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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007131/influences-of-maternal-nutrient-restriction-and-arginine-supplementation-on-visceral-metabolism-and-hypothalamic-circuitry-of-offspring
#1
Ligia D Prezotto, Jennifer F Thorson, Pawel P Borowicz, Jena L Peine, Michelle Bedenbaugh, Stanley M Hileman, Clay A Lents, Joel S Caton, Kendall C Swanson
Maternal nutrient restriction during gestation can exert long-term negative effects on offspring health and performance. Arginine supplementation may rescue some of the negative effects elicited by maternal nutrient restriction. We tested the hypothesis that maternal arginine supplementation during gestation would rescue deleterious effects of nutrient restriction on in vitro O2 consumption in the liver and jejunum and hypothalamic protein expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and the colocalization of nNOS and active phosphor-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3) in female offspring...
June 20, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006904/hepatocellular-carcinoma-as-a-leading-cause-of-cancer-related-deaths-in-japanese-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#2
Toshihide Shima, Hirofumi Uto, Kohjiro Ueki, Yutaka Kohgo, Kohichiroh Yasui, Naoto Nakamura, Tatsuaki Nakatou, Toshinari Takamura, Sumio Kawata, Kazuo Notsumata, Kyoko Sakai, Ryosuke Tateishi, Takeshi Okanoue
BACKGROUND: We reported a cross-sectional study on causes of liver injury in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) patients (JG 2013). We assessed overall and cause-specific mortality risk during follow-up of patients enrolled in JG 2013. METHODS: This was a longitudinal, multicenter cohort study. Of the 5642 Japanese T2D patients who visited T2D clinics of nine hospitals in the original study, 3,999 patients were followed up for an average of 4.5 years. Expected deaths in T2D patients were estimated using age-specific mortality rates in the general population (GP) of Japan...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006188/patient-awareness-willingness-and-barriers-to-point-of-care-hepatitis-c-screening-in-community-pharmacy
#3
Alexander Brewer, Cathy Hanna, Lynne Eckmann, Aric Schadler, Holly Divine
OBJECTIVES: To determine patients' awareness of the screening recommendations for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in "Baby Boomers," to assess patients' willingness to receive a point-of-care HCV screening test in the pharmacy, and to determine patients' barriers to receiving a point-of-care HCV screening test in a community pharmacy. METHODS: An anonymous 12-question survey was developed. Five shareholder pharmacies of American Pharmacy Services Corporation (APSC) volunteered to participate...
July 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006068/challenges-and-perspectives-of-direct-antivirals-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#4
REVIEW
Johannes Vermehren, James S Park, Ira Jacobson, Stefan Zeuzem
Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been revolutionized with the development of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). Eight to twelve weeks of all-oral, once-daily treatments is now the standard of care and viral eradication can be achieved in >95% across different patient populations. Despite these advances, several unresolved issues remain, including treatment of HCV genotype 3, chronic kidney disease, and in patients in whom DAA therapy has failed. Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (GLE/PIB) and sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir (SOF/VEL/VOX) are the most recently approved DAA regimens...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006067/identification-of-a-xenobiotic-as-a-potential-environmental-trigger-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#5
Philip M Probert, Alistair C Leitch, Michael P Dunn, Stephanie K Meyer, Jeremy M Palmer, Tarek M Abdelghany, Anne F Lakey, Martin P Cooke, Helen Talbot, Corinne Wills, William McFarlane, Lynsay I Blake, Anna K Rosenmai, Agneta Oskarsson, Rodrigo Figueiredo, Colin Wilson, George E Kass, David E Jones, Peter G Blain, Matthew C Wright
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune-associated chronic liver disease triggered by environmental factors - such as exposure to xenobiotics - leading to a loss of tolerance to the lipoic acid conjugated regions of the mitochondrial branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex, typically to the E2 component (PDC-E2). METHODS: Urban landfill and control soil samples from a region with high PBC incidence were screened for xenobiotic activities using analytical, cell-based xenobiotic receptor activation assays and toxicity screens...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006024/the-hepatitis-c-alcohol-reduction-treatment-hep-art-intervention-study-protocol-of-a-multi-center-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Rae Jean Proeschold-Bell, Donna M Evon, Christina Makarushka, John B Wong, Santanu K Datta, Jia Yao, Ashwin A Patkar, Paolo Mannelli, Terra Hodge, Susanna Naggie, Julius M Wilder, Michael W Fried, Donna Niedzwiecki, Andrew J Muir
INTRODUCTION: Among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, alcohol synergistically increases the risk of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. Randomized controlled trials of integrated models of HCV-alcohol treatment have been recommended but only performed in patients with severe alcohol use disorders. OBJECTIVES: This pragmatic randomized controlled trial seeks to compare clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of integrated alcohol treatment compared to enhanced treatment as usual (TAU) on alcohol consumption and economic outcomes among patients ever infected with HCV...
