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Hepatitis c

Khoa T D Thai, Hannelore Götz, Bibi C G C Slingerland, Janienne Klaasse, Martin Schutten, Corine H GeurtsvanKessel
BACKGROUND: Correct identification of blood borne viral infections, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is crucial in detection and follow up of infection in patients. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the DiaSorin LIAISON XL (LIAISON XL) for screening of HBV, HCV and HIV infection. In addition, we investigated the variability of the signal-to-cuttoff ratio (S/CO) of the LIAISON XL HIV Ag/Ab assay and it's predictive value in subsequent confirmation of HIV-1 infection...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Chia-Wen Li, Chia-Jui Yang, Hsin-Yun Sun, Mao-Song Tsai, Shih-Ping Lin, Te-Yu Lin, Chien-Yu Cheng, Yi-Chien Lee, Yu-Shan Huang, Chun-Eng Liu, Yuan-Ti Lee, Hung-Jen Tang, Ning-Chi Wang, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Wen-Chien Ko, Chien-Ching Hung
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to describe the evolution of the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients included in two cohorts in Taiwan. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the information on demographic and clinical characteristics of 4,025 and 3,856 HIV-positive Taiwanese, who were aged 18 years or older at designated hospitals around Taiwan in 2004-2007, when an outbreak of HIV infection was occurring, and 2012-2016, when the outbreak was controlled with the implementation of harm reduction program, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Bastian Ramms, Philip L S M Gordts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Apolipoprotein (apo) C-III is a key player in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism and strongly associated with elevated plasma triglyceride levels. Several new studies added important insights on apoC-III and its physiological function confirming its promise as a valid therapeutic target. RECENT FINDINGS: APOC3 is expressed in liver and intestine and regulates triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) catabolism and anabolism. The transcriptional regulation in both organs requires different regulatory elements...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Rogério M Pinto, Susan S Witte, Prema L Filippone, C Jean Choi, Melanie Wall
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions project has disseminated HIV behavioral interventions (EBIs) across the United States since the 1990s. In 2011, the CDC launched the High-Impact HIV Prevention (HIP) project, providing EBIs plus high-impact services (HIV testing, primary care, and support services). Providers (nurses, social workers, educators) are unable to consistently make linkages; thus, numerous at-risk individuals are not benefitting from HIP...
March 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
María José Garcés Hernández, Miguel Klünder, Nayely Garibay Nieto, Juan Carlos López Alvarenga, Jenny Vilchis Gil, Samuel Flores Huerta, Rosa Quispe Siccha, Joselin Hernandez
OBJECTIVE: Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a mathematical model associated with cardiometabolic risk in adults, but studies on children failed to support this association. Our group has proposed a pediatric VAI model using pediatric ranges, but it has not yet been evaluated and needs further adjustments. The objective of this study was to further adjust the proposed pediatric VAI by age, creating a new pediatric metabolic index (PMI), and assess the correlation of the PMI with insulin resistance indexes and hepatic enzymes...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
Nikolaos Papadopoulos, Ioannis Griveas, Eirini Sveroni, Vasiliki Argiana, Antonios Kalliaropoulos, Beatriz Martinez-Gonzalez, Melanie Deutsch
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still common among dialysis patients, but the natural history of HCV in this group is not completely understood. The KDIGO HCV guidelines of 2009 recommend that chronic haemodialysis patients be screened for HCV antibody upon admission to the dialysis clinic and every 6 months thereafter if susceptible to HCV infection. However, previous studies have shown the presence of HCV viraemia in anti-HCV-negative haemodialysis patients as up to 22%...
March 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Adel Abdel-Moneim, Alaa Aboud, Mohamed Abdel-Gabbar, Mohamed Zanaty, Mohamed Ramadan
BACKGROUND: The current standard of care for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a combination of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). However, rare clinical trials have been reported on the combination regimen of sofosbuvir (SOF) with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir (OBV/PTV/r) plus ribavirin (RBV) for treated patients with HCV genotype 4 (GT4) infection. AIMS: To clarify the retreatment efficacy and safety of the recent regimen, SOF with OBV/PTV/r + RBV, for chronic HCV GT4-experienced patients who failed treatment with DAA-based regimens...
