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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931134/risk-activities-and-pre-travel-health-seeking-practices-of-notified-cases-of-imported-infectious-diseases-in-australia
#1
Prakash Paudel, C Raina, Nicholas Zwar, Holly Seale, Heather Worth, Mohamud Sheikh, Anita E Heywood
Background: Travellers are at risk of acquiring infectious diseases during travel, with risks differing by destination, travel and traveller characteristics. A pre-travel health consultation may minimize this risk. However, uptake of pre-travel health advice remains low. We investigated pre-travel health preparations and disease-specific risk behaviours among notified cases of selected travel-associated infectious diseases imported into Australia. Methods: Prospective enhanced surveillance of notified cases of typhoid, paratyphoid, measles, hepatitis A, hepatitis E, malaria and chikungunya was conducted in two Australian states between February 2013 and January 2014...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931085/hcv-induced-autophagosomes-are-generated-via-homotypic-fusion-of-phagophores-that-mediate-hcv-rna-replication
#2
Linya Wang, Ja Yeon Kim, Helene Minyi Liu, Michael M C Lai, Jing-Hsiung James Ou
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces autophagy to promote its replication, including its RNA replication, which can take place on double-membrane vesicles known as autophagosomes. However, how HCV induces the biogenesis of autophagosomes and how HCV RNA replication complex may be assembled on autophagosomes were largely unknown. During autophagy, crescent membrane structures known as phagophores first appear in the cytoplasm, which then progress to become autophagosomes. By conducting electron microscopy and in vitro membrane fusion assay, we found that phagophores induced by HCV underwent homotypic fusion to generate autophagosomes in a process dependent on the SNARE protein syntaxin 7 (STX7)...
September 19, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931062/factors-associated-with-hepatitis-c-prevalence-differ-by-the-stage-of-liver-fibrosis-a-cross-sectional-study-in-the-general-population-in-poland-2012-2016
#3
Magdalena Rosińska, Natalia Parda, Agnieszka Kołakowska, Paulina Godzik, Karolina Zakrzewska, Kazimierz Madaliński, Andrzej Zieliński, Anna Boguradzka, Rafał Gierczyński, Małgorzata Stępień
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is a considerable burden of hepatitis C in Europe related to the lack of prompt diagnosis. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and related risk factors of HCV infections by the stages of liver fibrosis, using non-invasive methods, to understand testing needs in Poland. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012-2016 adopting a stratified random sampling of primary health care units followed by systematic sampling of patients within each unit...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930859/p16-methylation-was-associated-with-the-development-age-hepatic-viruses-infection-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-p16-expression-had-a-poor-survival-a-systematic-meta-analysis-prisma
#4
Xueyou Lv, Guoliang Ye, Xinjun Zhang, Tao Huang
BACKGROUND: Loss of tumor suppressor gene p16 expression via promoter methylation has been reported in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlation between p16 methylation and HCC. Additionally, we also analyzed the potential prognostic role of p16 methylation, expression or alteration-associated HCC. METHODS: Online databases based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline were performed to analyze the role of p16 gene in HCC...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930257/physicochemical-properties-antioxidant-and-cytotoxic-activities-of-crude-extracts-and-fractions-from-phyllanthus-amarus
#5
Van Tang Nguyen, Jennette A Sakoff, Christopher J Scarlett
Background:Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) has been used as a medicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of chronic ailments such as diabetes, hepatitis, and cancer. Methods: The physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts and fractions from P. amarus were determined using spectrophotometric method. Results: The P. amarus methanol (PAM) extract had lower levels of residual moisture (7.40%) and water activity (0.24) and higher contents of saponins, phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins (1657...
June 18, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930194/developmental-programming-of-obesity-and-liver-metabolism-by-maternal-perinatal-nutrition-involves-the-melanocortin-system
#6
Paul Cordero, Jiawei Li, Vi Nguyen, Joaquim Pombo, Nuria Maicas, Marco Novelli, Paul D Taylor, Anne-Maj Samuelsson, Manlio Vinciguerra, Jude A Oben
Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic dysfunction and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-deficient mouse models exhibit obesity during adulthood. Here, we aim to determine the influence of the Mc4r gene on the liver of mice subjected to perinatal diet-induced obesity. Female mice heterozygous for Mc4r fed an obesogenic or a control diet for 5 weeks were mated with heterozygous males, with the same diet continued throughout pregnancy and lactation, generating four offspring groups: control wild type (C_wt), control knockout (C_KO), obese wild type (Ob_wt), and obese knockout (Ob_KO)...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930175/sensitive-genotyping-of-foodborne-associated-human-noroviruses-and-hepatitis-a-virus-using-an-array-based-platform
#7
Beatriz Quiñones, Bertram G Lee, Todd J Martinsky, Jaszemyn C Yambao, Paul K Haje, Mark Schena
Human noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis in populations of all ages and are linked to most of the foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is another important foodborne enteric virus and is considered the most common agent causing acute liver disease worldwide. In the present study, a focused, low-density DNA microarray was developed and validated for the simultaneous identification of foodborne-associated genotypes of NoV and HAV. By employing a novel algorithm, capture probes were designed to target variable genomic regions commonly used for typing these foodborne viruses...