July 10, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005750/economic-evaluation-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-treatment-extension-to-early-stage-fibrosis-patients-evidence-from-the-piter-real-world-cohort
#7
Matteo Ruggeri, Silvia Coretti, Federica Romano, Loreta A Kondili, Stefano Vella, Americo Cicchetti
OBJECTIVES: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of two planning strategies of the second-generation direct-acting antiviral interferon-free regimens for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. METHODS: A lifetime multicohort model comprised 8125 real-life patients enrolled in the PITER (Italian platform for the study of viral hepatitis) registry, implemented by the ISS (Istituto Superiore di Sanità). Two treatment planning strategies were compared: 1) policy 1-treat all patients regardless of the stage of fibrosis (F0-F4) with second-generation direct-acting antivirals and 2) policy 2-treat patients at F3/F4 stage and those who are prioritized by the scientific guidelines first, and the remaining patients when they reach the F3 stage...
July 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005420/risk-behaviours-and-viral-infections-among-drug-injecting-migrants-from-the-former-soviet-union-in-germany-results-from-the-druck-study
#8
Lineke Derks, Martyna Gassowski, Stine Nielsen, Matthias An der Heiden, Norbert Bannert, Claus-Thomas Bock, Viviane Bremer, Claudia Kücherer, Stefan Ross, Benjamin Wenz, Ulrich Marcus, Ruth Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: High prevalence of drug use and injection-related risk behaviours have been reported among former Soviet Union (FSU)-migrants. To investigate hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV seroprevalence and related risk behaviours in this subgroup in Germany, we compared first generation FSU-migrants and native Germans using data from a sero-behavioural survey of people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: Current injectors were recruited using respondent-driven sampling in eight German cities in 2011-2014...
July 10, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005259/interspecific-variation-of-essential-and-non-essential-trace-elements-in-sympatric-seabirds
#9
Jailson F Moura, Davi C Tavares, Leila S Lemos, Esteban Acevedo-Trejos, Tatiana Dillenburg Saint'Pierre, Salvatore Siciliano, Agostino Merico
Chemical pollution is a growing issue for ocean ecosystems, threatening especially apex predators because they bioaccumulate persistent chemical pollutants such as non-essential trace elements. The trophic position is thus a key aspect when assessing the impacts of environmental pollution in marine organisms. Here we investigate the differences in the concentrations of essential (Cu, Cr, Se, and Zn) and non-essential elements (Hg, Al, As, Cd, and Sr), in muscular and hepatic tissues of four sympatric non-migratory seabirds (namely Sula leucogaster, Larus dominicanus, Fregata magnificens, and Thalasseus acuflavidus), which were found stranded along the Brazilian coast...
June 29, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004591/patients-with-urticaria-are-at-a-higher-risk-of-anaphylaxis-a-nationwide-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#10
Su-Boon Yong, Huang-Hsi Chen, Jing-Yang Huang, James Cheng-Chung Wei
The clinical features of urticaria and anaphylaxis are similar, and they share common causal immune-mediated pathways. We aimed to investigate the risk of anaphylaxis among patients with urticaria. A 12-year population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted. Investigated subjects were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database by the International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. We included 126 031 subjects with newly diagnosed urticaria and 252 062 matched controls between 2000 and 2013...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004347/striking-increase-in-the-incidence-of-infective-endocarditis-associated-with-recreational-drug-abuse-in-urban-south-africa
#11
R Meel, M R Essop
BACKGROUND: We have recently noted a dramatic rise in the number of patients with infective endocarditis (IE) related to intravenous (IV) nyaope (a mixture of heroin, cocaine and antiretroviral drugs) presenting to Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. OBJECTIVES: To document the clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of these patients. METHODS: Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of all patients (N=68) with IE due to IV nyaope use were retrospectively extracted from hospital records (December 2014 - February 2017)...
June 26, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004344/hepatitis-c-prevalence-in-hiv-infected-heterosexual-men-and-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#12
N A Gogela, M W Sonderup, K Rebe, T Chivese, C W Spearman
BACKGROUND: Globally 1% of individuals are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). In South Africa (SA) the prevalence ranges between 0.3% and 1%, with few prospective screening data available. Similarly, local data on transmission modes of HCV are limited, but probably include parenteral routes and pre-1992 blood or blood products. The risk of heterosexual transmission of HCV is low but is increased in men who have sex with men (MSM), with co-transmission risk of both HIV and HCV. OBJECTIVES: Given few local data, we sought to better understand HCV characteristics and prevalence in two groups of HIV-infected men...
June 26, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004052/incidentally-detected-asymptomatic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-with-significant-fibrosis-possible-impacts-on-management
#13
Rakesh Kumar Gupta, Puja Sakhuja, Kaushik Majumdar, Shahajad Ali, Siddharth Srivastava, Sanjeev Sachdeva, Barjesh C Sharma, Amarender S Puri
Background and Aims: Liver biopsy may be considered in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to assess the severity of liver injury and stage of fibrosis, thereby guiding therapeutic decisions. In addition, advanced stage also necessitates surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to assess whether transaminase (alanine transaminase [ALT]) levels and RNA titers correlate with the histological activity index (HAI) and fibrosis (F) stage in asymptomatic patients with incidentally detected HCV (IDHCV)...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003953/epidemiology-and-clinical-outcomes-of-hepatitis-delta-d-virus-infection-in-queensland-australia
#14
Sarah Coghill, John McNamara, Marion Woods, Krispin Hajkowicz
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of those with hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection in Queensland, Australia. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of individuals tested for HDV between 1997 and 2016 in the public healthcare system in Queensland. RESULTS: 179 individuals recorded positive HDV serology between 1997 and 2016, with a total of 4407 individuals undergoing testing (seroprevalence 4...
