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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336792/data-philanthropy-and-the-design-of-the-infraethics-for-information-societies
#1
Mariarosaria Taddeo
In mature information societies, sharing data is increasingly recognized as a crucial means to foster their development. However, competing tensions on data control and ownership, limited technical understanding, and the lack of an adequate governance framework pose serious challenges to attempts to share data among different actors. Data philanthropy, understood as the donation of data from both individuals and private companies, has been proposed as means to meet these challenges. While at first sight data philanthropy may seem an uncontroversial phenomenon, a closer analysis reveals a bewildering network of problems...
December 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336349/decisional-capacity-for-advanced-care-directives-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-cognitive-concerns
#2
Muneer Abu Snineh, Richard Camicioli, Janis M Miyasaki
INTRODUCTION: Physician Orders for Life Sustaining Therapies (POLST) or Goals of Care (GOC) are legal documents to guide intensity of interventions (ICU, resuscitation, hospitalization or comfort care) completed by healthcare professionals following counseling of patients or their designated medical decision makers. Capacity (understanding, appreciation, reasoning and expressing a choice) to consent to POLST or GOC has not been determined among Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We sought to assess GOC PD decisional capacity for those with cognitive complaints but not dementia...
March 8, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335057/white-paper-curriculum-in-interventional-radiology
#3
Andreas H Mahnken, Arno Bücker, Christian Hohl, Ansgar Berlis
Purpose Scope and clinical importance of interventional radiology markedly evolved over the last decades. Consequently it was acknowledged as independent subspecialty by the "European Union of Medical Specialists" (UEMS). Based on radiological imaging techniques Interventional Radiology is an integral part of Radiology. Materials und Methods In 2009 the German Society for Interventional Radiology and minimally-invasive therapy (DeGIR) developed a structured training in Interventional Radiology. In cooperation with the German Society of Neuroradiology (DGNR) this training was extended to also cover Interventional Neuroradiology in 2012...
April 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334476/implementing-guidelines-for-preventing-identifying-and-treating-adolescent-overweight-and-obesity-school-nurses-perceptions-of-the-challenges-involved
#4
Sølvi Helseth, Kirsti Riiser, Bettina Holmberg Fagerlund, Nina Misvaer
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to gain a better understanding of school nurses' perceptions of the challenges involved in implementing national guidelines on managing overweight and obesity in adolescents. BACKGROUND: National guidelines for the management of childhood overweight and obesity are developed in many countries to translate scientific knowledge into practice. However, several challenges are involved in their implementation. DESIGN AND METHODS: A qualitative design with focus group interviews was chosen for data collection...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334466/home-care-services-for-sick-children-healthcare-professionals-conceptions-of-challenges-and-facilitators
#5
Charlotte Castor, Inger Hallström, Helena Hansson, Kajsa Landgren
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore healthcare professionals' conceptions of caring for sick children in home care services. BACKGROUND: Families often prefer home care to hospital care and the number of home care services for children is increasing. Caring for children at home has been recognised as challenging for healthcare professionals in home care services used to providing care predominately for adults. DESIGN: An inductive qualitative design...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334094/funnel-gsea-functional-elastic-net-regression-in-time-course-gene-set-enrichment-analysis
#6
Yun Zhang, David J Topham, Juilee Thakar, Xing Qiu
Motivation: Gene set enrichment analyses (GSEAs) are widely used in genomic research to identify underlying biological mechanisms (defined by the gene sets), such as Gene Ontology terms and molecular pathways. There are two caveats in the currently available methods: (i) they are typically designed for group comparisons or regression analyses, which do not utilize temporal information efficiently in time-series of transcriptomics measurements; and (ii) genes overlapping in multiple molecular pathways are considered multiple times in hypothesis testing...
February 21, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333609/fundamental-use-of-surgical-energy-fuse-an-essential-educational-program-for-operating-room-safety
#7
Stephanie B Jones, Malcolm G Munro, Liane S Feldman, Thomas N Robinson, L Michael Brunt, Steven D Schwaitzberg, Daniel B Jones, Pascal R Fuchshuber
Operating room (OR) safety has become a major concern in patient safety since the 1990s. Improvement of team communication and behavior is a popular target for safety programming at the institutional level. Despite these efforts, essential safety gaps remain in the OR and procedure rooms. A prime example is the use of energy-based devices in ORs and procedural areas. The lack of fundamental understanding of energy device function, design, and application contributes to avoidable injury and harm at a rate of approximately 1 to 2 per 1000 patients in the US...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333208/soluble-vcam-1-soluble-icam-1-ratio-is-a-promising-biomarker-for-diagnosing-endometriosis
#8
L Kuessel, R Wenzl, K Proestling, S Balendran, P Pateisky, Yotova, G Yerlikaya, B Streubel, H Husslein
STUDY QUESTION: Do cell adhesion molecules play a role in endometriosis, and can they be used as a biomarker for diagnosing endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Altered expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the endometrium and peritoneum may play a key role in endometriosis and the soluble VCAM-1/soluble ICAM-1 ratio is a promising biomarker. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cell adhesion molecules are cell surface proteins that mediate cellular adherence, inflammatory and immune responses, and cancer-related biological processes...