September 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930164/liver-cancer-molecular-characterization-clonal-evolution-and-cancer-stem-cells
#8
REVIEW
Germana Castelli, Elvira Pelosi, Ugo Testa
Liver cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. The major forms of primary liver cancer are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). Both these tumors develop against a background of cirrhotic liver, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic liver damage and fibrosis. HCC is a heterogeneous disease which usually develops within liver cirrhosis related to various etiologies: hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (frequent in Asia and Africa), hepatitis C virus (HCV), chronic alcohol abuse, or metabolic syndrome (frequent in Western countries)...
September 20, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929626/association-of-human-platelet-antigens-polymorphisms-with-susceptibility-to-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-chinese-population
#9
S-H Zhou, X-H Liang, L-N Shao, W-J Yu, C Zhao, M Liu
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic hepatitis. Previous studies have identified a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with HCV infection. Human platelet antigens (HPAs) polymorphisms play an important role in several diseases. Here, we demonstrated the association of the HPA-2, HPA-3, HPA-5 and HPA-15 polymorphisms with susceptibility to HCV infection in Chinese population. Overall, 118 patients with HCV and 167 controls were genotyped for HPAs. There were no significant differences in the allele and genotype frequency distribution for the HPA-3, HPA-5 and HPA-15 systems between the patients with chronic HCV infection and the healthy controls (p > ...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929515/treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-with-direct-acting-antiviral-drugs-is-safe-and-effective-in-patients-with-hemoglobinopathies
#10
Raffaella Origa, Maria Laura Ponti, Aldo Filosa, Alfonso Galeota Lanza, Antonio Piga, Giorgio Maria Saracco, Valeria Pinto, Antonino Picciotto, Paolo Rigano, Salvatore Madonia, Rosamaria Rosso, Domenico D'Ascola, Maria Domenica Cappellini, Roberta D'Ambrosio, Immacolata Tartaglione, Lucia De Franceschi, Barbara Gianesin, Vito Di Marco, Gian Luca Forni
Progression of liver fibrosis in patients with hemoglobinopathies is strongly related to the severity of iron overload and the presence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Effective iron chelation therapy and HCV infection eradication may prevent liver complications. The European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines recommend interferon-free regimens for the treatment of HCV infection in patients with hemoglobinopathies. However, data regarding the use of direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) in this patient population are few...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929412/glecaprevir-pibrentasvir-first-global-approval
#11
Yvette N Lamb
A fixed-dose combination tablet of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor (PI) glecaprevir and the HCV NS5A inhibitor pibrentasvir [glecaprevir/pibrentasvir; MAVIRET™ (EU); MAVYRET™ (USA)] has been developed by AbbVie. Oral glecaprevir/pibrentasvir 300 mg/120 mg (three 100 mg/40 mg tablets) taken once daily has been approved by the EMA for the treatment of all major genotypes (genotypes 1-6) of chronic HCV infection in adults. It has also been approved by the US FDA for the treatment of adult patients with chronic HCV genotype 1-6 infection without cirrhosis and with compensated cirrhosis, and for the treatment of adult patients with HCV genotype 1 infection who previously have been treated with a regimen containing either an HCV NS5A inhibitor or an NS3/4A PI, but not both...
September 19, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929197/venous-invasion-by-hepatic-tumors-imaging-appearance-and-implications-for-management
#12
REVIEW
Scott M Thompson, Michael L Wells, James C Andrews, Eric C Ehman, Christine O Menias, Christopher L Hallemeier, Lewis R Roberts, Sudhakar K Venkatesh
Venous invasion by hepatic tumors most commonly occurs with hepatocellular carcinoma and is associated with worse patient prognosis. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of tumor thrombus in the liver. Moreover, differentiating between bland and tumor thrombus in the liver has important diagnostic, staging, therapeutic, and prognostic implications and may require a multimodal imaging approach including ultrasound, computed tomography, and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment of hepatic malignancies with associated tumor thrombus is dependent on tumor type, disease extent within the liver, liver hemodynamics, and underlying liver function...
