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computer assisted diagnosis

Makoto Adachi, Masayuki Motohashi, Yasuhiko Kaku, Shigeyuki Sugie, Yasunori Muramatsu, Shinichiro Sumitomo
The solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) was first described as a mesenchymal tumor of fibroblastic type, present in the pleura. The head and neck area is the third most common site of SFT occurrence. Numb chin syndrome (NCS) is a rare neurological symptom. The current report describes the case of a 39-year-old female patient referred to the present hospital with NCS, which was later observed to be due to a large SFT in the infratemporal fossa. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images were taken and subsequent examination of these images revealed a space occupying mass (52×50×40 mm) in the infratemporal fossa...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Federico Davini, Sara Ricciardi, Carmelina Cristina Zirafa, Ilenia Cavaliere, Gaetano Romano, Franca Melfi
Background: The incidental detection of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is currently increasing due to the widespread use of computed tomography (CT) during the follow up in oncological patients or in screening trials. A quick and definitive histological diagnosis of these nodes is mandatory as, in case of primitive lung cancer, an early detection could improve both surgical results and prognosis. The minimally invasive pulmonary resection (MIPR) is the gold standard procedure for diagnosis and treatment of small lung nodules, but it can be difficult to localize deep nonpalpable nodes that lie in the lung parenchyma...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
Eduardo F C Fleury, Ana Claudia Gianini, Karem Marcomini, Vilmar Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: To determine the applicability of a computer-aided diagnostic system strain elastography system for the classification of breast masses diagnosed by ultrasound and scored using the criteria proposed by the breast imaging and reporting data system ultrasound lexicon and to determine the diagnostic accuracy and interobserver variability. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted between March 1, 2016, and May 30, 2016. A total of 83 breast masses subjected to percutaneous biopsy were included...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Jongho Kim, Erika D Feller, Wengen Chen, Yuanyuan Liang, Vasken Dilsizian
OBJECTIVES: The feasibility of18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) for the diagnosis of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) infection has been demonstrated. Beyond the diagnoses of LVAD infection, the authors hypothesized that the pattern and site of the infection along its various components may significantly impact clinical management and patient outcome. BACKGROUND: In patients with end-stage heart failure, the clinical use of LVAD for destination therapy is on the rise, accompanied by a higher prevalence of infections and serious complications...
March 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Sara Moccia, Gabriele O Vanone, Elena De Momi, Andrea Laborai, Luca Guastini, Giorgio Peretti, Leonardo S Mattos
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Early-stage diagnosis of laryngeal cancer is of primary importance to reduce patient morbidity. Narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopy is commonly used for screening purposes, reducing the risks linked to a biopsy but at the cost of some drawbacks, such as large amount of data to review to make the diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to present a strategy to perform automatic selection of informative endoscopic video frames, which can reduce the amount of data to process and potentially increase diagnosis performance...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Elena Aguado-Domínguez, Lourdes Gómez, José Manuel Sousa, Miguel Ángel Gómez-Bravo, Antonio Núñez-Roldán, Isabel Aguilera
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of de novo immune hepatitis (dnIH) after liver transplantation relies on biopsy findings, with an abundance of plasma cells (PCs) in the inflammatory infiltrates a hallmark of the disease. Very little is known about what other types of immune cells exist in the infiltrates mainly located in the portal areas of the liver tissue. METHODS: We analyzed the composition of T cells, B cells, PCs, and macrophages in the liver biopsies of 12 patients with dnIH, 9 of them obtained at the time of diagnosis...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Germán L Farfalli, Jose I Albergo, Nicolas S Piuzzi, Miguel A Ayerza, D Luis Muscolo, Lucas E Ritacco, Luis A Aponte-Tinao
BACKGROUND: The treatment of locally aggressive bone tumors is a balance between achieving local tumor control and surgical morbidity. Wide resection decreases the likelihood of local recurrence, although wide resection may result in more complications than would happen after curettage. Navigation-assisted surgery may allow more precise resection, perhaps making it possible to expand the procedure's indications and decrease the likelihood of recurrence; however, to our knowledge, comparative studies have not been performed...
