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Felix Neumaier, Mario Paterno, Serdar Alpdogan, Etienne E Tevoufouet, Toni Schneider, Jürgen Hescheler, Walid Albanna
Brain surgery to promote behavioral or affective changes in humans remains one of the most controversial topics at the interface of medicine, psychiatry, neuroscience, and bioethics. Rapid expansion of neuropsychiatric deep brain stimulation has recently revived the field and careful appraisal of its 2 sides is warranted: namely, the promise to help severely devastated patients on the one hand and the dangers of premature application without appropriate justification on the other. Here, we reconstruct the vivid history of the field and examine its present status to delineate the progression from crude freehand operations into a multidisciplinary treatment of last resort...
January 2017: World Neurosurgery
C Davidson
The abuse of stimulants such as cocaine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine is a huge problem in many parts of the world. Abuse of these drugs does not ruin just the user's life, but also adversely affects those around them. Despite many years of research, there are no approved medications for stimulant dependence, and treatment is focused on psychotherapy and abstinence. Over the last 10 to 20 years, there have been some major changes in approach to medication development for stimulant dependence. These include assessing ligands for non-dopaminergic sites, atypical dopamine transporter ligands, blocking long-term potentiation and / or memory reconsolidation, vaccines against the stimulant, and molecular approaches including pharmacogenomics and gene silencing...
June 2016: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
Francesco Marchi, Francesco Vergani, Iacopo Chiavacci, Richard Gullan, Keyoumars Ashkan
This paper retraces the fundamental achievements of Geoffrey Knight (1906-1994), a British neurosurgeon and a pioneer in the field of psychosurgery. His career developed in the 1950s and 1960s, when-following the unregulated practice of frontal lobotomies-strong criticism arose in the medical community and in the general public against psychosurgery. Geoffrey Knight's clinical research focused on identifying new, selective targets to limit the side effects of psychosurgery while improving the outcome of patients affected by mental disorders...
April 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
Richard T White, Martin McGee-Collett
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the advent of prefrontal lobotomy in Sydney and, less comprehensively, its introduction into Australia. METHOD: Reference to journal articles, books, reports and archival data held at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and via internet searches, interviews and personal memory. RESULT: This paper describes the arrival of psychosurgery in Sydney in the mid-1940s, and less comprehensively, its arrival in other Australian cities...
October 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Richard T White, Martin McGee-Collett
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to provide a portrait of prefrontal lobotomy performed at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney by the Head of Neurosurgery Dr Rex Money and to describe Dr Money's role in the promotion of psychosurgery in Sydney. METHODS: We draw attention to an oral presentation by Dr Rex Money in 1951, a journal article written by Money, archival information held at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, including Dr Money's accounts of his travels and his reports regarding neurosurgery - both internationally and in Australia...
October 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste, Grant Gillett, Patrick Manning, Paul Glue, Berthold Langguth
OBJECTIVE: A definition of free will is the ability to select for or against a course of action to fulfill a desire, without extrinsic or intrinsic constraints that compel the choice. Free will has been linked to the evolutionary development of flexible decision making. In order to develop flexibility in thoughts and behavioral responses, learning mechanisms have evolved as a modification of reflexive behavioral strategies. The ultimate goal of the brain is to reduce uncertainty inherently present in a changing environment...
April 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Adam Piette
The article argues that Beckett's Trilogy stages the effects of a lobotomy operation on a potentially politically subversive writer, and that the consequences of the operation can be traced in both the retreat of the narrator(s) of the Trilogy into the mind and into comatose mental states and in the detail of the operation itself, based on the 'icepick' lobotomies performed by neurologist Walter Freeman in the late 1940s and early 1950s. To write about extreme psychiatric situations in the post-war period is necessarily to invoke the political uses of psychosurgery with which this article engages...
June 2016: Journal of Medical Humanities
Grace J Young, Wenya Linda Bi, Timothy R Smith, Ryan Brewster, William B Gormley, Ian F Dunn, Edward R Laws, Daniel E Nijensohn
For 60 years, the details about Eva Perón's illness and lobotomy at the end of her life have been obscured from the public. Here, we examine the sociopolitical factors that may have contributed to this secrecy. The first involves Eva Perón's political status and the personality cult surrounding her image, including partisan efforts to present her as a patron saint of Peronism. The second involves the social perceptions, which are often stigmatizing, regarding disease in political or public figures. Notably, neuropsychiatric illness and associated indications for treatment were viewed as oligarchic by the Perón regime, and admission to a lobotomy may have been perceived as anti-Peronist...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Mary M Robertson
After having examined the definition, clinical phenomenology, comorbidity, psychopathology, and phenotypes in the first paper of this Series, here I discuss the assessment, including neuropsychology, and the effects of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome with studies showing that the quality of life of patients with Tourette's syndrome is reduced and that there is a substantial burden on the family. In this paper, I review my local and collaborative studies investigating causal factors (including genetic vulnerability, prenatal and perinatal difficulties, and neuro-immunological factors)...