September 19, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929125/the-association-of-inflammatory-markers-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-differs-by-human-immunodeficiency-virus-serostatus
#13
Jennifer C Price, Ruibin Wang, Eric C Seaberg, Matthew J Budoff, Lawrence A Kingsley, Frank J Palella, Mallory D Witt, Wendy S Post, Chloe L Thio
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the relationship of circulating adipokines and inflammatory biomarkers with fatty liver among men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. METHODS: Noncontrast computed tomography was used to assess fatty liver and measure abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area in 526 participants without history of cardiovascular disease, heavy alcohol use, or viral hepatitis infection. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations of circulating biomarker levels with fatty liver...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928439/polymorphisms-in-mica-but-not-in-depdc5-hcp5-or-pnpla3-are-associated-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Hoang Hai, Akihiro Tamori, Le Thi Thanh Thuy, Kanako Yoshida, Atsushi Hagihara, Etsushi Kawamura, Sawako Uchida-Kobayashi, Hiroyasu Morikawa, Masaru Enomoto, Yoshiki Murakami, Norifumi Kawada
Recently, the MICA rs2596542 and DEPDC5 rs1012068 variants in Japanese individuals as well as the HCP5 rs2244546 and PNPLA3 rs738409 variants in European individuals have been found associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study determined which single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is the most predictive for developing hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC in a Japanese cohort. Of the 4 SNPs analysed, only the MICA genotypes were significantly associated with development of HCC (p = 0.0185)...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928388/differential-serum-cytokine-profiles-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-c-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
Jacqueline Estevez, Vincent L Chen, Ondrej Podlaha, Biao Li, An Le, Philip Vutien, Ellen T Chang, Yael Rosenberg-Hasson, Zhaoshi Jiang, Stefan Pflanz, Dongliang Ge, Anuj Gaggar, Mindie H Nguyen
Cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), most cases of which are related to either hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). Prior studies have examined differences in individual cytokine levels in patients with chronic liver disease, but comprehensive cytokine profiling data across different clinical characteristics are lacking. We examined serum cytokine profiles of 411 patients with HCC (n = 102: 32% HBV, 54% HCV, 14% non-viral) and without HCC (n = 309: 39% HBV, 39% HCV, 22% non-viral)...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928168/factors-that-support-successful-transition-to-the-community-among-women-leaving-prison-in-british-columbia-a-prospective-cohort-study-using-participatory-action-research
#16
Patricia A Janssen, Mo Korchinski, Sarah L Desmarais, Arianne Y K Albert, Lara-Lisa Condello, Marla Buchanan, Alison Granger-Brown, Vivian R Ramsden, Lynn Fels, Jane A Buxton, Carl Leggo, Ruth Elwood Martin
BACKGROUND: In Canada, the number of women sentenced to prison has almost doubled since 1995. In British Columbia, the rate of reincarceration is 70% within 2 years. Our aim was to identify factors associated with recidivism among women in British Columbia. METHODS: We prospectively followed women after discharge from provincial corrections centres in British Columbia. We defined recidivism as participation in criminal activity disclosed by participants during the year following release...
September 13, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927831/-beyond-the-willing-the-waiting-the-role-of-peer-based-approaches-in-hepatitis-c-diagnosis-treatment
#17
Charles Henderson, Annie Madden, Jenny Kelsall
This commentary seeks to examine the role, value and importance of peer-based programmatic approaches for ensuring the effective roll-out of the new hepatitis C (HCV) treatments among those most affected - that is, people who inject drugs (PWID). The authors examine recent approaches to HCV treatment in Australia including the provision of universal access to the new DAA regimens regardless of acquisition, genotype or severity of disease. These approaches are contextualised within wider global strategies to support HCV elimination as a public health threat by 2030 (WHO, 2016)...
September 15, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927676/a-pilot-study-to-expand-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-in-resource-limited-settings
#18
REVIEW
Poonam Mathur, Emily Comstock, Edward McSweegan, Natalia Mercer, Nongthombam Suraj Kumar, Shyamasundaran Kottilil
The past five years have seen a revolution in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, as short duration oral regimens of direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs), with nearly 100% cure rates for all genotypes, have replaced longer courses of ribavirin and injected interferon. Although initially very expensive, these DAAs are now becoming available in generic equivalents in countries with large numbers of chronically infected people, such as India. However, a number of obstacles may hinder the delivery of these drugs in resource-limited settings, including lack of access to diagnostic testing and the restriction of treatment to a small number of medical specialists...
September 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927498/drug-treatment-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-and-cancer-risk
#19
Marcus-Alexander Wörns, Peter Robert Galle, Stefan Zeuzem, Peter Schirmacher, Michael Manns, Arndt Vogel
BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic hepatitis C infection, a sustained virologic response (SVR) to interferon-based therapy markedly decreases the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) over the long term. This is also true for patients who have hepatic cirrhosis, as well as for those with HCC-with or without cirrhosis-who have undergone resection or ablation with curative intent. Recent publications, however, have reported a higher incidence of HCC among patients in both of these subgroups who were treated with direct antiviral agents (DAA) rather than interferon-based therapy...
September 4, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927317/worse-renal-outcome-of-subclass-iv-g-lupus-nephritis-patients-over-iv-s
#20
E J Duque de Sá Carneiro Filho, L B Jorge, L Testagrossa, C Bitencourt, L Yu, V Woronik
Background International Society of Nephrology/ Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) consensus on the classification of lupus nephritis (LN) subdivided class IV into diffuse segmental (IV-S) and diffuse global (IV-G). Nephrologists and nephropathologists believe that this subclassification would be clinically relevant based on hypothetical distinct immunopathogenesis of those subclasses guiding therapy as well as judging prognosis. Methods All adult patients with a renal biopsy-confirmed diagnosis of LN class IV undergoing regular follow-up in the Nephrology Division between January 2004 and December 2014 were enrolled excluding those with diabetes, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV as well as those with insufficient clinical and hystopathological data...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
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