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Cancer metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244059/the-mediterranean-diet-metabolic-and-molecular-mechanisms
#1
Valeria Tosti, Beatrice Bertozzi, Luigi Fontana
Consuming a Mediterranean diet rich in minimally processed plant foods has been associated with a reduced risk of developing multiple chronic diseases and increased life expectancy. Data from several randomized clinic trials have demonstrated a beneficial effect in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, atrial fibrillation and breast cancer. The exact mechanism by which an increased adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet exerts its favorable effects is not known...
December 13, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243822/nrf2-promotes-oesophageal-cancer-cell-proliferation-via-metabolic-reprogramming-and-detoxification-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#2
Yuki Kitano, Yoshifumi Baba, Shigeki Nakagawa, Keisuke Miyake, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Yo-Ichi Yamashita, Naoya Yoshida, Masayuki Watanabe, Mitsuyoshi Nakao, Hideo Baba
Cancer cells consume a large amount of energy and maintain high levels of anabolism to promote cell proliferation via metabolic reprogramming. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2; NFE2L2) is a master transcription regulator of stress responses and promotes metabolic reprogramming to support cell proliferation in various types of cancer. As oesophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive gastrointestinal cancers, we aimed to clarify the effect of Nrf2 on metabolic reprogramming in oesophageal cancer...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243580/coumarins-as-promising-scaffold-for-the-treatment-of-age-related-diseases-an-overview-of-the-last-five-years
#3
Giovanna Lucia Delogu, Maria Joao Matos
Degenerative diseases are becoming increasingly prevalent with the aging of the human population. The twentieth century witnessed a significant demographic change in the industrialized world that is currently followed by a similar shift of life expectancy to upper age ranges in Asia, Africa, and Middle and South America. A rising tide of chronic age-dependent diseases will soon present serious challenges for these countries. Age-related diseases are commonly seen in older patients. More than 40% of adults 60 and older have a combination of risk factors known as metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk for developing degenerative disorders, and certain cancers...
December 14, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243485/molecular-imaging-of-prostate-cancer
#4
Anne Marie Boustani, Darko Pucar, Lawrence Saperstein
Prostate cancer is a common malignancy with various treatments from surveillance, surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. The institution of appropriate, effective treatment relies in part on accurate imaging. Molecular imaging techniques offer an opportunity for increased timely detection of prostate cancer, its recurrence, as well as metastatic disease. Advancements within the field of molecular imaging have been complex with some agents targeting receptors and others acting as metabolic intermediaries. In this article, we provide an overview of the most clinically relevant radiotracers to date based on a combination of the 5 states model and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Guidelines...
December 15, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243418/-research-progress-of-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-total-glucosides-of-peony-in-hepatoprotective-effects
#5
REVIEW
Zhi-Yan Zuo, Shu-Yu Zhan, Xuan Huang, Bao-Yue Ding, Yu-Qian Liu, Yu-Er Ruan, Ning-Hua Jiang
Total glucosides of peony (TGP), containing the effective components of paeoniflorin (Pae), albiflorin (Alb) and so on, are effective parts of Radix Paeoniae Alba. And it possesses extensive pharmacological actions, one of which is hepatoprotective effect. In recent years, abundant of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics research of TGP in hepatoprotective effects have been performed. However, the relative medicine of TGP in hepatoprotective effect has not been developed for clinical application. In order to provide reference for the development and rational clinical application of TGP, the research progresses of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of TGP in hepatoprotective effect were summarized in this paper...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242644/parallelogram-based-approach-for-in-vivo-dose-estimation-of-genotoxic-metabolites-in-humans-with-relevance-to-reduction-of-animal-experiments
#6
Hitesh V Motwani, Cecilia Frostne, Margareta Törnqvist
When employing metabolism studies of genotoxic compounds/metabolites and cancer tests for risk estimation, low exposure doses in humans are roughly extrapolated from high exposure doses in animals. An improvement is to measure the in vivo dose, i.e. area under concentration-time curve (AUC), of the causative genotoxic agent. In the present work, we propose and evaluate a parallelogram based approach for estimation of the AUC of genotoxic metabolites that incorporates in vitro metabolic data and existing knowledge from published in vivo data on hemoglobin (Hb) adduct levels, using glycidamide (GA) as a case study compound that is the genotoxic metabolite of acrylamide (AA)...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242641/ubiquitin-ligases-in-oncogenic-transformation-and-cancer-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Daniela Senft, Jianfei Qi, Ze'ev A Ronai
The cellular response to external stress signals and DNA damage depends on the activity of ubiquitin ligases (E3s), which regulate numerous cellular processes, including homeostasis, metabolism and cell cycle progression. E3s recognize, interact with and ubiquitylate protein substrates in a temporally and spatially regulated manner. The topology of the ubiquitin chains dictates the fate of the substrates, marking them for recognition and degradation by the proteasome or altering their subcellular localization or assembly into functional complexes...
