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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965430/deep-brain-stimulation-for-severe-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-an-open-label-case-series
#1
Sarah Farrand, Andrew H Evans, Simone Mangelsdorf, Samantha M Loi, Ramon Mocellin, Adam Borham, JoAnne Bevilacqua, Scott Blair-West, Mark A Walterfang, Richard G Bittar, Dennis Velakoulis
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation can be of benefit in carefully selected patients with severe intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder. The aim of this paper is to describe the outcomes of the first seven deep brain stimulation procedures for obsessive-compulsive disorder undertaken at the Neuropsychiatry Unit, Royal Melbourne Hospital. The primary objective was to assess the response to deep brain stimulation treatment utilising the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale as a measure of symptom severity...
September 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859568/a-brief-note-on-the-history-of-psychosurgery-in-japan
#2
Jiro Nudeshima, Takaomi Taira
In Japan, there has been no neurosurgical treatment for psychiatric disorders since the 1970s. Even deep brain stimulation (DBS) has not been studied or used for psychiatric disorders. Neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders has been thwarted by social taboos for many years, and psychiatrists today seem to simply ignore modern developments and therapies offered by neurosurgery such as DBS. As a result, most patients and their families do not know such "last-resort" options exist. Historically, as in other countries, frontal lobotomies were widely performed in Japan in the 1940s and 1950s, and some Japanese neurosurgeons used stereotactic methods for the treatment of psychiatric disorders until the 1960s...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859567/the-hypothalamus-at-the-crossroads-of-psychopathology-and-neurosurgery
#3
Daniel A N Barbosa, Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza, Felipe Monte Santo, Ana Carolina de Oliveira Faria, Alessandra A Gorgulho, Antonio A F De Salles
The neurosurgical endeavor to treat psychiatric patients may have been part of human history since its beginning. The modern era of psychosurgery can be traced to the heroic attempts of Gottlieb Burckhardt and Egas Moniz to alleviate mental symptoms through the ablation of restricted areas of the frontal lobes in patients with disabling psychiatric illnesses. Thanks to the adaptation of the stereotactic frame to human patients, the ablation of large volumes of brain tissue has been practically abandoned in favor of controlled interventions with discrete targets...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859566/history-of-psychosurgery-at-sainte-anne-hospital-paris-france-through-translational-interactions-between-psychiatrists-and-neurosurgeons
#4
Marc Zanello, Johan Pallud, Nicolas Baup, Sophie Peeters, Baris Turak, Marie Odile Krebs, Catherine Oppenheim, Raphael Gaillard, Bertrand Devaux
Sainte-Anne Hospital is the largest psychiatric hospital in Paris. Its long and fascinating history began in the 18th century. In 1952, it was at Sainte-Anne Hospital that Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker used the first neuroleptic, chlorpromazine, to cure psychiatric patients, putting an end to the expansion of psychosurgery. The Department of Neuro-psychosurgery was created in 1941. The works of successive heads of the Neurosurgery Department at Sainte-Anne Hospital summarized the history of psychosurgery in France...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859565/neuroplasticity-and-the-brain-connectome-what-can-jean-talairach-s-reflections-bring-to-modern-psychosurgery
#5
Pierre Bourdillon, Caroline Apra, Marc Lévêque, Fabien Vinckier
Contrary to common psychosurgical practice in the 1950s, Dr. Jean Talairach had the intuition, based on clinical experience, that the brain connectome and neuroplasticity had a role to play in psychosurgery. Due to the remarkable progress of pharmacology at that time and to the technical limits of neurosurgery, these concepts were not put into practice. Currently, these concepts are being confirmed by modern techniques such as neuroimaging and computational neurosciences, and could pave the way for therapeutic innovation in psychiatry...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859564/dr-robert-g-heath-a-controversial-figure-in-the-history-of-deep-brain-stimulation
#6
Christen M O'Neal, Cordell M Baker, Chad A Glenn, Andrew K Conner, Michael E Sughrue
The history of psychosurgery is filled with tales of researchers pushing the boundaries of science and ethics. These stories often create a dark historical framework for some of the most important medical and surgical advancements. Dr. Robert G. Heath, a board-certified neurologist, psychiatrist, and psychoanalyst, holds a debated position within this framework and is most notably remembered for his research on schizophrenia. Dr. Heath was one of the first physicians to implant electrodes in deep cortical structures as a psychosurgical intervention...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859561/psychosurgery-ethics-and-media-a-history-of-walter-freeman-and-the-lobotomy
#7
James P Caruso, Jason P Sheehan