January 2015: Lancet Psychiatry
Manuel Correia
At the Paris Colloquium held forty years ago, and which this paper celebrates, the issue of psychosurgery had not been tackled yet. At that time psychosurgery was tainted by the controversial history of lobotomy and leucotomy. Supporters of psychosurgery at the time of the Colloquium were preparing their fourth International Conference, which was held in Madrid the following year. This represented a key characteristic of the collective, institutional and symbolic action of psychosurgery practitioners. At the end of the seventies, their strategy changed as noted below...
August 2015: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Daniel E Nijensohn
Eva Perón, best known as Evita, underwent a prefrontal lobotomy in 1952. Although the procedure was said to have been performed to relieve the pain of metastatic cancer, the author carried out a search for evidence that suggests that the procedure was prescribed to decrease violence and to modify Evita's behavior and personality, and not just for pain control. To further elucidate the circumstances surrounding the treatment of this well-known historic figure, the author reviewed the development of the procedure known as prefrontal lobotomy and its three main indications: management of psychiatric illness, control of intractable pain from terminal cancer, and mind control and behavior/personality modification...
July 2015: Neurosurgical Focus
Brianne M Collins, Henderikus J Stam
In 1946, Walter Freeman introduced the transorbital ice pick lobotomy. Touted as a procedure that could be learned and subsequently performed by psychiatrists outside of the operating room, the technique was quickly criticized by neurosurgeons. In this article, we take a material culture approach to consider 2 grounds upon which neurosurgeons based their objections-surgical instruments and operative spaces. On both counts, Freeman was in contravention of established normative neurosurgical practices and, ultimately, his technique was exposed as an anomaly by neurosurgeons...
May 2015: History of Psychology
Anna Kathryn Schoefert
Neuropathologists constituted a small field in post-war England, perched between neurology, psychiatry, neurosurgery and pathology, but recognised as a discrete field of expertise. Despite this recognition, the success of the neighbouring fields of neurosurgery, psychosurgery and neurobiology, and the consultant status granted to pathologists in the National Health Service, neuropathologists struggled to stabilise their field. A discourse of skills, acquired and acquirable, became central to their attempts to situate the field in relation to surgeons' handicraft, physicians' diagnostic acumen and the technologies of the biological sciences...
July 2015: Medical History
Daniel R Cleary, Alp Ozpinar, Ahmed M Raslan, Andrew L Ko
Fossil records showing trephination in the Stone Age provide evidence that humans have sought to influence the mind through physical means since before the historical record. Attempts to treat psychiatric disease via neurosurgical means in the 20th century provided some intriguing initial results. However, the indiscriminate application of these treatments, lack of rigorous evaluation of the results, and the side effects of ablative, irreversible procedures resulted in a backlash against brain surgery for psychiatric disorders that continues to this day...
June 2015: Neurosurgical Focus
Welmoed A Krudop, Yolande A L Pijnenburg
The function of the frontal lobes and the related frontal lobe syndrome have not been described in detail until relatively late in history. Slowly, the combination of knowledge from animal models, the detailed examination of symptoms after traumatic frontal lobe injuries, and the rise and fall of psychosurgery has led to increasing insight into frontal lobe function. The frontosubcortical circuits have been described and increasingly related to clinical syndromes, confirmed by the latest developments in functional connectivity networks...
2015: Psychopathology
L Rzesnitzek
Patient files, textbooks and published articles of the time show that the wide range of psychiatric therapies of the 1950s and 1960s was also used in the early German Democratic Republic (GDR). The use of insulin coma therapy, cardiazol and electroconvulsive therapies and especially of leucotomy in the GDR must not only be seen in the context of the international development and debate concerning these therapies up to the introduction of psychopharmaceutic therapy but also, in a similar way as in the Federal Republic of Germany, in relation to the locally sometimes different availability of insulin and cardiazol in the post-war period, different schools of academic thought and scientific research interest and priorities of the clinics concerned...
November 2015: Der Nervenarzt
Edgar Durand, Alexander G Weil, Marc Lévêque
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Leonardo F Fontenelle, Evandro S F Coutinho, Natália M Lins-Martins, Paul B Fitzgerald, Hironobo Fujiwara, Murat Yücel
OBJECTIVE: Surgical therapies for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), such as deep brain stimulation or psychosurgery, remain unattainable for many patients. Despite the long-held view that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an ineffective treatment for OCD, there is no systematic review to support or refute this claim, which is the basis of the current review. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and LILACS databases was conducted on December 22, 2013, using the terms obsessive-compulsive disorder and electroconvulsive therapy...
July 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Brian P Casey
In the 1970s a public controversy erupted over the proposed use of brain operations to curtail violent behavior. Civil libertarians, civil rights and community activists, leaders of the anti-psychiatry movement, and some U.S. Congressmen charged psychosurgeons and the National Institute of Mental Health, with furthering a political project: the suppression of dissent. Several government-sponsored investigations into psychosurgery rebutted this charge and led to an official qualified endorsement of the practice while calling attention to the need for more "scientific" understanding and better ethical safeguards...
March 2015: Science in Context
Sherry Ginn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2015: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
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