March 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Qin Xiao, Yongzhou Lu, Min Chen, Bo Chen, Yuming Yang, Daxiang Cui, Bo Pan, Nan Xu
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast. There is still little quick and effective solution for the diagnosis or treatment of C. neoformans infection at an early stage in clinical. Antibody-conjugated silica-modified gold nanorods (GNR-SiO2 -Ab) can conjugate C. neoformans selectively. It may provide a possibility for treatment of cryptococcosis safely and effectively. METHODS: Gold nanorods (GNRs) were synthesized according to the seed-mediated template-assisted protocol...
March 7, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Kazuhiro Kitajima, Shingo Yamamoto, Soichi Odawara, Yusuke Kawanaka, Yukako Nakanishi, Takahiko Hashimoto, Yusuke Yamada, Toru Suzuki, Akihiro Kanematsu, Michio Nojima, Neinei Kimura, Masataka Zouzumi, Seiichi Hirota, Koichiro Yamakado
We report a 65-year-old male with histopathologically proven prostate cancer and multiple pelvic node metastases using a robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy procedure plus extended pelvic lymph node dissection. Positron emission tomography (PET) scan findings demonstrated a moderate accumulation of11 C-choline in a metastatic left obturator node sized 8 × 8 mm, though only a faint uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was noted.11 C-choline PET/computed tomography (CT) may be useful for the diagnosis of a tiny metastatic lymph node not demonstrated by CT, magnetic resonance imaging, or FDG-PET/CT and to determine the need for an extended pelvic lymph node dissection...
January 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
Georg Hille, Sylvia Saalfeld, Steffen Serowy, Klaus Tönnies
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In this work we propose a 3D vertebral body segmentation approach for clinical magnetic resonance (MR) spine imaging. So far, vertebrae segmentation approaches in MR spine imaging are either limited to particular MR imaging sequences or require minutes to compute, which can be hindering in clinical routine. The major contribution of our work is a reasonably precise segmentation result, within seconds and with minimal user interaction, for spine MR imaging commonly used in clinical routine...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Rui Li
Patient data in clinical research often includes large amounts of structured information, such as neuroimaging data, neuropsychological test results, and demographic variables. Given the various sources of information, we can develop computerized methods that can be a great help to clinicians to discover hidden patterns in the data. The computerized methods often employ data mining and machine learning algorithms, lending themselves as the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool that assists clinicians in making diagnostic decisions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Norma de Oliveira Penido, Andy de Oliveira Vicente
Otosclerosis/otospongiosis is a primary osteodystrophy of the otic capsule that affects genetically predisposed individuals and leads to progressive hearing loss. Diagnosis is usually clinical, based on the findings of anamnesis, physical examination, and audiometric evaluation. However, high-resolution computed tomography scan and MRI have played an important role in the diagnosis and therapeutic approach of otosclerosis and in assisting in the differential diagnosis. The therapeutic approach is aimed at preventing, or at least minimizing, disease progression while attempting to restore hearing...
April 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Ruggero Bevilacqua, Peter Tarnow, Lars Kölby, Giovanni Maltese
Multisutural nonsyndromic craniosynostosis is a rare group of malformations, whose frequency has been reported between 3% and 7% of all craniosynostosis. The clinical diagnosis can be difficult and computed tomography is usually required. Surgical treatment is challenging and staged procedures are performed in up to 80% of patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the reoperation rate and to evaluate the surgical outcomes by measuring intracranial volume (ICV) preoperatively and at follow-up, and comparing it to a control group...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Mohammed A Al-Masni, Mugahed A Al-Antari, Jeong-Min Park, Geon Gi, Tae-Yeon Kim, Patricio Rivera, Edwin Valarezo, Mun-Taek Choi, Seung-Moo Han, Tae-Seong Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Automatic detection and classification of the masses in mammograms are still a big challenge and play a crucial role to assist radiologists for accurate diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a novel Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system based on one of the regional deep learning techniques, a ROI-based Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) which is called You Only Look Once (YOLO). Although most previous studies only deal with classification of masses, our proposed YOLO-based CAD system can handle detection and classification simultaneously in one framework...
