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Zhili Chen, Poornima Venkat, Don Seyfried, Michael Chopp, Tao Yan, Jieli Chen
Neurocardiology is an emerging specialty that addresses the interaction between the brain and the heart, that is, the effects of cardiac injury on the brain and the effects of brain injury on the heart. This review article focuses on cardiac dysfunction in the setting of stroke such as ischemic stroke, brain hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The majority of post-stroke deaths are attributed to neurological damage, and cardiovascular complications are the second leading cause of post-stroke mortality...
August 4, 2017: Circulation Research
Rongjun Zou, Wanting Shi, Jun Tao, Hongmu Li, Xifeng Lin, Songran Yang, Ping Hua
There are complex and dynamic reflex control networks between the heart and the brain, including cardiac and intrathoracic ganglia, spinal cord, brainstem, and central nucleus. Recent literature based on animal model and clinical trials indicates a close link between cardiac function and nervous systems. It is noteworthy that the autonomic nervous-based therapeutics has shown great potential in the management of atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmia, and myocardial remodeling. However, the potential mechanisms of postoperative brain injury and cardiovascular changes, particularly heart rate variability and the presence of arrhythmias, are not understood...
2017: BioMed Research International
Guy Kember, Jeffrey L Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar, J Andrew Armour
The cardiac nervous system continuously controls cardiac function whether or not pathology is present. While myocardial infarction typically has a major and catastrophic impact, population studies have shown that longer-term risk for recurrent myocardial infarction and the related potential for sudden cardiac death depends mainly upon standard atherosclerotic variables and autonomic nervous system maladaptations. Investigative neurocardiology has demonstrated that autonomic control of cardiac function includes local circuit neurons for networked control within the peripheral nervous system...
2017: PloS One
N D Osteraas, V H Lee
Neurocardiology refers to the interplay between the nervous system and the cardiovascular system. Stress-related cardiomyopathy exemplifies the brain-heart connection and occurs in several conditions with acute brain injury that share oversympathetic activation. The brain's influences on the heart can include elevated cardiac markers, arrhythmias, repolarization abnormalities on electrocardiogram, myocardial necrosis, and autonomic dysfunction. The neurogenic stunned myocardium in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage represents one end of the spectrum, and is associated with an explosive rise in intracranial pressure that results in excess catecholamine state and possibly CBN...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Jeffrey L Ardell, John Andrew Armour
Cardiac control is mediated via a series of reflex control networks involving somata in the (i) intrinsic cardiac ganglia (heart), (ii) intrathoracic extracardiac ganglia (stellate, middle cervical), (iii) superior cervical ganglia, (iv) spinal cord, (v) brainstem, and (vi) higher centers. Each of these processing centers contains afferent, efferent, and local circuit neurons, which interact locally and in an interdependent fashion with the other levels to coordinate regional cardiac electrical and mechanical indices on a beat-to-beat basis...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Wilfrid Jänig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Muhib Khan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal
Kalyanam Shivkumar, Olujimi A Ajijola, Inder Anand, J Andrew Armour, Peng-Sheng Chen, Murray Esler, Gaetano M De Ferrari, Michael C Fishbein, Jeffrey J Goldberger, Ronald M Harper, Michael J Joyner, Sahib S Khalsa, Rajesh Kumar, Richard Lane, Aman Mahajan, Sunny Po, Peter J Schwartz, Virend K Somers, Miguel Valderrabano, Marmar Vaseghi, Douglas P Zipes
The autonomic nervous system regulates all aspects of normal cardiac function, and is recognized to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of many cardiovascular diseases. As such, the value of neuroscience-based cardiovascular therapeutics is increasingly evident. This White Paper reviews the current state of understanding of human cardiac neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, pathophysiology in specific disease conditions, autonomic testing, risk stratification, and neuromodulatory strategies to mitigate the progression of cardiovascular diseases...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
J L Ardell, M C Andresen, J A Armour, G E Billman, P-S Chen, R D Foreman, N Herring, D S O'Leary, H N Sabbah, H D Schultz, K Sunagawa, I H Zucker
Neuronal elements distributed throughout the cardiac nervous system, from the level of the insular cortex to the intrinsic cardiac nervous system, are in constant communication with one another to ensure that cardiac output matches the dynamic process of regional blood flow demand. Neural elements in their various 'levels' become differentially recruited in the transduction of sensory inputs arising from the heart, major vessels, other visceral organs and somatic structures to optimize neuronal coordination of regional cardiac function...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Beth A Habecker, Mark E Anderson, Susan J Birren, Keiichi Fukuda, Neil Herring, Donald B Hoover, Hideaki Kanazawa, David J Paterson, Crystal M Ripplinger
The nervous system and cardiovascular system develop in concert and are functionally interconnected in both health and disease. This white paper focuses on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie neural-cardiac interactions during development, during normal physiological function in the mature system, and during pathological remodelling in cardiovascular disease. The content on each subject was contributed by experts, and we hope that this will provide a useful resource for newcomers to neurocardiology as well as aficionados...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Hermanas Inokaitis, Neringa Pauziene, Kristina Rysevaite-Kyguoliene, Dainius H Pauza
In spite of the fact that the rabbit is being widely used as a laboratory animal in experimental neurocardiology, neural control of SAN cells in the rabbit heart has been insufficiently examined thus far. This study analyzes the distribution of SAN cells and their innervation pattern employing fluorescent immunohistochemistry on rabbit whole mount atrial preparations. A dense network of adrenergic (positive for TH), cholinergic (positive for ChAT), nitrergic (positive for nNOS) and possibly sensory (positive for SP) NFs together with numerous neuronal somata were identified on the RRCV where the main mass of SAN cells positive for HCN4 were distributed as well...
