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toxoplasmosis treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630781/development-of-neurological-mouse-model-for-toxoplasmosis-using-toxoplasma-gondii-isolated-from-chicken-in-kenya
#1
John Mokua Mose, David Muchina Kamau, John Maina Kagira, Naomi Maina, Maina Ngotho, Adele Njuguna, Simon Muturi Karanja
Animal models for the toxoplasmosis are scarce and have limitations. In this study, a neurological mouse model was developed in BALB/c mice infected intraperitoneally with 15 cysts of a Toxoplasma gondii isolate. The mice were monitored for 42 days and euthanized at different time points. Another group of mice were orally treated with dexamethasone (DXM: 2.66 mg/kg daily, 5.32 mg/kg daily) at 42 days after infection and monitored for a further 42 days. A mortality rate of 15% and 28.6% was observed in mice given 2...
2017: Pathology Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626822/a-prospective-randomized-trial-of-azithromycin-versus-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-in-treatment-of-toxoplasmic-retinochoroiditis
#2
Alireza Lashay, Ahmad Mirshahi, Najaf Parandin, Hamid Riazi Esfahani, Mehdi Mazloumi, Mohammad Reza Lashay, Mohammad Karim Johari, Elham Ashrafi
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of oral azithromycin in the treatment of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. METHODS: A randomized interventional comparative study was conducted on 14 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis who were treated with oral azithromycin and 13 patients who were treated with oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for 6-12 weeks. The achievement of treatment criteria in the two groups and lesion size reduction were considered as primary outcome measures...
June 2017: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626452/proteomic-differences-between-developmental-stages-of-toxoplasma-gondii-revealed-by-itraq-based-quantitative-proteomics
#3
Ze-Xiang Wang, Chun-Xue Zhou, Hany M Elsheikha, Shuai He, Dong-Hui Zhou, Xing-Quan Zhu
Toxoplasma gondii has a complex two-host life-cycle between intermediate host and definitive host. Understanding proteomic variations across the life-cycle stages of T. gondii may improve the understanding of molecular adaption mechanism of T. gondii across life-cycle stages, and should have implications for the development of new treatment and prevention interventions against T. gondii infection. Here, we utilized LC-MS/MS coupled with iTRAQ labeling technology to identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) specific to tachyzoite (T), bradyzoites-containing cyst (C) and sporulated oocyst (O) stages of the cyst-forming T...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609444/identification-of-compounds-that-suppress-toxoplasma-gondii-tachyzoites-and-bradyzoites
#4
Yuho Murata, Tatsuki Sugi, Louis M Weiss, Kentaro Kato
Drug treatment for toxoplasmosis is problematic, because current drugs cannot eradicate latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii and can cause bone marrow toxicity. Because latent infection remains after treatment, relapse of infection is a problem in both infections in immunocompromised patients and in congenitally infected patients. To identify lead compounds for novel drugs against Toxoplasma gondii, we screened a chemical compound library for anti-Toxoplasma activity, host cell cytotoxicity, and effect on bradyzoites...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592362/toxoplasma-gondii-apoptosis-and-cellular-division-alterations-after-in-vitro-treatment-with-copper-ii-complexes
#5
J A Portes, C S Motta, N F Azeredo, C Fernandes, A Horn, W De Souza, R A DaMatta, S H Seabra
Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, which is one of the most common parasitic diseases in the world. Toxoplasmosis causes severe damage to immunocompromised hosts, and the most frequently used therapy is the combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, which has side effects. Thus, there is a need for new therapies that target T. gondii. Herein, we present the anti-Toxoplasma effect of two new copper(II) complexes: [(H2L1) Cu (μ-Cl)2 Cu(H2L1)] Cl2·5H2O (1) and [(H2L2) Cu (μ-Cl)2 Cu(H2L2)] Cl2·6H2O (2)...
April 20, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591758/are-the-polyomaviruses-bk-and-jc-associated-with-opportunistic-infections-graft-versus-host-disease-or-worse-outcomes-in-adult-patients-receiving-their-first-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-with-low-dose-alemtuzumab
#6
Laila Schneidewind, Thomas Neumann, Florian Knoll, Kathrin Zimmermann, Sigrun Smola, Christian Andreas Schmidt, William Krüger
BACKGROUND: The association of polyomaviruses BK and JC with other opportunistic infections and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in allogeneic stem cell transplantation is controversially discussed. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 64 adult patients who received their first allogeneic stem cell transplantation between March 2010 and December 2014; the follow-up time was 2 years. RESULTS: Acute leukemia was the most frequent underlying disease (45...
June 8, 2017: Acta Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591288/ocular-sarcoidosis-masked-by-positive-igm-for-toxoplasmosis
#7
Murilo Bertazzo Peres, Jacqueline Martins de Sousa, Heloisa Nascimento
We report a case of ocular sarcoidosis with positive immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG serology for toxoplasmosis. The patient was a young female with red painful eyes, bilateral eyelid edema, and panuveitis with periphlebitis. In laboratory testing, she was IgM and IgG positive for toxoplasmosis and anergic in the tuberculin test. Topical treatment for anterior uveitis and oral antibiotics for toxoplasmosis were started, without improvement. Orbit tomography showed increased lacrimal glands bilaterally, and chest X-ray radiographic findings were consistent with pulmonary sarcoidosis, which supported the presumed ocular sarcoidosis diagnosis...
