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poisoning by benzodiazepines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621659/suicide-deaths-by-intentional-self-poisoning-in-people-with-cardiovascular-disease
#1
Michael Hawkins, Ayal Schaffer, Mark Sinyor, Yasunori Nishikawa, Nathan Herrmann, Krista L Lanctôt, Rima Styra, Maurizio Pompili, Jeffrey Huffman
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize self-poisoning deaths in people with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and compare to other suicide decedent groups. METHODS: Suicide deaths by self-poisoning in people with CVD (n = 151) were compared to suicide deaths by other methods in people with CVD (n = 260) and suicide deaths by self-poisoning in people without CVD (n = 509). Sub-analysis of the CVD self-poisoning group compared people with depression and without depression...
March 23, 2018: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498021/prescribed-dose-of-opioids-and-overdose-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-unintentional-prescription-opioid-overdose
#2
REVIEW
Adeleke D Adewumi, Samantha A Hollingworth, Joemer C Maravilla, Jason P Connor, Rosa Alati
BACKGROUND: The rate of an unintentional drug overdose involving prescription opioids continues to rise. An understanding of the threshold dose and dose(s) associated with unintentional prescription opioid overdose will help to mitigate this epidemic. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review is to systematically synthesise and meta-analyse studies on doses of prescription opioids and ascertain the doses of opioids that are associated with increased risk of severe opioid poisoning or mortality...
March 1, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442611/relative-toxicity-of-benzodiazepines-and-hypnotics-commonly-used-for-self-poisoning-an-epidemiological-study-of-fatal-toxicity-and-case-fatality
#3
Galit Geulayov, Anne Ferrey, Deborah Casey, Claudia Wells, Alice Fuller, Clare Bankhead, David Gunnell, Caroline Clements, Navneet Kapur, Jennifer Ness, Keith Waters, Keith Hawton
The relative toxicity of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs commonly used for self-poisoning was assessed using data on suicides, prescriptions and non-fatal self-poisonings in England, 2005-2012. Data on suicide by self-poisoning were obtained from the Office for National Statistics, information on intentional non-fatal self-poisoning was derived from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England and data on prescriptions in general practice from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We used two indices of relative toxicity: fatal toxicity (the number of fatal self-poisonings relative to the number of individuals prescribed each drug) and case fatality (the number of fatal relative to non-fatal self-poisonings)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334809/accidental-pharmacological-poisonings-in-young-children-population-based-study-in-three-settings
#4
Jane C Bell, Jason P Bentley, Catriona Downie, Rose Cairns, Nicholas A Buckley, Annette Katelaris, Sallie-Anne Pearson, Natasha Nassar
INTRODUCTION: Pharmacological poisonings in young children are avoidable. Previous studies report calls to poisons centres, presentations to emergency departments (ED) or hospital admissions. There are limited data assessing concurrent management of poisonings across all three settings. We aimed to describe accidental pharmacological poisonings in young children across our Poisons Information Centre (PIC), EDs and hospitals. METHODS: A population-based study in New South Wales, Australia, of PIC calls, ED presentations and hospital admissions for accidental pharmacological poisoning in children aged <5 years, 2007-2013...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331713/repeated-attempted-homicide-by-administration-of-drugs-documented-by-hair-analysis
#5
Valérie Baillif-Couniou, Christophe Bartoli, Caroline Sastre, Marjorie Chèze, Marc Deveaux, Georges Léonetti, Anne-Laure Pélissier-Alicot
Attempted murder by repeated poisoning is quite rare. The authors describe the case of a 62-year-old man who was admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for neurological disturbances complicated by inhalation pneumopathy. He presented a loss of consciousness while his wife was visiting him at the ICU (H0). Forty-eight hours later (H48), police officers apprehended the patient's wife pouring a liquid into his fruit salad at the hospital. Toxicological analyses of a blood sample and the infusion equipment (H0), as well as the fruit salad and its container (H48), confirmed the attempted poisoning with cyamemazine (H0) and hydrochloric acid (H48)...
February 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275216/mdpv-in-forensic-routine-cases-psychotic-and-aggressive-behavior-in-relation-to-plasma-concentrations
#6
Marco Diestelmann, Anna Zangl, Inge Herrle, Eva Koch, Matthias Graw, Liane D Paul
The new psychoactive substance 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) belongs to the group of synthetic cathinones and is purchased mainly as "research chemical" or "bath salt" on the illegal drug market, also in South Bavaria. MDPV was detected in blood and urine samples from 2010 on in 50 authentic routine cases in a forensic setting. Plasma concentrations in 46 cases with available blood specimens ranged from approximately 1.0 to 301μg/L (median 23.7; mean 47.9μg/L), detected by a fully validated LC-MS/MS method...