December 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242606/murine-stroma-adopts-a-human-like-metabolic-phenotype-in-the-pdx-model-of-colorectal-cancer-and-liver-metastases
#8
Arnaud Blomme, Gaetan Van Simaeys, Gilles Doumont, Brunella Costanza, Justine Bellier, Yukihiro Otaka, Félicie Sherer, Pierre Lovinfosse, Sébastien Boutry, Ana Perez Palacios, Edwin De Pauw, Touko Hirano, Takehiko Yokobori, Roland Hustinx, Akeila Bellahcène, Philippe Delvenne, Olivier Detry, Serge Goldman, Masahiko Nishiyama, Vincent Castronovo, Andrei Turtoi
Cancer research is increasingly dependent of patient-derived xenograft model (PDX). However, a major point of concern regarding the PDX model remains the replacement of the human stroma with murine counterpart. In the present work we aimed at clarifying the significance of the human-to-murine stromal replacement for the fidelity of colorectal cancer (CRC) and liver metastasis (CRC-LM) PDX model. We have conducted a comparative metabolic analysis between 6 patient tumors and corresponding PDX across 4 generations...
December 15, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242120/osteoprotective-effects-of-salidroside-in-ovariectomized-mice-and-diabetic-mice
#9
Xiang-Fan Chen, Xiao-Li Li, Min Yang, Yan Song, Yan Zhang
Salidroside, an active constituent from the root of Rhodiola rosea L., has multiple pharmacological effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties, etc. However, its protective effect on bone tissue via regulating calcium homeostasis is yet to be determined. This study was performed to investigate if salidroside could protect against bone injuries induced by estrogen deficiency or hyperglycemia through modulating calcium homeostasis. Ovariectomized (OVX) mice and diabetic mice were treated with salidroside (20mg/kg) for 6 weeks...
December 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241749/acne-vulgaris-the-metabolic-syndrome-of-the-pilosebaceous-follicle
#10
Bodo C Melnik
Acne vulgaris is an epidemic inflammatory disease of the human sebaceous follicle and represents the most common skin disease affecting about 85% of adolescents in Westernized populations. Acne vulgaris is primarily a disease of wealthy countries and exhibits higher prevalence rates in developed compared with developing countries. No acne has been found in non-Westernized populations still living under Paleolithic dietary conditions constraining hyperglycemic carbohydrates, milk, and dairy products. The high prevalence rates of adolescent acne cannot be explained by the predominance of genetic factors but by the influence of a Western diet that overstimulates the key conductor of metabolism, the nutrient- and growth factor-sensitive kinase mTORC1...
January 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241686/rankl-and-rank-from-mammalian-physiology-to-cancer-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Shuan Rao, Shane J F Cronin, Verena Sigl, Josef M Penninger
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor RANK (TNFRSF11A) and its ligand RANKL (TNFSF11) regulate osteoclast development and bone metabolism. They also control stem cell expansion and proliferation of mammary epithelial cells via the sex hormone progesterone. As such, RANKL and RANK have been implicated in the onset of hormone-induced breast cancer. Recently, RANK/RANKL were identified as crucial regulators for BRCA1 mutation-driven breast cancer. Current prevention strategies for BRCA1 mutation carriers are associated with wide-ranging risks; therefore, the search for alternative, non-invasive strategies is of paramount importance...
December 11, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241313/hormonal-treatment-and-quality-of-life-of-prostate-cancer-patients-new-evidences
#12
Marcello Tucci, Gianmarco Leone, Consuelo Buttigliero, Clizia Zichi, Rosario F DI Stefano, Daniele Pignataro, Francesca Vignani, Giorgio V Scagliotti, Massimo DI Maio
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the mainstay of treatment of patients with relapsed or metastatic hormone-sensitive prostatic carcinoma. The dramatic reduction of serum testosterone levels induced by ADT produces multiple side effects as vasomotor flushing, sexual dysfunction, fatigue, impairment of cognitive function, reduced quality of sleep, gynecomastia and anemia, that are able to decrease health-related quality of life (QoL). In addition, hormonal therapy can interfere with bone metabolism and induce metabolic and cardiovascular complications...
December 14, 2017: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241092/trehalose-protects-against-oxidative-stress-by-regulating-the-keap1-nrf2-and-autophagy-pathways
#13
Yuhei Mizunoe, Masaki Kobayashi, Yuka Sudo, Shukoh Watanabe, Hiromine Yasukawa, Daiki Natori, Ayana Hoshino, Arisa Negishi, Naoyuki Okita, Masaaki Komatsu, Yoshikazu Higami
Dysfunction of autophagy, which regulates cellular homeostasis by degrading organelles and proteins, is associated with pathogenesis of various diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration and metabolic disease. Trehalose, a naturally occurring nontoxic disaccharide found in plants, insects, microorganisms and invertebrates, but not in mammals, was reported to function as a mechanistic target of the rapamycin (mTOR)-independent inducer of autophagy. In addition, trehalose functions as an antioxidant though its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear...
September 20, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240723/identi%C3%AF-cation-of-key-genes-and-pathways-in-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma-using-bioinformatics-analysis
#14
Huayong Zhang, Jianmin Liu, Xiaoyan Fu, Ankui Yang
BACKGROUND Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is a major type of oral cancers and has remained an intractable cancer over the past decades. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during TSCC and reveal their potential mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS The gene expression profiles of GSE13601 were downloaded from the GEO database. The GSE13601 dataset contains 57 samples, including 31 tongue SCC samples and 26 matched normal mucosa samples. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) enrichment analyses were performed; Cytoscape software was used for the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and module analysis of the DEGs...