February 23, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333180/influence-of-the-disease-label-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-on-intention-to-have-an-ultrasound-and-psychosocial-outcomes-a-randomised-online-study-in-young-women
#9
Tessa Copp, Kirsten McCaffery, Lamiae Azizi, Jenny Doust, Ben W J Mol, Jesse Jansen
STUDY QUESTION: Does the disease label 'polycystic ovary syndrome' (PCOS) have an impact on desire for medical testing and psychosocial outcomes? SUMMARY ANSWER: When given the disease label PCOS in a hypothetical scenario, participants had higher intention to have an ultrasound, perceived the condition to be more severe and had lower self-esteem than those not given the disease label. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Widening diagnostic criteria and improved imaging sensitivity have increased the number of reproductive-aged women diagnosed with PCOS from 4% to 8% to up to 21%...
February 18, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332627/cross-neutralizing-anti-hiv-1-human-single-chain-variable-fragments-scfvs-against-cd4-binding-site-and-n332-glycan-identified-from-a-recombinant-phage-library
#10
Lubina Khan, Rajesh Kumar, Ramachandran Thiruvengadam, Hilal Ahmad Parray, Muzamil Ashraf Makhdoomi, Sanjeev Kumar, Heena Aggarwal, Madhav Mohata, Abdul Wahid Hussain, Raksha Das, Raghavan Varadarajan, Jayanta Bhattacharya, Madhu Vajpayee, K G Murugavel, Suniti Solomon, Subrata Sinha, Kalpana Luthra
More than 50% of HIV-1 infection globally is caused by subtype_C viruses. Majority of the broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) targeting HIV-1 have been isolated from non-subtype_C infected donors. Mapping the epitope specificities of bnAbs provides useful information for vaccine design. Recombinant antibody technology enables generation of a large repertoire of monoclonals with diverse specificities. We constructed a phage recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) library with a diversity of 7.8 × 10(8) clones, using a novel strategy of pooling peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of six select HIV-1 chronically infected Indian donors whose plasma antibodies exhibited potent cross neutralization efficiency...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330504/competitive-and-cooperative-arm-rehabilitation-games-played-by-a-patient-and-unimpaired-person-effects-on-motivation-and-exercise-intensity
#11
Maja Goršič, Imre Cikajlo, Domen Novak
BACKGROUND: People with chronic arm impairment should exercise intensely to regain their abilities, but frequently lack motivation, leading to poor rehabilitation outcome. One promising way to increase motivation is through interpersonal rehabilitation games, which allow patients to compete or cooperate together with other people. However, such games have mainly been evaluated with unimpaired subjects, and little is known about how they affect motivation and exercise intensity in people with chronic arm impairment...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325150/managing-expectations-in-the-transition-to-proof-of-concept-studies
#12
Thomas Kieber-Emmons, Issam Makhoul, Angela Pennisi, Eric R Siegel, Peter D Emanuel, Bejotaloh Monzavi-Karbassi, Zenon Steplewski, J Thaddeus Beck, Laura F Hutchins
BACKGROUND: As we are moving away from the traditional chemotherapy era to targeted therapy, the validity of old assessment paradigms associated with therapeutics are being raised in the context of immunotherapy. The old paradigm required elaborate assessment of toxicity with no expectation of efficacy in early phase trials. Safety data from Phase 1 and 2 studies with many immunotherapeutics show that they display limited toxicities and draw attention to the need to demonstrate efficacy in the early evaluation of new agents...
March 21, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323826/apoe-related-risk-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-for-prevention-trials-an-analysis-of-four-cohorts
#13
Jing Qian, Frank J Wolters, Alexa Beiser, Mary Haan, M Arfan Ikram, Jason Karlawish, Jessica B Langbaum, John M Neuhaus, Eric M Reiman, J Scott Roberts, Sudha Seshadri, Pierre N Tariot, Beth McCarty Woods, Rebecca A Betensky, Deborah Blacker
BACKGROUND: With the onset of prevention trials for individuals at high risk for Alzheimer disease, there is increasing need for accurate risk prediction to inform study design and enrollment, but available risk estimates are limited. We developed risk estimates for the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia among cognitively unimpaired individuals by APOE-e4 dose for the genetic disclosure process of the Alzheimer's Prevention Initiative Generation Study, a prevention trial in cognitively unimpaired APOE-e4/e4 homozygote individuals...