March 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561960/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-and-septic-shock-in-a-cat-with-disseminated-toxoplasmosis
#8
Natashia A Evans, Julie M Walker, Alison C Manchester, Jonathan F Bach
OBJECTIVE: To describe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and septic shock in a cat with disseminated toxoplasmosis. CASE SUMMARY: A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was presented for acute respiratory distress. At the time of presentation it had been receiving cyclosporine for treatment of eosinophilic dermatitis. Thoracic radiographs revealed severe mixed nodular interstitial and alveolar patterns. An endotracheal wash was performed, which confirmed a diagnosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559264/synergistic-activity-between-statins-and-bisphosphonates-against-acute-experimental-toxoplasmosis
#9
Zhu-Hong Li, Catherine Li, Sergio H Szajnman, Juan B Rodriguez, Silvia N J Moreno
Bisphosphonates are widely used for the treatment of bone disorders. These drugs also inhibit growth of a variety of protozoan parasites like Toxoplasma gondii, the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis. The target of the most potent bisphosphonates is the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway enzyme farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS). Based on our previous work on the inhibitory effect of sulfur-containing linear bisphosphonates against T. gondii, we investigated the potential synergistic interaction between one of these derivatives (1-[(n-heptylthio)ethyl]-1,1-bisphosphonate, C7S, or compound 6) with statins, which are potent inhibitors of the host 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (3-HMG-CoA reductase)...
May 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527270/-effect-of-antenatal-spiramycin-treatment-on-the-frequency-of-retinochoroiditis-due-to-congenital-toxoplasmosis-in-a-colombian-cohort
#10
Liliana María Zuluaga, John Camilo Hernández, Carlos Felipe Castaño, Jorge Hernando Donado
INTRODUCTION: Gestational toxoplasmosis is frequent and severe. There is still debate about the benefits of treatment against ocular manifestations in the newborn. Spiramycin treatment is used for this purpose, unfortunately prenatal diagnosis is sometimes delayed and pregnant women are not treated. OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between treatment with spiramycin during pregnancy in mothers with gestational toxoplasmosis and development of ocular toxoplasmosis in newborns...
April 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516409/survival-after-severe-rhabdomyolysis-following-monensin-ingestion
#11
Michela Blain, Alexander Garrard, Robert Poppenga, Betty Chen, Matthew Valento, Melissa Halliday Gittinger
INTRODUCTION: Monensin is a veterinary antibiotic with a narrow therapeutic window that has led to lethal intoxication in many animal species. Only two prior cases of human toxicity have been reported, both fatal. We present the first case of survival from severe toxicity following monensin ingestion. CASE: A 58-year-old man presented with 8 days of vomiting and abdominal pain. Due to delusions of central nervous system toxoplasmosis, he ingested 300 mg of monensin...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513493/inflammatory-choroidal-neovascularization-in-indian-eyes-etiology-clinical-features-and-outcomes-to-anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor
#12
Rupak Roy, Kumar Saurabh, Aditya Bansal, Amitabh Kumar, Anindya Kishore Majumdar, Swakshyar Saumya Paul
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study the clinical profile of inflammatory choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and its treatment response to intravitreal bevacizumab or ranibizumab on pro re nata (PRN) basis in Indian eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective case series of consecutive patients with inflammatory CNV treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) in a tertiary eye care center in Eastern India between 2009 and 2014...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491442/respiratory-distress-associated-with-lungworm-infection-in-a-kitten
#13
Melissa M Hawley, Lynelle R Johnson, Donato Traversa, Dan Bucy, Karen M Vernau, William Vernau
CASE SUMMARY: A 5-month-old feral kitten developed worsening respiratory signs, including tachypnea, coughing and wheezing after standard anthelmintic treatment with fenbendazole at a local shelter. The kitten was referred to the University of California, Davis, William R Pritchard Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital for further evaluation. Thoracic radiographs revealed a severe diffuse bronchointerstitial pattern with bronchial cuffing, ill-defined nodules and lymphadenomegaly. Differentials included infectious etiologies such as toxoplasmosis, feline infectious peritonitis and cryptococcosis...
July 2016: JFMS open reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486997/the-antifungal-aureobasidin-a-and-an-analogue-are-active-against-the-protozoan-parasite-toxoplasma-gondii-but-do-not-inhibit-sphingolipid-biosynthesis
#14
A Q I Alqaisi, A J Mbekeani, M Bassas Llorens, A P Elhammer, P W Denny
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, and toxoplasmosis is an important disease of both humans and economically important animals. With a limited array of drugs available there is a need to identify new therapeutic compounds. Aureobasidin A (AbA) is an antifungal that targets the essential inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC, sphingolipid) synthase in pathogenic fungi. This natural cyclic depsipeptide also inhibits Toxoplasma proliforation, with the protozoan IPC synthase orthologue proposed as the target...