February 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227519/pediatric-poisoning-by-ingestion-developmental-overview-and-synopsis-of-national-trends
#7
Vincent R Lee, Michael Connolly, Diane P Calello
The American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data Surveillance System provides real-time toxico-surveillance and epidemiologic trends, and pediatric ingestions comprise most of those reports. The sequences in social and physical developmental milestones from young childhood to adolescence reveal the vulnerability of these age groups to a wide variety of potential poisonous ingestions. Most pediatric ingestions are exploratory. Some common agents associated with pediatric fatalities include disc batteries, laundry detergent "pods," opioid analgesics, acetaminophen, benzodiazepines, and amphetamines...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227273/-poisoning-by-psychopharmacological-drugs-in-azerbaijan-the-results-of-8-year-prospective-observation
#8
I Afandiyev, V Azizov
Acute poisoning of chemical etiology is a significant global public health problem. The aim of this study was the analysis of the toxicoepidemiological structure of psychopharmacological drugs poisoning in Azerbaijan. We collected and analyzed the data on all cases of acute poisoning by psychopharmacological drugs (codes of categories T42/T43 ICD-10) undergoing inpatient treatment at the Center of Clinical Toxicology in Baku, Azerbaijan in 2009-2016. The total number of patients with acute intoxication by psychopharmacological drugs was 3,413, which was 48...
November 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227118/complex-suicide-involving-pyrethroid-ingestion-mosquito-coils-and-fatal-self-wounding-by-sharp-force
#9
Maria -Valeria Karakasi, Pavlos Pavlidis, Epameinondas Vasilikos, Doxakis Anestakis, Nikolaos Raikos
"Complex suicide" is a term referring to the suicidal pattern in which more than one suicidal method is applied in the purpose of inducing death. The present paper aims to review complex suicide literature shortly and investigate an unusual planned complex suicide incident, the rarity of which is attributable to the combination of suicide methods as well as the type and quantity of substances applied to induce poisoning. A 33-year-old man with a history of psychotic depression was found dead in his bedroom lying within a large quantity of blood...
2017: Soudní Lékarství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179577/service-use-preceding-opioid-related-fatality
#10
Mark Olfson, Melanie Wall, Shuai Wang, Stephen Crystal, Carlos Blanco
OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed health service patterns before opioid-related death among nonelderly individuals in the Medicaid program, focusing on decedents with and without past-year diagnoses of noncancer chronic pain. METHODS: The authors identified opioid-related decedents, age ≤64 years, in the Medicaid program and characterized their clinical diagnoses, filled medication prescriptions, and nonfatal poisoning events during the 30 days and 12 months before death...
November 28, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095168/deaths-associated-with-brotizolam-poisoning-from-a-single-drug-overdose-four-reported-cases
#11
Kentaro Sakai, Kazuyuki Saito, Aya Takada, Wakako Hikiji, Yosuke Kikuchi, Tatsushige Fukunaga
Brotizolam is a short-acting hypnotic in the benzodiazepine family, and fatal poisonings by an overdose of brotizolam are rare. This report describes 4 cases of deaths associated with brotizolam poisoning from a single drug overdose. The ages ranged from 51 to 90 years, and the postmortem interval between death and tissue sampling was 1.5 to 2.5 days. These deaths were classified as 1 homicide and 3 suicides. The concentration of the brotizolam ranged from 0.05 to 0.21 mg/L in the blood samples. Ethanol, which could cause mild alcohol intoxication, was detected in the blood samples from 2 cases...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828702/-intoxication-with-psychotropic-drugs
#12
R Bellmann, M Joannidis
Psychotropic drugs are medications that are indicated for treatment of psychiatric disorders. Attempted suicide is the major reason for intoxication but inadvertent overdosing may also occur. Other psychotropic agents are taken because of their stimulating and hallucinogenic effects and many have a high addictive potential. Poisoning is usually due to accidental overdosing. For treatment of benzodiazepine and opioid intoxication, flumazenil and naloxone, respectively, are used as specific antagonists. For intoxication by tricyclic antidepressants, sodium bicarbonate is the treatment of choice...
September 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753046/levetiracetam-in-toxic-seizures
#13
Ted Lee, Brandon J Warrick, Preeyaporn Sarangarm, Robert L Alunday, Silas Bussmann, Susan C Smolinske, Steven A Seifert
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The use of levetiracetam (LEV) in the management of drug-induced seizures has not been systematically investigated. Repetitive and continuous seizures that do not respond to benzodiazepines require second line therapy. Levetiracetam has a unique receptor binding site, rapid absorption, no known cardiac effects at therapeutic doses, and is theoretically a good candidate for use in drug-induced seizures. We evaluate the safety of LEV and its association with seizure cessation in this retrospective chart review of patients who received LEV as a control agent in drug-induced seizures...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739777/establishment-of-a-comprehensive-drug-overdose-fatality-surveillance-system-in-kentucky-to-inform-drug-overdose-prevention-policies-interventions-and-best-practices
#14
Sarah L Hargrove, Terry L Bunn, Svetla Slavova, Dana Quesinberry, Tracey Corey, William Ralston, Michael D Singleton, Van Ingram
BACKGROUND: According to the National Center for Health Statistics, Kentucky had the third highest drug overdose fatality rate in the nation in 2015 at 29.9 drug overdose fatalities per 100 000 population. OBJECTIVE: The elevated drug overdose fatality rate necessitated the development and implementation of a comprehensive multisource drug overdose fatality surveillance system (DOFSS). METHODS: DOFSS stakeholder work group members and data sources were identified, and memorandums of understanding were established...