March 15, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Young-A Heo, Emma D Deeks
A fixed-dose combination of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir, the HCV NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir and the HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor voxilaprevir (sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir; Vosevi® ) is approved in the EU for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 infection in adults. In the phase III POLARIS trials, in patients who had HCV genotype 1-6 infection with or without compensated cirrhosis, overall rates of sustained virological response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12 ) with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir were high after 8 weeks of treatment in direct-acting antiviral (DAA)-naïve patients and 12 weeks of treatment in DAA-experienced patients...
March 15, 2018: Drugs
Manon Ragonnet-Cronin, Celia Jackson, Amanda Bradley-Stewart, Celia Aitken, Andrew McAuley, Norah Palmateer, Rory Gunson, David Goldberg, Catriona Milosevic, Andrew J Leigh Brown
Harm reduction has dramatically reduced HIV incidence among people who inject drugs (PWID). In Glasgow, Scotland, <10 infections/year have been diagnosed among PWID since the mid-90s. However, in 2015 a sharp rise in diagnoses was noted among PWID: many were subtype C with two identical drug resistant mutations and some displayed low avidity, suggesting the infections were linked and recent.We collected Scottish pol sequences and identified closely related sequences from public databases. Genetic linkage was ascertained among 228 Scottish, 1820 UK and 524 global sequences...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yun Hu, Qinwei Sun, Yan Hu, Zhen Hou, Yibo Zong, Nagmeldin A Omer, Halima Abobaker, Ruqian Zhao
Background: We have shown previously that in ovo betaine injection can prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by glucocorticoid exposure in chickens; yet it remains unknown whether feeding betaine to laying hens may exert similar effects in their progeny. Objective: In this study, we fed laying hens a betaine-supplemented diet, and the progeny were later exposed chronically to corticosterone (CORT) to test hepatoprotective effects and further elucidate underlying mechanisms...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Sana Amhimmid Badr, Maryan Waheeb Fahmi, Manal Mahmoud Nomir, Mamdouh Mohammad El-Shishtawy
Objective: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide. The identification of new simple, inexpensive and highly accurate markers for HCC diagnosis and screening is needed. This case-control study evaluates the role of annexin A2 and voltage-gated calcium channels α2δ1 subunit as serum biomarkers for HCC diagnosis. Methods: The study comprised three groups: group 1, 50 patients with an initial diagnosis of HCC associated with chronic hepatitis C virus infection; group 2, 25 patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and cirrhosis without any evidence of HCC; and group 3, 15 healthy controls...
February 2018: Cancer Biology & Medicine
Tatsuo Kanda, Shin Yasui, Masato Nakamura, Shingo Nakamoto, Koji Takahashi, Shuang Wu, Reina Sasaki, Yuki Haga, Sadahisa Ogasawara, Tomoko Saito, Kazufumi Kobayashi, Soichiro Kiyono, Yoshihiko Ooka, Eiichiro Suzuki, Tetsuhiro Chiba, Hitoshi Maruyama, Fumio Imazeki, Mitsuhiko Moriyama, Naoya Kato
Background: Interferon-free treatment can achieve higher sustained virological response (SVR) rates, even in patients in whom hepatitis C virus (HCV) could not be eradicated in the interferon treatment era. Immune restoration in the liver is occasionally associated with HCV infection. We examined the safety and effects of interferon-free regimens on HCV patients with autoimmune liver diseases. Results: All 7 HCV patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) completed treatment and achieved SVR...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Zhen Bao, Weijun Chen, Fan Pan, Bo Peng, Jin Gong
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of breviscapine injection on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. To explore the relevance and discuss the underlying mechanism of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) in hepatic I/R injury, 40 Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly and equally divided into five groups (n=8 per group) as follows: Sham, I/R + normal saline 1 (NS1), I/R + breviscapine 1 (Bre1), I/R + NS2 and I/R + Bre2 groups. Groups 1 and 2 represented ischemia for 20 and 60 min, respectively...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Xu Li, Pujun Gao
