and painful experience. Despite recognition of the prevalence of burn injuries in children and the severity of the associated pain, burn pain remains undertreated. At the same time, more evidence is emerging to suggest that undertreated pain has serious long-term medical and psychiatric consequences, many of which can be ameliorated with improved pain control. Pain in burn patients is, however, notoriously difficult to treat, perhaps because there is a chronic pain aspect underlying the acute pain that accompanies wound care and procedures...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893147/update-on-the-pharmacology-and-legal-status-of-kratom
#7
Walter C Prozialeck
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to stave off fatigue and to manage pain and opioid withdrawal. In a comprehensive review published in 2012, Prozialeck et al presented evidence that kratom had been increasingly used for the self-management of opioid withdrawal and pain in the United States. At the time, kratom was classified as a legal herbal product by the US Drug Enforcement Administration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890743/considering-future-pharmacotherapy-for-ptsd
#8
REVIEW
Matthew J Friedman, Nancy C Bernardy
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, disabling, and often chronic condition that may develop following exposure to a traumatic event. Despite the immense social and economic ramifications of PTSD, there has been relatively little recent development of new pharmacotherapies. The majority of pharmacological randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that has been conducted are now dated. Existing treatments for PTSD primarily have come out of research that tested medications developed for other disorders such as antidepressants, anti-hypertensives, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and anxiolytics...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890625/pharmacological-treatment-optimization-for-stable-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-proposals-from-the-soci%C3%A3-t%C3%A3-de-pneumologie-de-langue-fran%C3%A3-aise
#9
M Zysman, F Chabot, P Devillier, B Housset, C M Panzini, N Roche
The Société de Pneumologie de Langue Française proposes a decision algorithm on long-term pharmacological COPD treatment. A working group reviewed the literature published between January 2009 and May 2016. This document lays out proposals and not guidelines. It only focuses on pharmacological treatments except vaccinations, smoking cessation treatments and oxygen therapy. Any COPD diagnosis, based on pulmonary function tests, should lead to recommend smoking cessation, vaccinations, physical activity, pulmonary rehabilitation in case of activity limitation, and short-acting bronchodilators...
November 24, 2016: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889436/wide-variation-found-in-care-of-opioid-exposed-newborns
#10
Debra L Bogen, Bonny L Whalen, Laura R Kair, Mark Vining, Beth A King
OBJECTIVE: Standardized practices for the management of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) are associated with shorter lengths of stay, but optimal protocols are not established. We sought to identify practice variations for newborns with in utero chronic opioid exposure among hospitals in the Better Outcomes Through Research for Newborns (BORN) network. METHODS: Nursery site leaders completed a survey about hospitals' policies and practices regarding care for infants with chronic opioid exposure (≥3 weeks)...
November 23, 2016: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878605/-special-medical-problems-in-end-of-life-care-crisis-at-the-end-of-life-which-therapy-is-adequate-and-when-is-redefining-treatment-goals-appropriate
#11
Gesine Benze, Bernd Alt-Epping, Friedemann Nauck
Crisis at the end of life are exceptional challenges for patients, relatives and therapists. With respect to the individual treatment goals and the patients' autonomy, therapeutic action should be commenced in an adequate manner in order to preserve the patients' quality of life as much as possible. Advance care planning for specific critical scenarios may be helpful in order to treat patients according to their wishes and values even if they are not capable to express themselves. Furthermore, a crisis plan can define the scope of action for therapists in emergency situations...
November 23, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875800/evaluation-of-tspo-pet-imaging-a-marker-of-glial-activation-to-study-the-neuroimmune-footprints-of-morphine-exposure-and-withdrawal
#12
Sylvain Auvity, Sébastien Goutal, Benoît Thézé, Catarina Chaves, Benoît Hosten, Bertrand Kuhnast, Wadad Saba, Raphaël Boisgard, Irène Buvat, Salvatore Cisternino, Nicolas Tournier
INTRODUCTION: A growing area of research suggests that neuroimmunity may impact the pharmacology of opioids. Microglia is a key component of the brain immunity. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that microglial modulators may improve morphine-induced analgesia and prevent the development of tolerance and dependence. Positron emission tomography (PET) using translocator protein 18kDa (TSPO) radioligand is a clinically validated strategy for the non-invasive detection of microglial activation...
November 8, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875419/new-treatment-options-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-predominant-diarrhea
#13
H Christian Weber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder with negative impact on quality of life and it represents a substantial economic burden on healthcare cost. The medical management of IBS remains largely symptomatic. This review provides an update related to the most recently published diagnostic Rome IV criteria for IBS and clinical trial data for novel treatment modalities in IBS targeting the peripheral opioid receptors of the enteric nervous system and the gut microbiota...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875056/opioid-nsaid-and-otc-analgesic-medications-for-dental-procedures-pearl-network-findings
#14
Ying Jo Wong, James Keenan, Keith Hudson, Henry Bryan, Frederick Naftolin, Van P Thompson, Ronald G Craig, Don Vena, Damon Collie, Hongyu Wu, Abigail G Matthews, Ashley C Grill, Frederick A Curro
OBJECTIVE: Dental treatment is often categorized as a moderately or severely painful experience; however, no clinical data reported by the patient and dentist currently exists to support this degree of pain. This has contributed possibly to the overprescribing of analgesics, in particular the opioid class of medications. The primary objective of the study was to document the dentists' postprocedural prescriptions and recommendations for analgesic medications and their effectiveness for a 5-day period...
