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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103632/global-health-and-emergency-care-defining-clinical-research-priorities
#1
Bhakti Hansoti, Adam R Aluisio, Meagan A Barry, Kevin Davey, Brian A Lentz, Payal Modi, Jennifer A Newberry, Melissa H Patel, Tricia A Smith, Alexandra M Vinograd, Adam C Levine
OBJECTIVES: Despite recent strides in the development of Global Emergency Medicine (EM), the field continues to lag in applying a scientific approach to identifying critical knowledge gaps and advancing evidence-based solutions to clinical and public health problems seen in emergency departments worldwide. Here, progress on the Global EM research agenda created at the 2013 Academic Emergency Medicine Global Health and Emergency Care Consensus Conference is evaluated and critical areas for future development in emergency care research internationally are identified...
January 19, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102737/platelet-microvesicles-in-health-and-disease
#2
Imene Melki, Nicolas Tessandier, Anne Zufferey, Eric Boilard
Interest in cell-derived extracellular vesicles and their physiological and pathological implications is constantly growing. Microvesicles, also known as microparticles, are small extracellular vesicles released by cells in response to activation or apoptosis. Among the different microvesicles present in the blood of healthy individuals, platelet-derived microvesicles (PMVs) are the most abundant. Their characterization has revealed a heterogeneous cargo that includes a set of adhesion molecules. Similarly to platelets, PMVs are also involved in thrombosis through support of the coagulation cascade...
January 19, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102563/multiscale-modeling-methods-in-biomechanics
#3
REVIEW
Pinaki Bhattacharya, Marco Viceconti
More and more frequently, computational biomechanics deals with problems where the portion of physical reality to be modeled spans over such a large range of spatial and temporal dimensions, that it is impossible to represent it as a single space-time continuum. We are forced to consider multiple space-time continua, each representing the phenomenon of interest at a characteristic space-time scale. Multiscale models describe a complex process across multiple scales, and account for how quantities transform as we move from one scale to another...
January 19, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101969/low-trabecular-bone-density-in-recent-sedentary-modern-humans
#4
Habiba Chirchir, Christopher B Ruff, Juho-Antti Junno, Richard Potts
OBJECTIVES: Research on a limited number of samples suggests that trabecular bone density (i.e., bone volume fraction, BVF) within specific articulations is lower among more sedentary Holocene agricultural populations compared with Holocene foragers, implying that activity levels have a significant effect on trabecular BVF. However, it is unclear to what extent BVF differs among groups with varying activity levels and how general this phenomenon is across multiple limb articulations. Here, we test two hypotheses that: (i) sedentary populations have lower BVF compared with active populations across limb articulations; and (ii) these declines are more uniform in the lower limb (because of its more direct relationship to mobility), and more variable in the upper limb...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101892/an-assessment-of-differential-reinforment-procedures-for-learners-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Kate A Johnson, Jason C Vladescu, Tiffany Kodak, Tina M Sidener
Differential reinforcement procedures may promote unprompted correct responding, resulting in a quicker transfer of stimulus control than nondifferential reinforcement. Recent studies that have compared reinforcement arrangements have found that the most effective arrangement may differ across participants. The current study conducted an assessment of differential reinforcement arrangements (i.e., quality, schedule, and magnitude) and nondifferential reinforcement to identify the most effective arrangement for each participant...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101866/titin-and-nebulin-in-thick-and-thin-filament-length-regulation
#6
Larissa Tskhovrebova, John Trinick
In this review we discuss the history and the current state of ideas related to the mechanism of size regulation of the thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments in vertebrate striated muscles. Various hypotheses have been considered during of more than half century of research, recently mostly involving titin and nebulin acting as templates or 'molecular rulers', terminating exact assembly. These two giant, single-polypeptide, filamentous proteins are bound in situ along the thick and thin filaments, respectively, with an almost perfect match in the respective lengths and structural periodicities...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101831/psychometric-properties-of-the-portuguese-version-of-the-yale-food-addiction-scale
#7
Sandra Torres, Marta Camacho, Patrício Costa, Gabriela Ribeiro, Osvaldo Santos, Filipa Mucha Vieira, Isabel Brandão, Daniel Sampaio, Albino J Oliveira-Maia
PURPOSE: Rising rates of obesity have been recently associated to the novel concept of food addiction (FA). The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) is the most widely used measure for examining FA (1) and analysis of its reliability and validity is expected to facilitate empirical research on the construct. Here, we tested the psychometric properties of a Portuguese version of the YFAS (P-YFAS), establishing its factor structure, reliability and construct validity. METHODS: Data were obtained from 468 Portuguese individuals, 278 sampled from non-clinical populations, and 190 among obese candidates for weight-loss surgery...