July 24, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691148/entomotoxicology-in-burnt-bodies-a-case-of-maternal-filicide-suicide-by-fire
#15
V Bugelli, L Papi, S Fornaro, F Stefanelli, S Chericoni, M Giusiani, S Vanin, C P Campobasso
One of the most common methods of maternal filicide is by fire. In this case study, a 40-year-old female and her children were found completely burned in a burnt out car. All bodies showed a degree of destruction by fire consisting to a level 3 of the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) and early stage of insect activity. Toxicological analyses were performed on soft tissues and body fluids still available. The results were positive for diazepam and its metabolites only for children with blood concentrations consistent with therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines...
July 9, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575013/adverse-drug-events-analysis-of-a-decade-a-portuguese-case-study-from-2004-to-2013-using-hospital-database
#16
Gianina Scripcaru, Ceu Mateus, Carla Nunes
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to characterise adverse drug events (ADE), including both adverse drug reaction (ADR) and accidental poisoning by drugs (AP), considering age, gender, length of stay (LOS), number of deaths and year, during the period 2004-2013. Additionally distributions of the ten's most frequent ADR and AP were characterized, considering age-group and gender. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive nationwide study was conducted, based on the hospital discharges database in Portugal from 2004 to 2013, using ICD-9...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566118/nbome-hallucinogenic-drug-exposures-reported-to-the-danish-poison-information-centre
#17
Gorm Roager Madsen, Tonny Studsgaard Petersen, Kim Peder Dalhoff
INTRODUCTION: N-benzylmethoxy (NBOMe) is a new class of hallucinogenic designer drugs sold on cheap blotter papers. They are potent 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A-receptor agonists, and since their recent entry into the drug market there have been worldwide reports of severe intoxications and even fatalities. This study reviews suspected NBOMe drug exposures reported to the Danish Poison Information Centre (DPIC). METHODS: Data from the DPIC database were extracted, including all enquiries with NBOMe exposures reported from 1 January 2013 to 30 June 2016...
June 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542985/cholinesterase-reactivators-and-bioscavengers-for-pre-and-post-exposure-treatments-of-organophosphorus-poisoning
#18
REVIEW
Patrick Masson, Florian Nachon
Organophosphorus agents (OPs) irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) causing a major cholinergic syndrome. The medical counter-measures of OP poisoning have not evolved for the last 30 years with carbamates for pretreatment, pyridinium oximes-based AChE reactivators, antimuscarinic drugs and neuroprotective benzodiazepines for post-exposure treatment. These drugs ensure protection of peripheral nervous system and mitigate acute effects of OP lethal doses. However, they have significant limitations...
August 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441901/patient-emergency-assessment-following-deliberate-self-poisoning-with-benzodiazepines-can-cognitive-markers-predict-recall-of-the-psychiatric-interview-a-pilot-study
#19
J Salles, J Pariente, C Dimeglio, P Gandia, B Lemesle, A Giron, N Franchitto, L Schmitt, E Very
STUDY HYPOTHESIS: In cases of deliberate self-poisoning (DSP), patients often ingest benzodiazepines (BZDs), known to alter memory. Experts recommend recovery of the patient's cognitive capacity before psychiatric assessment. Unfortunately, there is no validated tool in common practice to assess whether sufficient cognitive recovery has occurred after DSP with BZDs to ensure patient memory of the assessment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify cognitive functions and markers which predict preserved memory of the mental health care plan proposed at the emergency department after DSP...
October 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332123/self-poisoning-suicide-deaths-in-people-with-bipolar-disorder-characterizing-a-subgroup-and-identifying-treatment-patterns
#20
Ayal Schaffer, Lauren M Weinstock, Mark Sinyor, Catherine Reis, Benjamin I Goldstein, Lakshmi N Yatham, Anthony J Levitt
OBJECTIVE: To characterize self-poisoning suicide deaths in BD compared to other suicide decedents. METHODS: Extracted coroner data from all suicide deaths (n = 3319) in Toronto, Canada from 1998 to 2012. Analyses of demographics, clinical history, recent stressors, and suicide details were conducted in 5 subgroups of suicide decedents: BD self-poisoning, BD other methods, non-BD self-poisoning, non-BD other methods, and unipolar depression self-poisoning. Toxicology results for lethal and present substances were also compared between BD and non-BD self-poisoning subgroups as well as between BD and unipolar depression self-poisoning subgroups...
December 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
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