May 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Danilo Toni, Svetlana Lorenzano, Stefano Strano
RATIONALE: Atrial fibrillation is associated with a high risk of stroke and its prevalence increases in subjects aged ≥65 years. After an ischemic stroke, the use of standard monitoring methods may underestimate the detection rate of atrial fibrillation. Hence, it is very likely that even patients having a first atherothrombotic or lacunar stroke with high burden of vascular risk factors are exposed to increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation in the subsequent years and atrial fibrillation may be the cause underlying possible recurrent strokes AIM AND HYPOTHESIS: The Silent Atrial Fibrillation aFter Ischemic StrOke (SAFFO) trial has the objective to evaluate the detection of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter as first diagnosis by implantable loop recorder in patients with first-ever atherothrombotic or lacunar stroke...
April 2016: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Branislav Milovanovic, Branka Filipovic, Slavica Mutavdzin, Marija Zdravkovic, Tatjana Gligorijevic, Jovana Paunovic, Marina Arsic
AIM: To investigate autonomic nervous function in patients with a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). METHODS: The investigation was performed on 29 patients (14 men), aged 18-80 years (51.14 ± 18.34), who were referred to our Neurocardiology Laboratory at the Clinical and Hospital Center "Bezanijska Kosa" with a diagnosis of GERD. One hundred sixteen healthy volunteers matched in age and sex with the examinees served as the control group. The study protocol included the evaluation of autonomic function and hemodynamic status, short-term heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, 24 h ambulatory ECG monitoring with long-term HRV analysis and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring...
June 14, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Petr Widimský, Ivana Štětkářová
Acute ischemic stroke is a catastrophic cardiovascular disease with frequent cardiac causes and cerebral consequences, thus the close cooperation between neurologists and cardiologists is necessary for the optimal patient management. Furthermore, recent randomized trials demonstrated, that catheter-based thrombectomy (CBT) is the most effective treatment for properly selected patients. Interventional cardiology with its widespread non-stop services for acute myocardial infarction can fill the existing gaps in coverage of population needs with neurointerventional services...
May 2015: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Frank Seifert, Bernd Kallmünzer, Isabell Gutjahr, Lorenz Breuer, Klemens Winder, Iris Kaschka, Stephan Kloska, Arnd Doerfler, Max-Josef Hilz, Stefan Schwab, Martin Köhrmann
Neurocardiological interactions can cause severe cardiac arrhythmias in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The relationship between the lesion location in the brain and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias is still discussed controversially. The aim of the present study was to correlate the lesion location with the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Cardiac arrhythmias were systematically assessed in patients with acute ischemic stroke during the first 72 h after admission to a monitored stroke unit...
May 2015: Journal of Neurology
Lan S Chen, Katherine Spoonamore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2013: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Tatsuji Kono, Hani N Sabbah
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is characterized by transient left ventricular apical wall motion abnormalities, chest pain with electrocardiographic changes, and modest myocardial enzymatic release mimicking acute coronary syndrome, but without significant coronary artery disease. TC is an increasingly recognized type of acquired cardiomyopathy occurring commonly after a recent stressful event, in particular emotional stress, and is relatively common in middle-aged and older women. The pathogenetic mechanism remains unknown...
September 2014: Heart Failure Reviews
Tijana Bojic, Emina Sudar, Dimitri Mikhailidis, Dragan Alavantic, Esma Isenovic
In coronary artery disease the G protein related kinases (GRKs) play a role in desensitization of β-adrenoreceptors (AR) after coronary occlusion. Targeted deletion and lowering of cardiac myocyte GRK-2 decreases the risk of post-ischemic heart failure (HF). Studies carried out in humans confirm the role of GRK-2 as a marker for the progression of HF after myocardial infarction (MI). The level of GRK-2 could be an indicator of β-AR blocker efficacy in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Elevated levels of GRK-2 are an early ubiquitous consequence of myocardial injury...
December 20, 2012: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
J L I Burggraaf, T W Elffers, F M Segeth, F M C Austie, M B Plug, M G J Gademan, A C Maan, S Man, M de Muynck, T Soekkha, A Simonsz, E E van der Wall, M J Schalij, C A Swenne
BACKGROUND: Exercise training is beneficial in health and disease. Part of the training effect materialises in the brainstem due to the exercise-associated somatosensory nerve traffic. Because active music making also involves somatosensory nerve traffic, we hypothesised that this will have training effects resembling those of physical exercise. METHODS: We compared two groups of healthy, young subjects between 18 and 30 years: 25 music students (13/12 male/female, group M) and 28 controls (12/16 male/female, group C), peers, who were non-musicians...
April 2013: Netherlands Heart Journal
E E van der Wall, W H van Gilst
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2013: Netherlands Heart Journal
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