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Breast cancer and adolescent

Robert M Nevels, Samuel T Gontkovsky, Bryman E Williams
Paroxetine, also known by the trade names Aropax, Paxil, Pexeva, Seroxat, Sereupin and Brisdelle, was first marketed in the U.S. in 1992. Effective for major depression and various anxiety disorders, it quickly gained a sizable share of the antidepressant prescription market. By the late 1990s, paroxetine frequently was being associated with serious drug interactions and medication side effects. Most significantly, in a major Canadian epidemiological study examining the relationship between antidepressants and diseases, paroxetine was associated with a 620 percent increase in the rate of breast cancer in women who had taken it over a four-year period...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Jae-Ho Yoo
The menarcheal age of Korean women has been rapidly decreasing for the last 50 years, and the average menarcheal age of women born in the 1990s is approaching 12.6 years. In addition, interest in early puberty has been increasing recently owing to the rapid increase in precocious puberty. Generally, out of concern for short stature and early menarche, idiopathic central precocious puberty in female adolescents is treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Studies to date have described the association between early menarche and psychosocial problems such as delinquency and risky sexual behavior, as well as physical health problems such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and breast cancer throughout the lifespan of women...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
D Baumhoer
Osteosarcomas are highly aggressive bone tumors that mainly occur in the metaphyses of long bones in children and adolescents. Genetically, they are characterized by complex structural and numerical aberrations with large intra- and interindividual variations which hamper the identification of the initiating and driving events. Sequencing and copy number analyses in a study of 123 pretherapeutic osteosarcoma samples identified mutations in 14 genes as the potential main drivers. Although almost half of all osteosarcomas could be attributed to mutations in TP53 and RB1, no single driver gene could be found that was clearly responsible for the majority of tumors...
September 20, 2016: Der Pathologe
Devin C Flaherty, Rashmi Bawa, Claire Burton, Melanie Goldfarb
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in female adolescent and young adults (AYA; age 15-39 years). However, few data exist detailing either in situ or invasive breast cancer in male AYAs. METHODS: All male AYA breast cancer cases were identified in the National Cancer Data Base (1998-2010). Demographics, tumor, and treatment predictors of overall survival (OS) were determined for both patients with in situ and invasive tumors. RESULTS: Of 677 male AYAs, 122 patients (18 %) had in situ breast cancer, while 555 patients (82 %) were found to have invasive breast cancer...
September 20, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Rachel J J Elands, Colinda C J M Simons, Martien van Dongen, Leo J Schouten, Bas A J Verhage, Piet A van den Brandt, Matty P Weijenberg
BACKGROUND: In animal models, long-term moderate energy restriction (ER) is reported to decelerate carcinogenesis, whereas the effect of severe ER is inconsistent. The impact of early-life ER on cancer risk has never been reviewed systematically and quantitatively based on observational studies in humans. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review of observational studies and a meta-(regression) analysis on cohort studies to clarify the association between early-life ER and organ site-specific cancer risk...
2016: PloS One
Steven Koslov, Elizabeth Trowbridge, Sandra Kamnetz, Sally Kraft, Jeffrey Grossman, Nancy Pandhi
BACKGROUND: Primary care is considered the foundation of an effective health care system. However, primary care departments at academic health centers have numerous challenges to overcome when trying to achieve the Triple Aim. METHODS: As part of an organizational initiative to redesign primary care at a large academic health center, departments of internal medicine, general pediatrics and adolescent medicine, and family medicine worked together to comprehensively redesign primary care...
September 2016: Healthcare
Zhenjie Wang, Shaonong Dang, Yuan Xing, Qiang Li, Hong Yan
BACKGROUND: Menarche is a milestone for adolescent girls. The timing of menarche is influenced by genetics, social status and nutritional status (e.g., height, weight and body mass index [BMI]) and impacts future health (e.g., obesity and breast cancer). There have been many studies on trends in age at menarche among adolescent girls in China, but few have investigated associations between growth status and the timing of menarche. This study examined the association between age at menarche and growth status among adolescent girls in Western China...
2016: BMC Women's Health
Valérie Laurence, Maria Marples, Daniel P Stark
The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials...
2016: Progress in Tumor Research
Ane Simony, Emil Jesper Hansen, Steen Bach Christensen, Leah Y Carreon, Mikkel Osterheden Andersen
PURPOSE: To report the incidence of cancer in a cohort of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients treated 25 years previously. METHODS: 215 consecutive AIS patients treated between 1983 and 1990 were identified and requested to return for clinical and radiographic examination. The incidence of cancer was determined through chart review and follow-up interviews. Using the original radiographic log file that included patient position, mAs, kV and the total number of X-rays taken, a radiation physicist calculated the total radiation dose during treatment and follow-up adjusted for BMI and sex...
October 2016: European Spine Journal
Erica T Warner, Rong Hu, Laura C Collins, Andrew H Beck, Stuart Schnitt, Bernard Rosner, A Heather Eliassen, Karin B Michels, Walter C Willett, Rulla M Tamimi
Height and body size in childhood and young adulthood have been consistently associated with breast cancer risk; whether associations differ across molecular subtypes is unclear. In a pooled analysis of the Nurses' Health Studies, we prospectively examined the association of four exposures: height, body mass index (BMI) at the age of 18 years, childhood and adolescent somatotypes, with breast cancer risk according to molecular subtypes defined by immunohistochemical markers. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI)...