January 18, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101826/sagittal-band-boutonniere-and-pulley-injuries-in-the-athlete
#8
REVIEW
Louis Christopher Grandizio, Joel Christian Klena
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While hand injuries occur frequently in the athletic population, sagittal band ruptures, boutonniere deformities, and pulley ruptures are infrequently encountered. These injuries represent diagnostic challenges and can result in significant impairment. Early recognition with appropriate treatment is necessary to maximize recovery and minimize return to athletic competition. This review will focus on the underlying mechanism, pathophysiology of injury, diagnosis, and treatment of each of these injuries...
January 18, 2017: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101576/multiple-effects-of-ellagic-acid-on-human-colorectal-carcinoma-cells-identified-by-gene-expression-profile-analysis
#9
Jinlu Zhao, Guodong Li, Wanlan Bo, Yuhui Zhou, Shuwei Dang, Jiufeng Wei, Xinglong Li, Ming Liu
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world. Phytochemicals have become a research hotspot in recent years as cancer prevention and treatment agents due to their low toxicity and limited side-effects. Ellagic acid (EA), a natural phenolic constituent, displays various biological activities, including anticancer effects. However, the detailed anticancer mechanisms of EA remain unclear. In the present study, we found that EA inhibited the growth of HCT-116 colon cancer cells...
February 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100918/cardioprotective-effects-of-sglt2-inhibitors-are-possibly-associated-with-normalization-of-the-circadian-rhythm-of-blood-pressure
#10
REVIEW
Asadur Rahman, Hirofumi Hitomi, Akira Nishiyama
Improvement in cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study provides new insight into the therapeutic use of sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Although SGLT2 inhibitors have several pleiotropic effects, the underlying mechanism responsible for their cardioprotective effects remains undetermined. In this regard, the absence of a nocturnal fall in blood pressure (BP), that is, non-dipping BP, is a common phenomenon in type 2 diabetes and has a crucial role in the pathogenesis of CV morbidity and mortality...
January 19, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100719/testing-for-departure-from-uniformity-and-estimating-mean-direction-for-circular-data
#11
Graeme D Ruxton
Although circular data are common in biological studies, the analysis of such data is often more rudimentary than it need be. One of the most common hypotheses tested is whether the data suggest that samples are clustered around a certain specified direction, rather than being uniformly spread across all possible directions. Here, I use data from a recent publication on the compass directions of epiphytes and mistletoes on tree trunks. This is used to demonstrate how with relatively little extra work researchers can improve the rigour of testing such hypotheses, and this improved rigour can lead to biological insights missed by simpler analyses...
January 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100610/the-measles-virus-receptor-slamf1-can-mediate-particle-endocytosis
#12
Daniel Gonçalves-Carneiro, Jane A McKeating, Dalan Bailey
: The signalling lymphocyte activation molecule F1 (SLAMF1) is both a microbial sensor and entry receptor for Measles virus (MeV). Herein, we describe a new role for SLAMF1 to mediate MeV endocytosis that is in contrast with the alternative, and generally accepted, model that MeV genome enters cells only after fusion at the cell surface. We demonstrated that MeV engagement of SLAMF1 induces dramatic but transient morphological changes, most prominently in the formation of membrane blebs, which were shown to co-localise with incoming viral particles, and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton in infected cells...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100464/six-month-market-exclusivity-extensions-to-promote-research-offer-substantial-returns-for-many-drug-makers
#13
Aaron S Kesselheim, Benjamin N Rome, Ameet Sarpatwari, Jerry Avorn
To incentivize pharmaceutical manufacturers to invest in areas of unmet medical need, policy makers frequently propose extending the market exclusivity period of desired drugs. Some such proposals are modeled after the pediatric exclusivity patent extension program, which since 1997 has provided six additional months of market exclusivity for drugs studied in children. The most recent proposal would encourage rare disease research by providing six months of extended exclusivity for any existing drug that is granted subsequent FDA approval for a new rare disease indication...
January 18, 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100240/reactivation-of-dormant-anti-tumor-immunity-a-clinical-perspective-of-therapeutic-immune-checkpoint-modulation
#14
REVIEW
Richard Greil, Evelyn Hutterer, Tanja Nicole Hartmann, Lisa Pleyer
In favor of their outgrowth, cancer cells must resist immune surveillance and edit the immune response. Cancer immunoediting is characterized by fundamental changes in the cellular composition and the inflammatory cytokine profiles in the microenvironment of the primary tumor and metastatic niches, with an ever increasing complexity of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system. Recent data suggest that genetic instability and immunoediting are not necessarily disparate processes. Increasing mutational load may be associated with multiple neoepitopes expressed by the tumor cells and thus increased chances for the immune system to recognize and combat these cells...
