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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445601/status-epilepticus-in-dogs-and-cats-part-2-treatment-monitoring-and-prognosis
#1
Susan Blades Golubovic, John H Rossmeisl
OBJECTIVE: To discuss current anticonvulsant drug options and advances in treatment of status epilepticus (SE) and to review the prognosis associated with SE. TREATMENT: When treating a patient with SE, the main goals are to halt seizure activity, prevent further seizures, identify the cause of the seizures, and manage any complications. The veterinary literature indicates that benzodiazepines are the most common class of drugs used for the initial treatment of SE...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445588/the-relative-importance-of-pollinator-abundance-and-species-richness-for-the-temporal-variance-of-pollination-services
#2
Mark A Genung, Jeremy Fox, Neal M Williams, Claire Kremen, John Ascher, Jason Gibbs, Rachael Winfree
The relationship between biodiversity and the stability of ecosystem function is a fundamental question in community ecology, and hundreds of experiments have shown a positive relationship between species richness and the stability of ecosystem function. However, these experiments have rarely accounted for common ecological patterns, most notably skewed species abundance distributions and non-random extinction risks, making it difficult to know whether experimental results can be scaled up to larger, less manipulated systems...
April 26, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445190/cognitive-learning-and-its-future-in-urology-surgical-skills-teaching-and-assessment
#3
Somayeh B Shafiei, Ahmed A Hussein, Khurshid A Guru
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the current status of novel cognitive training approaches in surgery and to investigate the potential role of cognitive training in surgical education. RECENT FINDINGS: Kinematics of end-effector trajectories, as well as cognitive state features of surgeon trainees and mentors have recently been studied as modalities to objectively evaluate the expertise level of trainees and to shorten the learning process...
April 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445124/a-novel-triazolonaphthalimide-induces-apoptosis-and-inhibits-tumor-growth-by-targeting-dna-and-dna-associated-processes
#4
Liyan Ji, Simin Yang, Shasha Li, Shan Liu, Shunan Tang, Zhongqiu Liu, Xiangbao Meng, Siwang Yu
DNA and DNA-associated processes have been classes of the most important targets of chemotherapeutic drugs. As classic DNA intercalators and topoisomerase inhibitors, naphthalimides have been extensively investigated as potential anti-cancer drugs. We recently synthesized a novel series of triazolonaphthalimides with excellent anti-cancer activities. In the present study, one of the most potent triazolonaphthalimides, LSS-11, was investigated. LSS-11 bound to DNA in vitro and in cell mainly by minor groove binding and significantly increased the stability of DNA, which could be fundamental for the biological activities of LSS-11...
April 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444848/biologically-meaningful-scents-a-framework-for-understanding-predator-prey-research-across-disciplines
#5
Michael H Parsons, Raimund Apfelbach, Peter B Banks, Elissa Z Cameron, Chris R Dickman, Anke S K Frank, Menna E Jones, Ian S McGregor, Stuart McLean, Dietland Müller-Schwarze, Elisa E Sparrow, Daniel T Blumstein
Fear of predation is a universal motivator. Because predators hunt using stealth and surprise, there is a widespread ability among prey to assess risk from chemical information - scents - in their environment. Consequently, scents often act as particularly strong modulators of memory and emotions. Recent advances in ecological research and analytical technology are leading to novel ways to use this chemical information to create effective attractants, repellents and anti-anxiolytic compounds for wildlife managers, conservation biologists and health practitioners...
April 26, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444445/acquired-cystic-kidney-disease-an-under-recognized-condition-in-children-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#6
Eugene Y H Chan, Bradley A Warady
Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD) is a condition that occurs predominantly in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In contrast to hereditary cystic kidney disease, ACKD is characterized by the presence of multiple small cysts in bilaterally small kidneys. Limited pediatric data suggest a high incidence (21.6-45.8%) of ACKD in children on dialysis, comparable to that in adults, with an increased frequency associated with a longer duration of dialysis. Recent research has shed light on the pathogenesis of ACKD, such as activation of proto-oncogenes...
April 25, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443679/emerging-roles-of-carbonyl-sulfide-cos-in-chemical-biology-sulfide-transporter-or-gasotransmitter
#7
Andrea K Steiger, Yu Zhao, Michael D Pluth
SIGNIFICANCE: Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is the most prevalent sulfur-containing gas in Earth's atmosphere and plays important roles in the global sulfur cycle. COS has been implicated in origin of life peptide ligation, is the primary energy source for certain bacteria, and has been detected in mammalian systems. Despite this long and intertwined history with terrestrial biology, limited attention has focused on potential roles of COS as a biological mediator. Recent Advances. Although bacterial COS production is well documented, definitive sources of mammalian COS production have not been confirmed...