April 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Hussam Ali, Mussarat Yasmin, Muhammad Sharif, Mubashir Husain Rehmani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The early diagnosis of stomach cancer can be performed by using a proper screening procedure. Chromoendoscopy (CH) is an image-enhanced video endoscopy technique, which is used for inspection of the gastrointestinal-tract by spraying dyes to highlight the gastric mucosal structures. An endoscopy session can end up with generating a large number of video frames. Therefore, inspection of every individual endoscopic-frame is an exhaustive task for the medical experts...
April 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Tao Wan, Xiaoqing Shang, Weilin Yang, Jianhui Chen, Deyu Li, Zengchang Qin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery segmentation is a fundamental step for a computer-aided diagnosis system to be developed to assist cardiothoracic radiologists in detecting coronary artery diseases. Manual delineation of the vasculature becomes tedious or even impossible with a large number of images acquired in the daily life clinic. A new computerized image-based segmentation method is presented for automatically extracting coronary arteries from angiography images. METHODS: A combination of a multiscale-based adaptive Hessian-based enhancement method and a statistical region merging technique provides a simple and effective way to improve the complex vessel structures as well as thin vessel delineation which often missed by other segmentation methods...
April 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Yoshiaki Matsumura, Yusuke Iemura, Shinji Fukui, Yoriaki Kagebayashi, Shoji Samma, Shigehiro Tsujimoto, Takashi Okada, Toru Kanno
Ureteral cancer in the retrocaval ureter is rare. We herein report a patient with this condition laparoscopically treated. A 69-year-old man was referred to us because of right ureteral cancer diagnosed during ureteroscopic surgery for a ureteral calculus. Histological diagnosis of the ureteroscopically biopsied material was non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma, low grade (G2). Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a retrocaval ureter : a double J stent placed during ureteroscopy assisted the diagnosis...
January 2018: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
Zhao-Hua Miao, Lan-Xiang Lv, Kai Li, Pei-Ying Liu, Zhenglin Li, Huanjie Yang, Qingliang Zhao, Manli Chang, Liang Zhen, Cheng-Yan Xu
Near-infrared light-mediated theranostic agents with superior tissue penetration and minimal invasion have captivated researchers in cancer research in the past decade. Herein, a probe sonication-assisted liquid exfoliation approach for scalable and continual synthesis of colloidal rhenium disulfide nanosheets, which is further explored as theranostic agents for cancer diagnosis and therapy, is reported. Due to high-Z element of Re (Z = 75) and significant photoacoustic effect, the obtained PVP-capped ReS2 nanosheets are evaluated as bimodality contrast agents for computed tomography and photoacoustic imaging...
February 22, 2018: Small
Xia Lin, Yingming Xiang, Hongcan Shi, Fangbiao Zhang
Due to the extreme rarity of primary intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumours (SFTs), their clinical course, imaging characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are poorly understood. The present study therefore assessed the diagnosis and management of primary intrapulmonary SFTs and systematically reviewed previously reported cases in the literature. A total of 5 patients who underwent resection for primary intrapulmonary SFTs were enrolled in the present study and their clinical course, tumour characteristics, management and survival were assessed in this retrospective study...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Beatriz Grinsztejn, Brenda Hoagland, Ronaldo I Moreira, Esper G Kallas, Jose V Madruga, Silvia Goulart, Iuri C Leite, Lucilene Freitas, Luana M S Martins, Thiago S Torres, Ricardo Vasconcelos, Raquel B De Boni, Peter L Anderson, Albert Liu, Paula M Luz, Valdiléa G Veloso
BACKGROUND: PrEP Brasil was a demonstration study to assess feasibility of daily oral tenofovir diphosphate disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine provided at no cost to men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women at high risk for HIV within the Brazilian public health system. We report week 48 pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) retention, engagement, and adherence, trends in sexual behaviour, and incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections in this study cohort. METHODS: PrEP Brasil was a 48 week, open-label, demonstration study that assessed PrEP delivery at three referral centres for HIV prevention and care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Fundação Oswaldo Cruz), and São Paulo, Brazil (Universidade de São Paulo and Centro de Referência e Treinamento em DST e AIDS)...
February 16, 2018: Lancet HIV
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