At the peak of his career, Walter J. Freeman II was a celebrated physician and scientist. He served as the first chairman of the Department of Neurology at George Washington University and was a tireless advocate of surgical treatment for mental illness. His eccentric appearance, engaging personality during interviews, and theatrical demonstrations of his surgical techniques gained him substantial popularity with local and national media, and he performed more than 3000 prefrontal and transorbital lobotomies between 1930 and 1960...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859560/topectomy-versus-leukotomy-j-lawrence-pool-s-contribution-to-psychosurgery
#8
Ryan Holland, David Kopel, Peter W Carmel, Charles J Prestigiacomo
Surgery of the mind has a rather checkered past. Though its history begins with the prehistoric trephination of skulls to allow "evil spirits" to escape, the early- to mid-20th century saw a surge in the popularity of psychosurgery. The 2 prevailing operations were topectomy and leukotomy for the treatment of certain mental illnesses. Although they were modified and refined by several of their main practitioners, the effectiveness of and the ethics involved with these operations remained controversial. In 1947, Dr...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859559/the-origins-and-persistence-of-psychosurgery-in-the-state-of-iowa
#9
Francis J Jareczek, Marshall T Holland, Matthew A Howard, Timothy Walch, Taylor J Abel
Neurosurgery for the treatment of psychological disorders has a checkered history in the United States. Prior to the advent of antipsychotic medications, individuals with severe mental illness were institutionalized and subjected to extreme therapies in an attempt to palliate their symptoms. Psychiatrist Walter Freeman first introduced psychosurgery, in the form of frontal lobotomy, as an intervention that could offer some hope to those patients in whom all other treatments had failed. Since that time, however, the use of psychosurgery in the United States has waxed and waned significantly, though literature describing its use is relatively sparse...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859558/the-early-argument-for-prefrontal-leucotomy-the-collision-of-frontal-lobe-theory-and-psychosurgery-at-the-1935-international-neurological-congress-in-london
#10
Lillian B Boettcher, Sarah T Menacho
The pathophysiology of mental illness and its relationship to the frontal lobe were subjects of immense interest in the latter half of the 19th century. Numerous studies emerged during this time on cortical localization and frontal lobe theory, drawing upon various ideas from neurology and psychiatry. Reflecting the intense interest in this region of the brain, the 1935 International Neurological Congress in London hosted a special session on the frontal lobe. Among other presentations, Yale physiologists John Fulton and Carlyle Jacobsen presented a study on frontal lobectomy in primates, and neurologist Richard Brickner presented a case of frontal ablation for olfactory meningioma performed by the Johns Hopkins neurosurgeon Walter Dandy...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678583/lsd-treatment-in-scandinavia-emphasizing-indications-and-short-term-treatment-outcomes-of-151-patients-in-denmark
#11
Jens Knud Larsen
BACKGROUND: New research has suggested the clinical use of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin in selected patient populations. However, concerns about the clinical use of LSD were advanced in a large Danish follow-up study that assessed 151 LSD-treated psychiatric patients approximately 25 years after their treatment in the 1960s. AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to give a retrospective account of the short-term outcome of LSD treatment in these 151 Danish psychiatric patients...
October 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653164/should-dbs-for-psychiatric-disorders-be-considered-a-form-of-psychosurgery-ethical-and-legal-considerations
#12
Devan Stahl, Laura Cabrera, Tyler Gibb
Deep brain stimulation (DBS), a surgical procedure involving the implantation of electrodes in the brain, has rekindled the medical community's interest in psychosurgery. Whereas many researchers argue DBS is substantially different from psychosurgery, we argue psychiatric DBS-though a much more precise and refined treatment than its predecessors-is nevertheless a form of psychosurgery, which raises both old and new ethical and legal concerns that have not been given proper attention. Learning from the ethical and regulatory failures of older forms of psychosurgery can help shed light on how to address the regulatory gaps that exist currently in DBS research...
June 26, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746252/surgical-approaches-in-psychiatry-a-survey-of-the-world-literature-on-psychosurgery
#13
REVIEW
Felix Neumaier, Mario Paterno, Serdar Alpdogan, Etienne E Tevoufouet, Toni Schneider, Jürgen Hescheler, Walid Albanna
Brain surgery to promote behavioral or affective changes in humans remains one of the most controversial topics at the interface of medicine, psychiatry, neuroscience, and bioethics. Rapid expansion of neuropsychiatric deep brain stimulation has recently revived the field and careful appraisal of its 2 sides is warranted: namely, the promise to help severely devastated patients on the one hand and the dangers of premature application without appropriate justification on the other. Here, we reconstruct the vivid history of the field and examine its present status to delineate the progression from crude freehand operations into a multidisciplinary treatment of last resort...