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322180/operative-landscape-at-canadian-neurosurgery-residency-programs
#14
Michael K Tso, Ayoub Dakson, Syed Uzair Ahmed, Mark Bigder, Cameron Elliott, Daipayan Guha, Christian Iorio-Morin, Michelle Kameda-Smith, Pascal Lavergne, Serge Makarenko, Michael S Taccone, Bill Wang, Alexander Winkler-Schwartz, Tejas Sankar, Sean D Christie
Background Currently, the literature lacks reliable data regarding operative case volumes at Canadian neurosurgery residency programs. Our objective was to provide a snapshot of the operative landscape in Canadian neurosurgical training using the trainee-led Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative. METHODS: Anonymized administrative operative data were gathered from each neurosurgery residency program from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014. Procedures were broadly classified into cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and miscellaneous procedures...
March 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319199/a-computational-analysis-of-in-vivo-vegfr-activation-by-multiple-co-expressed-ligands
#15
Lindsay E Clegg, Feilim Mac Gabhann
The splice isoforms of vascular endothelial growth A (VEGF) each have different affinities for the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the coreceptor NRP1, which leads to distinct vascular phenotypes in model systems expressing only a single VEGF isoform. ECM-immobilized VEGF can bind to and activate VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) directly, with a different pattern of site-specific phosphorylation than diffusible VEGF. To date, the way in which ECM binding alters the distribution of isoforms of VEGF and of the related placental growth factor (PlGF) in the body and resulting angiogenic signaling is not well-understood...
March 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304312/cognitive-rehabilitation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-controlled-intervention-trial
#16
Katharina Brueggen, Elisabeth Kasper, Sina Ochmann, Henrike Pfaff, Steffi Webel, Wolfgang Schneider, Stefan Teipel
BACKGROUND: Cognitive Rehabilitation for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an integrative multimodal intervention. It aims to maintain autonomy and quality of life by enhancing the patients' abilities to compensate for decreased cognitive functioning. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the feasibility of a group-based Cognitive Rehabilitation approach in mild AD dementia and assessed its effect on activities of daily living (ADL). METHODS: We included 16 patients with AD dementia in a controlled partial-randomized design...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303749/-spontaneous-visual-perspective-taking-mediated-by-attention-orienting-that-is-voluntary-and-not-reflexive
#17
Mark R Gardner, Zainabb Hull, Donna Taylor, Caroline J Edmonds
Experiments revealing 'spontaneous' visual perspective-taking are conventionally interpreted as demonstrating that adults have the capacity to track simple mental states in a fast and efficient manner ('implicit mentalising'). A rival account suggests that these experiments can be explained by the general purpose mechanisms responsible for reflexive attentional orienting. Here, we report two experiments designed to distinguish between these competing accounts. In Experiment 1, we assessed whether reflexive attention orienting was sufficient to yield findings interpreted as spontaneous perspective taking in the 'avatar task' (Samson et al...
March 17, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299894/insights-on-food-webs-associated-with-the-south-american-tomato-pinworm
#18
Mario Naselli, Antonio Biondi, Giovanna Tropea Garzia, Nicolas Desneux, Agatino Russo, Gaetano Siscaro, Lucia Zappalà
BACKGROUND: Complexity of both natural and managed ecosystems involves various forms of interaction among organisms. Two or more species that exploit the same resource can engage in competitive behaviors, usually referred to as intra-guild interactions. These can be direct, i.e. one species feeds directly upon the competitor (intra-guild predation) or indirect, e.g. when the dominant organism competes for a food source which another organism is feeding on (kleptoparasitism). We investigated the potential for such interactions in a biological model composed by the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta, and three of its newly associated natural enemies: the zoophytophagous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis, and two idiobiont ectoparasitoids Bracon nigricans, and Necremnus tutae...
March 16, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298576/radiography-faculty-engaged-in-online-education-perceptions-of-effectiveness-satisfaction-and-technological-self-efficacy
#19
Shirley J Cherry, Bethany H Flora
PURPOSE: To assess radiography faculty perceptions of the effectiveness of online courses. METHODS: An original survey instrument was created by selecting items from 3 instruments used in prior research and adding unique questions designed to elicit demographic data from faculty. The sample included a national dataset of radiography faculty members employed in Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology-accredited programs in the United States. RESULTS: Findings showed that faculty perceptions of online course effectiveness are not affected significantly by faculty position, type of institution, faculty age, or years of teaching experience...
January 2017: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298234/dynamic-regulation-of-fatty-acid-pools-for-improved-production-of-fatty-alcohols-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#20
Paulo Gonçalves Teixeira, Raphael Ferreira, Yongjin J Zhou, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
BACKGROUND: In vivo production of fatty acid-derived chemicals in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires strategies to increase the intracellular supply of either acyl-CoA or free fatty acids (FFAs), since their cytosolic concentrations are quite low in a natural state for this organism. Deletion of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase genes FAA1 and FAA4 is an effective and straightforward way to disable re-activation of fatty acids and drastically increase FFA levels. However, this strategy causes FFA over-accumulation and consequential release to the extracellular medium, which results in a significant loss of precursors that compromises the process yield...
March 15, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
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