December 14, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238697/ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated-modulation-of-carbon-metabolism-in-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Erika S Dahl, Katherine M Aird
The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase has been extensively studied for its role in the DNA damage response and its association with the disease ataxia telangiectasia. There is increasing evidence that ATM also plays an important role in other cellular processes, including carbon metabolism. Carbon metabolism is highly dysregulated in cancer due to the increased need for cellular biomass. A number of recent studies report a non-canonical role for ATM in the regulation of carbon metabolism. This review highlights what is currently known about ATM's regulation of carbon metabolism, the implication of these pathways in cancer, and the development of ATM inhibitors as therapeutic strategies for cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238337/the-role-of-type-2-diabetes-for-the-development-of-pathogen-associated-cancers-in-the-face-of-the-hiv-aids-epidemic
#16
REVIEW
Melissa J Blumenthal, Sylvia Ujma, Arieh A Katz, Georgia Schäfer
The contribution of HIV to the development of pathogen-associated cancers has long been recognized, as has the contribution of type 2 diabetes for the development of several types of cancer. While HIV/AIDS-associated immunosuppression reduces immunosurveillance and indirectly contributes favorably to cancerogenesis, diabetes directly increases cancer development due to chronic low-grade inflammation, dysregulated glucose metabolism, hyperactivation of insulin-responsive pathways, and anti-apoptotic signaling...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238267/augmented-expression-of-cardiac-ankyrin-repeat-protein-is-induced-by-pemetrexed-and-a-possible-marker-for-the-pemetrexed-resistance-in-mesothelioma-cells
#17
Yiyang Qin, Ikuo Sekine, Mengmeng Fan, Yuichi Takiguchi, Yuji Tada, Masato Shingyoji, Michiko Hanazono, Naoto Yamaguchi, Masatoshi Tagawa
Background: Pemetrexed (PEM) is an anti-cancer agent targeting DNA and RNA synthesis, and clinically in use for mesothelioma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. A mechanism of resistance to PEM is associated with elevated activities of several enzymes involved in nucleic acid metabolism. Methods: We established two kinds of PEM-resistant mesothelioma cells which did not show any increase of the relevant enzyme activities. We screened genes enhanced in the PEM-resistant cells with a microarray analysis and confirmed the expression levels with Western blot analysis...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238109/present-and-future-roles-of-fdg-pet-ct-imaging-in-the-management-of-gastrointestinal-cancer-an-update
#18
REVIEW
Kazuhiro Kitajima, Masatoyo Nakajo, Hayato Kaida, Ryogo Minamimoto, Kenji Hirata, Masakatsu Tsurusaki, Hiroshi Doi, Yoshiko Ueno, Keitaro Sofue, Yukihisa Tamaki, Koichiro Yamakado
Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) integrated with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is a useful tool for acquisition of both glucose metabolism and anatomic imaging data, as only a single device and one diagnostic session is required, thus opening a new field in clinical oncologic imaging. FDG-PET/CT has been successfully used for initial staging, restaging, assessment of early treatment response, evaluation of metastatic disease response, and prognostication of intestinal cancer as well as various malignant tumors...
November 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238070/the-interplay-between-mutant-p53-and-the-mevalonate-pathway
#19
REVIEW
Alejandro Parrales, Elizabeth Thoenen, Tomoo Iwakuma
Missense mutations in the TP53 gene lead to accumulation of dysfunctional TP53 proteins in tumors, showing oncogenic gain-of-function (GOF) activities. Stabilization of mutant TP53 (mutp53) is required for the GOF; however, the mechanisms by which mutp53 promotes cancer progression and how mutp53 stability is regulated are not completely understood. Recent work from our laboratory has identified statins, inhibitors of the mevalonate pathway, as degraders of conformational mutp53. Specific reduction of mevalonate-5-phosphate (MVP), a metabolic intermediate in the mevalonate pathway, by statins or mevalonate kinase (MVK) knockdown triggers CHIP ubiquitin ligase-mediated degradation of conformational mutp53 by inhibiting interaction between mutp53 and DNAJA1, a Hsp40 family member...
December 13, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237358/on-the-relationship-of-anthranilic-derivatives-structure-and-the-fxr-farsenoid-x-receptor-agonist-activity
#20
Thales Kronenberger, Björn Windshügel, Carsten Wrenger, Kathia M Honorio, Vinicius G Maltarollo
Farsenoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear receptor related to lipid and glucose homeostasis and is considered an important molecular target to treatment of metabolic diseases as diabetes, dyslipidemia and liver cancer. Nowadays, there are several FXR agonists reported in the literature and some of it in clinical trials for liver disorders. Herein a compound series was employed to generate QSAR models to better understand the structural basis for FXR by anthranilic acid derivatives (AADs) agonists. Furthermore, here it is evaluated the inclusion of the standard deviation (SD) of EC50 values in QSAR models quality...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
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