January 19, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100189/an-snp-based-saturated-genetic-map-and-qtl-analysis-of-fruit-related-traits-in-zucchini-using-genotyping-by-sequencing
#15
Javier Montero-Pau, José Blanca, Cristina Esteras, Eva Ma Martínez-Pérez, Pedro Gómez, Antonio J Monforte, Joaquín Cañizares, Belén Picó
BACKGROUND: Cucurbita pepo is a cucurbit with growing economic importance worldwide. Zucchini morphotype is the most important within this highly variable species. Recently, transcriptome and Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR)- and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)-based medium density maps have been reported, however further genomic tools are needed for efficient molecular breeding in the species. Our objective is to combine currently available complete transcriptomes and the Zucchini genome sequence with high throughput genotyping methods, mapping population development and extensive phenotyping to facilitate the advance of genomic research in this species...
January 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099506/spatial-and-host-related-variation-in-prevalence-and-population-density-of-wheat-curl-mite-aceria-tosichella-cryptic-genotypes-in-agricultural-landscapes
#16
Anna Skoracka, Mariusz Lewandowski, Brian G Rector, Wiktoria Szydło, Lechosław Kuczyński
The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer, is a major pest of cereals worldwide that also comprises a complex of at least 16 genetic lineages with divergent physiological traits, including host associations and specificity. The goal of this study was to test the extent to which host-plant species and landscape spatial variation influence WCM presence and population density across the entire area of Poland (>311,000 km2). Three important findings arose from the results of the study. (1) The majority of WCM lineages analyzed exhibited variation in patterns of prevalence and/or population density on both spatial and host-associated scales...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099273/making-the-most-of-hypomethylating-agents-in-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#17
Geetika Bhatt, William Blum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypomethylating agents (HMA) are the preferred therapy for patients with higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and an alternative therapeutic strategy for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia. These agents have improved both survival and quality of life, but results overall remain poor. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent developments in clinical research with HMA in MDS/acute myeloid leukemia over the last year. RECENT FINDINGS: Combination of HMA with B-cell lymphoma-2 inhibitors, hedgehog inhibitors, and a variety of other agents are underway, as are further studies with reformulated HMA that have more favorable pharmacokinetics (including oral bioavailability)...
January 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099083/update-on-alzheimer-s-disease-therapy-and-prevention-strategies
#18
W Vallen Graham, Alessandra Bonito-Oliva, Thomas P Sakmar
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the primary cause of age-related dementia. Effective strategies to prevent and treat AD remain elusive despite major efforts to understand its basic biology and clinical pathophysiology. Significant investments in therapeutic drug discovery programs over the past two decades have yielded some important insights but no blockbuster drugs to alter the course of disease. Because significant memory loss and cognitive decline are associated with neuron death and loss of gray matter, especially in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, some focus in drug development has shifted to early prevention of cellular pathology...
January 14, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098452/a-perspective-on-crocus-sativus-l-saffron-constituent-corcin-a-potent-water-soluble-antioxidant-and-potential-therapy-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
John W Finley, Song Gao
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in which the death of brain cells causes memory loss and cognitive decline. Several factors are thought to play roles in the development and course of AD. Existing medical therapies only alleviate and delay cognitive symptoms. Current research has been focused on developing antibodies to remove the targets of β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau protein. This approach has achieved removal of A, however, no long term success to AD patients reported. The biological properties of saffron, the dry stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098291/investigation-into-the-bioavailability-of-milk-protein-derived-peptides-with-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitory-activity-using-caco-2-cell-monolayers
#20
Isabelle M E Lacroix, Xiu-Min Chen, David D Kitts, Eunice C Y Li-Chan
In recent years, peptides derived from a variety of dietary proteins have been reported to exhibit inhibitory activity against the dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) enzyme, a target in the management of type 2 diabetes. While much attention has been given to the production and identification of peptides with DPP-IV inhibitory activity from food proteins, particularly dairy proteins, little is known on the bioavailability of these molecules. In this study, the stability and transport of five previously identified milk-derived peptides (LKPTPEGDL, LPYPY, IPIQY, IPI and WR) and a whey protein isolate (WPI) digest with DPP-IV-inhibitory activity were investigated using Caco-2 cell monolayers as a model system for human intestinal absorption...
January 18, 2017: Food & Function
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