November 2016: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871910/pharmacological-studies-on-the-nop-and-opioid-receptor-agonist-pwt2-dmt-1-n-ofq-1-13
#15
Maria Camilla Cerlesi, Huiping Ding, Mark F Bird, Norikazu Kiguchi, Federica Ferrari, Davide Malfacini, Anna Rizzi, Chiara Ruzza, David G Lambert, Mei-Chuan Ko, Girolamo Calo, Remo Guerrini
An innovative chemical strategy named peptide welding technology (PWT) has been developed for the facile synthesis of tetrabranched peptides. [Dmt(1)]N/OFQ(1-13)-NH2 acts as a universal agonist for nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and classical opioid receptors. The present study investigated the pharmacological profile of the PWT derivative of [Dmt(1)]N/OFQ(1-13)NH2 (PWT2-[Dmt(1)]) in several assays in vitro and in vivo after spinal administration in monkeys subjected to the tail withdrawal assay. PWT2-[Dmt(1)] mimicked the effects of [Dmt(1)]N/OFQ(1-13)-NH2 displaying full agonist activity, similar affinity/potency and selectivity at human recombinant N/OFQ (NOP) and opioid receptors in receptor binding, stimulation of [(35)S]GTPγS binding, calcium mobilization in cells expressing chimeric G proteins, and BRET studies for measuring receptor/G-protein and receptor/β-arrestin 2 interaction...
November 19, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871896/gastroprotective-and-ulcer-healing-effects-of-hydroethanolic-extract-of-leaves-of-caryocar-coriaceum-mechanisms-involved-in-the-gastroprotective-activity
#16
Luis Jardelino de Lacerda Neto, Andreza Guedes Barbosa Ramos, Valterlucio Santos Sales, Severino Denicio Gonçalves de Souza, Antonia Thassya Lucas Dos Santos, Larissa Rolim de Oliveira, Marta Regina Kerntopf, Thais Rodrigues de Albuquerque, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, Lucindo Jose Quintans-Júnior, Almir Gonçalves Wanderley, Irwin Rose Alencar de Menezes
This work aimed to determine the chemical fingerprint of hydroethanolic extract of leaves of Caryocar coriaceum (HELCC) and the gastroprotective activity. The chemical fingerprint of HELCC was analyzed by HPLC-DAD, to quantify total phenols and flavonoids were carried out by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride assay, while in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by the DPPH method. The methods used to determine pharmacological activity were: gastroprotective screening test in classical models of induced acute and chronic gastric lesions and physical barrier test...
November 18, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870418/sex-differences-in-innate-immunity-and-its-impact-on-opioid-pharmacology
#17
REVIEW
Hillary H Doyle, Anne Z Murphy
Morphine has been and continues to be one of the most potent and widely used drugs for the treatment of pain. Clinical and animal models investigating sex differences in pain and analgesia demonstrate that morphine is a more potent analgesic in males than in females. In addition to binding to the neuronal μ-opioid receptor, morphine binds to the innate immune receptor toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), located on glial cells. Activation of glial TLR4 initiates a neuroinflammatory response that directly opposes morphine analgesia...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870313/hypothalamic-specific-proopiomelanocortin-deficiency-reduces-alcohol-drinking-in-male-and-female-mice
#18
Yan Zhou, Marcelo Rubinstein, Malcolm J Low, Mary Jeanne Kreek
Opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone reduces alcohol consumption and relapse in both humans and rodents. The present study investigated whether hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons (producing beta-endorphin and melanocortins) play a role in alcohol drinking behaviors. Both male and female mice with targeted deletion of two neuronal Pomc enhancers nPE1 and nPE2 (nPE-/-), resulting in hypothalamic-specific POMC deficiency, were studied in short-access (4-h/day) drinking-in-the-dark (DID, alcohol in one bottle), intermittent access (IA, 24-hour cycles of alcohol access every other day, alcohol vs...
November 21, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865087/-pain-management-in-patients-of-a-swiss-institute-of-oncology-and-the-role-of-nurses-from-programs-to-reality
#19
Dario Valcarengi, Carla Pedrazzani, Paola Di Giulio, Laura Moser, Monica Bianchi
INTRODUCTION: In 2004, the Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland (IOSI) started a program to improve cancer pain treatment, through training of health professionals and the introduction of monitoring tools . AIM: The aim is to evaluate patient relief from pain (effective pain control), with attention to nursing role (pain assessment, monitoring and documentation). METHOD: Retrospective study. The health records of patients admitted in the last three months of 2010 were consulted to evaluate how pain was assessed and managed...
June 2016: Professioni Infermieristiche
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861439/trends-in-tramadol-pharmacology-metabolism-and-misuse
#20
Karen Miotto, Arthur K Cho, Mohamed A Khalil, Kirsten Blanco, Jun D Sasaki, Richard Rawson
Tramadol is a unique analgesic medication, available in variety of formulations, with both monoaminergic reuptake inhibitory and opioid receptor agonist activity increasingly prescribed worldwide as an alternative for high-affinity opioid medication in the treatment of acute and chronic pain. It is a prodrug that is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 to its more potent opioid analgesic metabolites, particularly the O-demethylation product M1. The opioid analgesic potency of a given dose of tramadol is influenced by an individual's CYP genetics, with poor metabolizers experiencing little conversion to the active M1 opioid metabolite and individuals with a high metabolic profile, or ultra-metabolizers, experiencing the greatest opioid analgesic effects...
November 17, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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