July 9, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003924/role-of-circulating-mir-182-and-mir-150-as-biomarkers-for-cirrhosis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-post-hcv-infection-in-egyptian-patients
#15
Noha Mohamed Hosni Shaheen, Naglaa Zayed, Nermine Magdi Riad, Hend H Tamim, Rasha Mohamed Hosny Shahin, Dalia A Labib, Suzan Mahrous ELsheikh, Reham Abdel Moneim, Ayman Yosry, Rania H Khalifa
In Egypt, liver diseases are exceptionally high, maintaining the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide, and increasing rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Available diagnostic methods show poor performance in early diagnosis of HCC. Definite pathogenic factors contributing in the development of HCV are still lacking. MicroRNAs have been reported as promising biomarkers for cancers diagnosis and in virus-host interaction. This study was conducted to detect the role of miR-182 and miR-150 as biomarkers for development of cirrhosis and malignant transformation in HCV infected patients...
July 9, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003287/effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-lipogenic-gene-regulation-and-hyperlipidemia-risk-in-taiwan-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study-and-supporting-in-vitro-studies
#16
Yi-Wen Li, Chung-Hsing Wang, Chao-Jung Chen, Charles C N Wang, Cheng-Li Lin, Wai-Kok Cheng, Hsin-Yi Shen, Yun-Ping Lim
To characterize the association between epilepsy, use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and the risk of hyperlipidemia, we conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study with data obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. The effects of AEDs on lipogenic gene expression were also examined in vitro. We identified 3617 cases involving patients, whose epilepsy was newly diagnosed between 2000 and 2011, and selected a comparison cohort comprising 14,468 patients without epilepsy...
July 13, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003195/obesity-and-recurrence-free-survival-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-after-achieving-sustained-virological-response-to-interferon-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-c
#17
Hiroji Shinkawa, Shogo Tanaka, Shigekazu Takemura, Tokuji Ito, Takanori Aota, Masaki Koda, Toru Miyazaki, Takatsugu Yamamoto, Shoji Kubo
Aim: Some patients who achieve a sustained virological response (SVR) to interferon (IFN) treatment for chronic hepatitis C prior to hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) experience postoperative recurrence. This study investigated the relationship between obesity and postoperative HCC recurrence in SVR patients. Methods: Fifty-nine patients who had achieved SVR before hepatic resection were evaluated. Patients had a solitary tumor ≤5 cm in diameter or ≤3 lesions each ≤3 cm in size with no macroscopic vascular invasion (Milan criteria)...
July 2018: Annals of gastroenterological surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002863/real-world-effectiveness-of-sofosbuvir-plus-ribavirin-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-genotype-2-in-asia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Bin Wei, Fanpu Ji, Yee Hui Yeo, Eiichi Ogawa, Biyao Zou, Christopher D Stave, Shuangsuo Dang, Zongfang Li, Norihiro Furusyo, Ramsey C Cheung, Mindie H Nguyen
Background: Sofosbuvir plus ribavirin (SOF+RBV) for 12 weeks is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype 2 (GT2) in most of Asia despite availability of new CHC medications. SOF-RBV real-world effectiveness has only been reported in small and/or single-centre studies. Our goal was to determine the real-world effectiveness of 12-week SOF+RBV therapy for CHC GT2 in Asia. Methods: A systematic search on PubMed and Embase was conducted through 30 June 2017...
2018: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002797/impact-of-multiplex-pcr-in-reducing-the-risk-of-residual-transfusion-transmitted-human-immunodeficiency-and-hepatitis-b-and-c-viruses-in-burkina-faso
#19
Arzouma Paul Yooda, Serge Theophile Soubeiga, K Yacouba Nebie, Birama Diarra, Salam Sawadogo, Abdoul Karim Ouattara, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Albert Theophane Yonli, Issoufou Tao, Pegdwende Abel Sorgho, Honorine Dahourou, Jacques Simpore
Background and Objective: The improved performance of serological tests has significantly reduced the risk of human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B and C viruses transmission by blood transfusion, but there is a persistence of residual risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of multiplex PCR in reducing the risk of residual transmission of these viruses in seronegative blood donors in Burkina Faso. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from March to September 2017...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002657/hepatitis-c-vaccines-antibodies-and-t-cells
#20
REVIEW
Naglaa H Shoukry
The development of vaccines that protect against persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remain a public health priority. The broad use of highly effective direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) is unlikely to achieve HCV elimination without vaccines that can limit viral transmission. Two vaccines targeting either the antibody or the T cell response are currently in preclinical or clinical trials. Next-generation vaccines will likely involve a combination of these two strategies. This review summarizes the state of knowledge about the immune protective role of HCV-specific antibodies and T cells and the current vaccine strategies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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