April 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443560/advances-in-nutrition-of-the-newborn-infant
#8
REVIEW
Jane E Harding, Barbara E Cormack, Tanith Alexander, Jane M Alsweiler, Frank H Bloomfield
Nutrition of newborn infants, particularly of those born preterm, has advanced substantially in recent years. Extremely preterm infants have high nutrient demands that are challenging to meet, such that growth faltering is common. Inadequate growth is associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, and although improved early growth is associated with better cognitive outcomes, there might be a trade-off in terms of worse metabolic outcomes, although the contribution of early nutrition to these associations is not established...
April 22, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443507/synthesis-and-biological-activity-of-unnatural-enediynes
#9
Roberto Romeo, Salvatore V Giofrè, Maria A Chiacchio
The first reports of the natural enediyne anticancer antibiotics date back to the late 1980s; since then, a great deal of interest has been devoted to the chemistry, biology and potential medical applications of this family of compounds. The biological activity of enediynes is linked to the presence of a highly unsaturated hex-1-ene- 1,5-diyne system. The thermally induced transformation of this unit into a benzene  diradical (the Bergman cycloaromatization) is the key step of the antitumor properties of such compounds: 1,4-diaryl radicals are able to abstract H-atoms from the deoxyribose backbone of DNA, thus leading to DNA strand cleavage and ultimately cell death...
April 24, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443376/remote-ischemic-conditioning-and-renal-protection
#10
Georgios Giannopoulos, Dimitrios A Vrachatis, Vasiliki Panagopoulou, Manolis Vavuranakis, Michael W Cleman, Spyridon Deftereos
Over the course of the last 2 decades, the concept of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) has attracted considerable research interest, because RIC, in most of its embodiments offers an inexpensive way of protecting tissues against ischemic damage inflicted by a number of medical conditions or procedures. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common side effect in the context of various medical procedures, and RIC has been suggested as a means of reducing its incidence. Outcomes regarding kidney function have been reported in numerous studies that evaluated the effects of RIC in a variety of settings (eg, cardiac surgery, interventions requiring intravenous administration of contrast media)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443117/seed-biology-updates-highlights-and-new-discoveries-in-seed-dormancy-and-germination-research
#11
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Nonogaki
An understanding of the biology of seeds has been greatly advanced in recent years. The progresses, particularly in the field of seed dormancy and germination research, have been made at a remarkable speed. Some of the possible epigenetic mechanisms, including an involvement of non-coding RNA, which were predicted for DELAY OF GERMINATION1 just a few years ago, have now been demonstrated with strong molecular and genetic evidence. Imprinting, or parent-of-origin-specific gene silencing/expression, which was characterized particularly for developing seeds, was also found in imbibed seeds and suggested for dormancy mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443092/disarming-cellular-alarm-systems-manipulation-of-stress-induced-nkg2d-ligands-by-human-herpesviruses
#12
REVIEW
Dominik Schmiedel, Ofer Mandelboim
The coevolution of viruses and their hosts led to the repeated emergence of cellular alert signals and viral strategies to counteract them. The herpesvirus family of viruses displays the most sophisticated repertoire of immune escape mechanisms enabling infected cells to evade immune recognition and thereby maintain infection. The herpesvirus family consists of nine viruses that are capable of infecting humans: herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), roseoloviruses (HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7), and Kaposi's-sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443054/childbirth-induced-posttraumatic-stress-syndrome-a-systematic-review-of-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#13
REVIEW
Sharon Dekel, Caren Stuebe, Gabriella Dishy
Background: Posttraumatic stress related with the childbirth experience of full-term delivery with health outcomes has been recently documented in a growing body of studies. The magnitude of this condition and the factors that might put a woman at risk for developing childbirth-related postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder (PP-PTSD) symptoms are not fully understood. Methods: In this systematic review of 36 articles representing quantitative studies of primarily community samples, we set to examine PP-PTSD prevalence rates and associated predictors with a focus on the role of prior PTSD and time since childbirth...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443027/personalized-medication-response-prediction-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-learning-in-the-model-space-vs-learning-in-the-data-space
#14
Hin K Wong, Paul A Tiffin, Michael J Chappell, Thomas E Nichols, Patrick R Welsh, Orla M Doyle, Boryana C Lopez-Kolkovska, Sarah K Inglis, David Coghill, Yuan Shen, Peter Tiño
Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental health disorders amongst school-aged children with an estimated prevalence of 5% in the global population (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Stimulants, particularly methylphenidate (MPH), are the first-line option in the treatment of ADHD (Reeves and Schweitzer, 2004; Dopheide and Pliszka, 2009) and are prescribed to an increasing number of children and adolescents in the US and the UK every year (Safer et al., 1996; McCarthy et al...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442493/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-canadian-md-phd-program-graduates-a-cross-sectional-survey
#15
Michael A Skinnider, Jordan W Squair, David D W Twa, Jennifer X Ji, Alexandra Kuzyk, Xin Wang, Patrick E Steadman, Kirill Zaslavsky, Ayan K Dey, Mark J Eisenberg, Ève-Reine Gagné, Kent T HayGlass, James F Lewis, Peter J Margetts, D Alan Underhill, Norman D Rosenblum, Lynn A Raymond
BACKGROUND: Combined MD/PhD programs provide a structured path for physician-scientist training, but assessment of their success within Canada is limited by a lack of quantitative data. We collected outcomes data for graduates of Canadian MD/PhD programs. METHODS: We developed and implemented a Web-based survey consisting of 41 questions designed to collect outcomes data for Canadian MD/PhD program alumni from 8 Canadian universities who had graduated before September 2015...
April 25, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442194/a-child-abuse-research-network-now-what
#16
Daniel M Lindberg, Philip V Scribano
As foundational work in preparation for a sustainable, multi-center network devoted to child abuse medical research, we recently used a combination of survey and modified Delphi methodologies to determine research priorities for future multi-center studies. Avoiding missed diagnoses, and improving selected/indicated prevention were the topics rated most highly in terms of research priority. Several constructive commentaries in this issue identify the key challenges which must be overcome to ensure a successful network...
April 22, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441773/overview-of-four-functional-classification-systems-commonly-used-in-cerebral-palsy
#17
REVIEW
Andrea Paulson, Jilda Vargus-Adams
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in childhood. CP comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders that can result in spasticity, dystonia, muscle contractures, weakness and coordination difficulty that ultimately affects the ability to control movements. Traditionally, CP has been classified using a combination of the motor type and the topographical distribution, as well as subjective severity level. Imprecise terms such as these tell very little about what a person is able to do functionally and can impair clear communication between providers...
April 24, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441169/psychosocial-interventions-in-stimulant-use-disorders-a-focus-on-women
#18
Riccardo De Giorgi, Gian L D'Alò, Franco De Crescenzo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stimulant use disorders are significant contributors to the global burden of disease, with a growing impact on women. Psychosocial interventions are the gold standard for treating this condition, but several barriers may prevent women from accessing appropriate treatment. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the most recent findings about psychosocial interventions for stimulant use disorders, focussing on results relevant to women. RECENT FINDINGS: Twenty-two eligible studies were identified...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440974/risk-estimation-for-lung-cancer-in-libya-analysis-based-on-standardized-morbidity-ratio-poisson-gamma-model-bym-model-and-mixture-model
#19
Maryam Ahmed Alhdiri, Nor Azah Samat, Zulkifley Mohamed
Cancer is the most rapidly spreading disease in the world, especially in developing countries, including Libya. Cancer represents a significant burden on patients, families, and their societies. This disease can be controlled if detected early. Therefore, disease mapping has recently become an important method in the fields of public health research and disease epidemiology. The correct choice of statistical model is a very important step to producing a good map of a disease. Libya was selected to perform this work and to examine its geographical variation in the incidence of lung cancer...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440493/the-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2-pathway-in-neurological-diseases-a-potential-therapeutic-target-review
#20
Jing Sun, Guangxian Nan
Signaling pathways are critical modulators of a variety of physiological and pathological processes, and the abnormal activation of some signaling pathways can contribute to disease progression in various conditions. As a result, signaling pathways have emerged as an important tool through which the occurrence and development of diseases can be studied, which may then lead to the development of novel drugs. Accumulating evidence supports a key role for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling in the embryonic development of the central nervous system (CNS) and in the regulation of adult brain function...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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