May 10, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486633/development-of-a-murine-vertical-transmission-model-for-toxoplasma-gondii-oocyst-infection-and-studies-on-the-efficacy-of-bumped-kinase-inhibitor-bki-1294-and-the-naphthoquinone-buparvaquone-against-congenital-toxoplasmosis
#15
Joachim Müller, Adriana Aguado-Martínez, Luis-Miguel Ortega-Mora, Javier Moreno-Gonzalo, Ignacio Ferre, Matthew A Hulverson, Ryan Choi, Molly C McCloskey, Lynn K Barrett, Dustin J Maly, Kayode K Ojo, Wes Van Voorhis, Andrew Hemphill
Objectives: Establishment of a mouse model for congenital toxoplasmosis based on oral infection with oocysts from Toxoplasma gondii ME49 and its application for investigating chemotherapeutic options against congenital toxoplasmosis. Methods: CD1 mice were mated, orally infected with 5, 25, 100, 500 or 2000 oocysts and monitored for clinical signs and survival of dams and pups until 4 weeks post partum . The parasite burden in infected mice was quantified by real-time PCR in lungs, brains and, in the case of surviving pups, also in eyes...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484433/toxoplasma-gondii-infection-induces-high-mobility-group-box-1-released-from-mouse-macrophages
#16
Hui Wang, Muzi Li, Jing Liu, Jianhai Xu, Qian Han, Qun Liu
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is abundantly expressed in intracellular engaged DNA binding ability. However, more importantly, it is a weapon against infection through proinflammatory response and immune regulation while released to extracellular. Toxoplasma gondii causes inflammatory pathological changes including ileitis and encephalitis in chronic infection. To investigate whether HMGB1 contributes to the toxoplasmosis lesions, we examined HMGB1 changes during T. gondii infection. The results showed that HMGB1 transcription was down-regulated in the murine macrophage ANA1 cell line and mouse peritoneal macrophages (PMΦs) after T...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477099/nanomedicine-advances-in-toxoplasmosis-diagnostic-treatment-and-vaccine-applications
#17
REVIEW
João Paulo Assolini, Virginia Márcia Concato, Manoela Daiele Gonçalves, Amanda Cristina Machado Carloto, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Francine Nesello Melanda, Idessania Nazareth Costa
Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii that affects about one third of the world's population. The diagnosis of this disease is carried out by parasite isolation and host antibodies detection. However, the diagnosis presents problems in regard to test sensitivity and specificity. Currently, the most effective T. gondii treatment is a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, although both drugs are toxic to the host. In addition to the problems that compromise the effective diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis, there are no reports or indications of any vaccine capable of fully protecting against this infection...
May 5, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462207/toxoplasma-gondii-and-pre-treatment-protocols-for-polymerase-chain-reaction-analysis-of-milk-samples-a-field-trial-in-sheep-from-southern-italy
#18
Alice Vismarra, Elena Barilli, Maura Miceli, Carlo Mangia, Cristina Bacci, Franco Brindani, Laura Kramer
Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Ingestion of raw milk has been suggested as a risk for transmission to humans. Here the authors evaluated pre-treatment protocols for DNA extraction on T. gondii tachyzoite-spiked sheep milk with the aim of identifying the method that resulted in the most rapid and reliable polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity. This protocol was then used to analyse milk samples from sheep of three different farms in Southern Italy, including real time PCR for DNA quantification and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism for genotyping...
January 24, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448726/intravitreal-injection-of-sulfamethoxazole-and-trimethoprim-associated-with-dexamethasone-as-an-alternative-therapy-for-ocular-toxoplasmosis
#19
Carlos E Souza, Heloisa Nascimento, Acácio Lima, Cristina Muccioli, Rubens Belfort
PURPOSE: To evaluate intravitreal injections of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim in association with dexamethasone for treating toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. METHODS: Thirteen patients with active, recurrent ocular focal toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis and visual acuity worse than 20/63 in the affected eye were included. Ocular toxoplasmosis was diagnosed according to the classic clinical findings. The primary end point was the change in the final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA)...
April 27, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448521/immunization-with-toxoplasma-gondii-peroxiredoxin-1-induces-protective-immunity-against-toxoplasmosis-in-mice
#20
Ragab M Fereig, Yasuhiro Kuroda, Mohamad Alaa Terkawi, Motamed Elsayed Mahmoud, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
To develop a vaccine against Toxoplasma gondii, a vaccine antigen with immune-stimulating activity is required. In the present study, we investigated the immunogenicity and prophylactic potential of T. gondii peroxiredoxin 1 (TgPrx1). The TgPrx1 was detected in the ascitic fluid of mice 6 days postinfection, while specific antibody levels were low in the sera of chronically infected mice. Treatment of murine peritoneal macrophages with recombinant TgPrx1 triggered IL-12p40 and IL-6 production, but not IL-10 production...
2017: PloS One
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