We investigated possible links between the etiology of liver disease and gallstone risk in Chinese patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). We compared the outcomes of 267 Chinese CLD patients with gallstones and those of a control group of 1,015 CLD patients without gallstones. Logistic regression analyses adjusting for demographic features and other gallstone risk factors revealed that liver cirrhosis increased the risk of gallstone development twofold [adjusted odds ratio (AOR); 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrea Galli, Helene Mens, Judith M Gottwein, Jan Gerstoft, Jens Bukh
Ribavirin (RBV) is a broad-spectrum antiviral active against a wide range of RNA viruses. Despite having been used for decades in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the precise mechanism of action of RBV is unknown. In other viruses, it inhibits propagation by increasing the rate of G-to-A and C-to-U transitions. Here, we utilized the J6/JFH1 HCV cell-culture system to investigate whether RBV inhibits HCV through the same mechanism. Infected Huh7.5 cells were treated with increasing concentrations of RBV or its phosphorylated forms...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alina Fedoseienko, Melinde Wijers, Justina C Wolters, Daphne Dekker, Marieke Smit, Nicolette Huijkman, Niels Kloosterhuis, Helene Klug, Aloys Schepers, Ko Willems van Dijk, Johannes H Levels, Daniel D Billadeau, Marten H Hofker, Jan van Deursen, Marit Westerterp, Ezra Burstein, Jan Albert Kuivenhoven, Bart van de Sluis
<u>Rationale:</u> <u>CO</u> pper<u>M</u>etabolism<u>M</u>URR1 Domain-containing (COMMD) proteins are a part of the COMMD-CCDC22-CCDC93 (CCC) complexes facilitating endosomal trafficking of cell surface receptors. Hepatic COMMD1 inactivation decreases CCDC22 and CCDC93 protein levels, impairs the recycling of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and increases plasma LDL cholesterol levels in mice. However, whether any of the other COMMD members function similarly as COMMD1, and whether perturbation in the CCC complex promotes atherogenesis remain unclear...
March 15, 2018: Circulation Research
Jun-Ho Cho, Goo-Young Kim, Brian C Mansfield, Janice Y Chou
Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) is caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC), a key enzyme in endogenous glucose production. This autosomal recessive disorder is characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and long-term complications of hepatocellular adenoma/carcinoma (HCA/HCC). We have shown that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency-mediated steatosis leads to defective autophagy that is frequently associated with carcinogenesis. We now show that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency also leads to enhancement of hepatic glycolysis and hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS) that can contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Alexandre Karras
Cryoglobulins are immunoglobulins that undergo reversible precipitation at low temperatures. They can induce systemic vasculitis, characterized by purpuric cutaneous lesions, arthritis, peripheral neuropathy, hypocomplementemia and glomerular disease. Renal pathology reveals membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, with particularly intense mesangial cell proliferation and infiltration by macrophages, associated with intracapillary thrombi. This renal disease presents as a nephritic syndrome, with heavy proteinuria, haematuria severe hypertension and rapidly progressive kidney failure that can lead to end-stage renal disease...
March 12, 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Minghua Zheng, Jie Jiang, Xiao Zhang, Nan Wang, Kaihang Wang, Qiong Li, Tingting Li, Qingshan Lin, Yingbin Wang, Hai Yu, Ying Gu, Jun Zhang, Shaowei Li, Ningshao Xia
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is associated with acute hepatitis disease. Numerous truncated HEV capsid proteins have been successfully expressed using different expression systems. Among these, p495, a protein truncated at its N- and C-termini by 111 and 54 amino acids (aa), respectively (HEV ORF2 aa 112-606) can self-assemble into T = 1 virus-like particles (VLPs) when expressed by insect cells. A shorter p239 (aa 368-606) protein is a particulate antigen that we have previously used in our commercialized HEV vaccine, Hecolin...
March 12, 2018: Vaccine
Muhammad Shoaib Siddique, Alvia Saad, Sana Shoaib
OBJECTIVE: To determine the change in rapid virological response for chronic hepatitis C by qualitative PCR testing after treatment with sofosbuvir. STUDY DESIGN: A descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Memon Medical Institute Hospital, Karachi, from January to September 2016. METHODOLOGY: The study population consisted of patients above 18 years, till 80 years of age, of both genders, having chronic infection with HCV...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
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