September 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Allison M Jay, Anthony S Hamame, Carrie Dul, Cheryl Wesen
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is rare in adolescents. In one study, breast carcinoma accounted for 0.02% of breast masses surgically removed in young women. We report a case of breast cancer in a 19-year-old woman who was found to have Li-Fraumeni Syndrome. CASE: The patient presented with a new, hard, nonmobile lump in the right breast which prompted her to seek medical attention. A biopsy identified invasive ductal carcinoma. Genetic testing showed a p53 mutation associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
David N Danforth
Sporadic breast cancer develops through the accumulation of molecular abnormalities in normal breast tissue, resulting from exposure to estrogens and other carcinogens beginning at adolescence and continuing throughout life. These molecular changes may take a variety of forms, including numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities, epigenetic changes, and gene expression alterations. To characterize these abnormalities, a review of the literature has been conducted to define the molecular changes in each of the above major genomic categories in normal breast tissue considered to be either at normal risk or at high risk for sporadic breast cancer...
2016: Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research
Angela R Bradbury, Linda Patrick-Miller, Lisa A Schwartz, Brian L Egleston, Dare Henry-Moss, Susan M Domchek, Mary B Daly, Lisa Tuchman, Cynthia Moore, Paula K Rauch, Rebecca Shorter, Kelsey Karpink, Colleen Burke Sands
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of breast cancer family history and maternal BRCA1/2 mutation on the psychosocial adjustment and perceived risk in girls age 11 to 19 years old. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Girls age 11 to 19 years old with one or more relatives with breast cancer or a familial BRCA1/2 mutation (breast cancer family history [BCFH] positive, n = 208; n = 69 with BRCA1/2-positive mother), peers (BCFH negative, n = 112), and their mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment, breast cancer-specific distress, and perceived risk of breast cancer...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Leslie V Farland, Rulla M Tamimi, A Heather Eliassen, Donna Spiegelman, Kimberly A Bertrand, Stacey A Missmer
PURPOSE: Endometriosis and mammographic density have been hypothesized to be influenced by sex steroid hormonal exposures in adolescence and early adulthood. We investigated the association between endometriosis and mammographic density, a consistent and independent risk factor for breast cancer. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 1,581 pre- and postmenopausal women not previously diagnosed with breast cancer in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort...
October 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Lusine Yaghjyan, Gabriela L Ghita, Bernard Rosner, Maryam Farvid, Kimberly A Bertrand, Rulla M Tamimi
BACKGROUND: To date, there is limited and inconsistent epidemiologic evidence for associations of adolescent diet with mammographic breast density, a strong and consistent predictor of breast cancer. We investigated the association of adolescent fiber intake with mammographic density in premenopausal women. METHODS: This study included 743 cancer-free premenopausal women (mean age, 44.9 years) within the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. Percent breast density, absolute dense and non-dense areas were measured from digitized film mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding technique...
2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Maryam S Farvid, Eunyoung Cho, A Heather Eliassen, Wendy Y Chen, Walter C Willett
We evaluated individual grain-containing foods and whole and refined grain intake during adolescence, early adulthood, and premenopausal years in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Grain-containing food intakes were reported on a baseline dietary questionnaire (1991) and every 4 years thereafter. Among 90,516 premenopausal women aged 27-44 years, we prospectively identified 3235 invasive breast cancer cases during follow-up to 2013. 44,263 women reported their diet during high school, and from 1998 to 2013, 1347 breast cancer cases were identified among these women...
September 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Fei Xue, Bernard Rosner, Heather Eliassen, Karin B Michels
BACKGROUND: The role of body fatness in the aetiology of breast cancer is complex. We evaluated the independent and synergistic effects of body fatness, at different stages throughout a woman's life course, on premenopausal breast cancer risk. METHODS: Premenopausal participants of the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) were followed from 1991 up to 2009. Body fatness factors including birthweight, somatotype (a 9-level pictogram with level 1 being the leanest) at ages 5 and 10 years and body mass index (BMI) at age 18 were collected at baseline...
July 27, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Minouk J Schoemaker, Michael E Jones, Lauren B Wright, James Griffin, Emily McFadden, Alan Ashworth, Anthony J Swerdlow
BACKGROUND: Women diagnosed with breast cancer frequently attribute their cancer to psychological stress, but scientific evidence is inconclusive. We investigated whether experienced frequency of stress and adverse life events affect subsequent breast cancer risk. METHODS: Breast cancer incidence was analysed with respect to stress variables collected at enrolment in a prospective cohort study of 106,000 women in the United Kingdom, with 1783 incident breast cancer cases...
2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Swaantje Barth, Jenny Schlichtiger, Barbara Hartmann, Betty Bisdorff, Hartmut Michels, Katja Radon, Boris Hügle, Linda Walsh, Johannes-Peter Haas
OBJECTIVES: In recent years, concern has been raised about Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) that it could be associated with an increased risk for malignancies. Therefore, the cancer incidence in the JIA patients was evaluated and compared to the cancer incidence in the German population. METHODS: A retrospective single-center hospital-based cohort study was performed using data on the JIA patients treated between 1952 and 2010 at the German Center for Pediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology (GCPAR) (Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany)...
July 7, 2016: Modern Rheumatology
J L Carreras-Delgado, V Pérez-Dueñas, C Riola-Parada, L García-Cañamaque
PET/MRI is a new multimodality technique with a promising future in diagnostic imaging. Technical limitations are being overcome. Interference between the two systems (PET and MRI) seems to have been resolved. MRI-based PET attenuation correction can be performed safely. Scan time is acceptable and the study is tolerable, with claustrophobia prevalence similar to that of MRI. Quantification with common parameters, such as Standardized Uptake Value (SUV), shows a fairly good correlation between both systems...
September 2016: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
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