January 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377486/developing-treatments-for-stimulant-abuse-a-brief-overview
#14
REVIEW
C Davidson
The abuse of stimulants such as cocaine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine is a huge problem in many parts of the world. Abuse of these drugs does not ruin just the user's life, but also adversely affects those around them. Despite many years of research, there are no approved medications for stimulant dependence, and treatment is focused on psychotherapy and abstinence. Over the last 10 to 20 years, there have been some major changes in approach to medication development for stimulant dependence. These include assessing ligands for non-dopaminergic sites, atypical dopamine transporter ligands, blocking long-term potentiation and / or memory reconsolidation, vaccines against the stimulant, and molecular approaches including pharmacogenomics and gene silencing...
June 2016: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27315024/geoffrey-knight-and-his-contribution-to-psychosurgery
#15
Francesco Marchi, Francesco Vergani, Iacopo Chiavacci, Richard Gullan, Keyoumars Ashkan
This paper retraces the fundamental achievements of Geoffrey Knight (1906-1994), a British neurosurgeon and a pioneer in the field of psychosurgery. His career developed in the 1950s and 1960s, when-following the unregulated practice of frontal lobotomies-strong criticism arose in the medical community and in the general public against psychosurgery. Geoffrey Knight's clinical research focused on identifying new, selective targets to limit the side effects of psychosurgery while improving the outcome of patients affected by mental disorders...
April 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26961203/the-advent-of-psychosurgery-in-australia-with-particular-attention-to-its-introduction-into-sydney
#16
Richard T White, Martin McGee-Collett
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the advent of prefrontal lobotomy in Sydney and, less comprehensively, its introduction into Australia. METHOD: Reference to journal articles, books, reports and archival data held at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and via internet searches, interviews and personal memory. RESULT: This paper describes the arrival of psychosurgery in Sydney in the mid-1940s, and less comprehensively, its arrival in other Australian cities...
October 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26961202/a-portrait-of-prefrontal-lobotomy-performed-at-the-royal-prince-alfred-hospital-in-sydney-by-dr-rex-money
#17
Richard T White, Martin McGee-Collett
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to provide a portrait of prefrontal lobotomy performed at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney by the Head of Neurosurgery Dr Rex Money and to describe Dr Money's role in the promotion of psychosurgery in Sydney. METHODS: We draw attention to an oral presentation by Dr Rex Money in 1951, a journal article written by Money, archival information held at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, including Dr Money's accounts of his travels and his reports regarding neurosurgery - both internationally and in Australia...
October 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26899938/psychosurgery-reduces-uncertainty-and-increases-free-will-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste, Grant Gillett, Patrick Manning, Paul Glue, Berthold Langguth
OBJECTIVE: A definition of free will is the ability to select for or against a course of action to fulfill a desire, without extrinsic or intrinsic constraints that compel the choice. Free will has been linked to the evolutionary development of flexible decision making. In order to develop flexibility in thoughts and behavioral responses, learning mechanisms have evolved as a modification of reflexive behavioral strategies. The ultimate goal of the brain is to reduce uncertainty inherently present in a changing environment...
April 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26691878/lobotomies-and-botulism-bombs-beckett-s-trilogy-and-the-cold-war
#19
Adam Piette
The article argues that Beckett's Trilogy stages the effects of a lobotomy operation on a potentially politically subversive writer, and that the consequences of the operation can be traced in both the retreat of the narrator(s) of the Trilogy into the mind and into comatose mental states and in the detail of the operation itself, based on the 'icepick' lobotomies performed by neurologist Walter Freeman in the late 1940s and early 1950s. To write about extreme psychiatric situations in the post-war period is necessarily to invoke the political uses of psychosurgery with which this article engages...
June 2016: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26463273/evita-s-lobotomy
#20
Grace J Young, Wenya Linda Bi, Timothy R Smith, Ryan Brewster, William B Gormley, Ian F Dunn, Edward R Laws, Daniel E Nijensohn
For 60 years, the details about Eva Perón's illness and lobotomy at the end of her life have been obscured from the public. Here, we examine the sociopolitical factors that may have contributed to this secrecy. The first involves Eva Perón's political status and the personality cult surrounding her image, including partisan efforts to present her as a patron saint of Peronism. The second involves the social perceptions, which are often stigmatizing, regarding disease in political or public figures. Notably, neuropsychiatric illness and associated indications for treatment were viewed as oligarchic by the Perón regime, and admission to a lobotomy may have been perceived as anti-Peronist...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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