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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894616/histopathological-lesions-in-encephalon-and-heart-of-mice-infected-with-toxoplasma-gondii-increase-after-lycopodium-clavatum-200dh-treatment
#1
Andréia Vieira Pereira, Marcelo Biondaro Góis, Katiucha Rebeca Jennifer Lopes Lera, Gislane Janaina Falkowski-Temporini, Paula Fernanda Massini, Ricardo Nascimento Drozino, Denise Lessa Aleixo, Milena Menegazzo Miranda, Paulo da Silva Watanabe, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Idessania Nazareth da Costa, Mário Dos Anjos Neto Filho, Silvana Marques de Araújo, Wander Rogério Pavanelli
In many cases, symptoms of toxoplasmosis are mistaken for the ones of other infectious diseases. Clinical signs are rare in immunocompetent people. However, when they arise, in the acute phase of infection, several organs are affected due to the rapid spread of tachyzoites through the bloodstream. In the present study, the reduction of tachyzoites in peripheral blood of mice of G72 (infected 72h after treatment) and G48 (infected 48h after treatment and treated three more times), when compared with IC (infected and non-treated), suggests protective effect exerted by Lycopodium clavatum...
November 18, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884585/the-successful-treatment-of-5-fluorouracil-5-fu-overdose-in-a-patient-with-malignancy-and-hiv-aids-with-uridine-triacetate
#2
Cynthia Santos, Brent W Morgan, Robert J Geller
According to the NIH, about 275000 patients receive treatment with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and more than 1300 die from 5-FU toxicity every year from life-threatening myelosuppression, gastrointestinal complications, and neurotoxicity. Immunocompromised persons are at higher risk of developing toxicity. Recently uridine triacetate (Vistagard®) has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the only specific antidote available for 5-FU poisoning. In a clinical trial (n=135), 96% of patients with 5-FU toxicity recovered after treatment, where as in a historical control group only 10% survived...
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882478/unexpected-hosts-imaging-parasitic-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Pablo Rodríguez Carnero, Paula Hernández Mateo, Susana Martín-Garre, Ángela García Pérez, Lourdes Del Campo
Radiologists seldom encounter parasitic diseases in their daily practice in most of Europe, although the incidence of these diseases is increasing due to migration and tourism from/to endemic areas. Moreover, some parasitic diseases are still endemic in certain European regions, and immunocompromised individuals also pose a higher risk of developing these conditions. This article reviews and summarises the imaging findings of some of the most important and frequent human parasitic diseases, including information about the parasite's life cycle, pathophysiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment...
November 23, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877000/psychiatric-aspects-of-toxoplasmosis-an-indian-perspective
#4
Ajish G Mangot
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the well-studied parasites because of its medical and veterinary importance, and its suitability as a model for cell biology and molecular studies. Latent toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent host was considered benign until recently. The importance of this parasite has been steadily rising in the field of psychiatry and neurology as it has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. Researchers in India have unfortunately restricted themselves to finding the prevalence of toxoplasma antibodies in special populations and animals...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876967/in-vivo-effect-of-anti-tnf-agent-etanercept-in-reactivation-of-latent-toxoplasmosis
#5
Nagwa Mostafa El-Sayed, Khadiga Ahmed Ismail, Abeer Fathy Badawy, Khaled Fathy Elhasanein
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), an intracellular parasite, establishes a chronic infection by forming cysts preferentially in the brain. TNF-α plays an important role in controlling the infection caused by this protozoan. Thus, the blockade of TNF-α could cause reactivation of latent toxoplasmosis infection as well as increase the risk of acute toxoplasmosis. This study evaluated the effect of etanercept, a TNF-α antagonist in reactivation of latent toxoplasmosis compared to the therapeutic effect of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine in combination on the progress of the disease...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861692/-gestational-and-congenital-toxoplasmosis-a-practical-approach-to-disease-notification
#6
Jaqueline Dario Capobiango, Regina Mitsuka Breganó, Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes Mori, Italmar Teodorico Navarro, Josemari Sawczuk de Arruda Campos, Linda Tsuiko Tatakihara, Thalita Bento Talizin, Monica Dos Santos, Tayná Rolim Galvão Pereira, Simone Garani Narciso, Edna Maria Vissoci Reiche
OBJECTIVE: to demonstrate the experience of implanting toxoplasmosis notification during pregnancy and congenital toxoplasmosis in a Sentinel Unit (SU) and describe reported cases. METHODS: this was a descriptive study of the implantation of a notification protocol using a specific notification form for suspected cases of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and congenital toxoplasmosis in a reference center in Paraná State, Brazil, from August 2013 to August 2014. RESULTS: all 64 suspected cases were notified and case investigation was completed by the SU Epidemiology Sector; 63 received prenatal care and 51 received treatment during pregnancy; 7 of the children being clinically monitored had confirmed diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis...
January 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786246/hiv-associated-opportunistic-cns-infections-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Lauren N Bowen, Bryan Smith, Daniel Reich, Martha Quezado, Avindra Nath
Nearly 30 years after the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), CNS opportunistic infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Unknown HIV-positive disease status, antiretroviral drug resistance, poor drug compliance, and recreational drug abuse are factors that continue to influence the morbidity and mortality of infections. The clinical and radiographic pattern of CNS opportunistic infections is unique in the setting of HIV infection: opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients often have characteristic clinical and radiological presentations that can differ from the presentation of opportunistic infections in immunocompetent patients and are often sufficient to establish the diagnosis...
October 27, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723657/recent-developments-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-ocular-toxoplasmosis
#8
Cem Ozgonul, Cagri Giray Besirli
Ocular toxoplasmosis, a chorioretinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii, is the most common etiology of posterior uveitis in many countries. Accurate diagnosis depends heavily on the characteristic clinical features of this disease, but atypical presentations, especially in immunocompromised patients, may create diagnostic challenges and lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Molecular biology techniques to diagnose ocular toxoplasmosis have been available for many years and are now accessible as standard laboratory tests in many countries...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722101/toxoplasmosis-in-hiv-infection-an-overview
#9
Anuradha Basavaraju
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite presenting as a zoonotic infection distributed worldwide. In HIV-positive individuals, it causes severe opportunistic infections, which is of major public health concern as it results in physical and psychological disabilities. In healthy immunocompetent individuals, it causes asymptomatic chronic persistent infections, but in immunosuppressed patients, there is reactivation of the parasite if the CD4 counts fall below 200 cells/μl. The seroprevalence rates are variable in different geographic areas...
July 2016: Tropical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722099/congenital-toxoplasmosis-clinical-features-outcomes-treatment-and-prevention
#10
Sarman Singh
Toxoplasmosis is caused by a coccidian parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. The parasite is highly prevalent both in humans and in warm-blooded animals. Cat family animals are definitive host, and these animals excrete the infective oocysts in their feces. Humans, though not definitive host, get infection by consuming water or food contaminated with cat feces. Rarely, infection can also take place through transfusing the infected blood, through transplantation of infected organs, or transplacentally from infected mother to fetus...
July 2016: Tropical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721819/si-accumulation-in-artemisia-annua-glandular-trichomes-increases-artemisinin-concentration-but-does-not-interfere-in-the-impairment-of-toxoplasma-gondii-growth
#11
Cristina Rostkowska, Caroline M Mota, Taísa C Oliveira, Fernanda M Santiago, Lilian A Oliveira, Gaspar H Korndörfer, Regina M Q Lana, Monica L Rossi, Neusa L Nogueira, Xavier Simonnet, Tiago W P Mineo, Deise A O Silva, José R Mineo
Artemisia annua is used as a source of artemisinin, a potent therapeutic agent used for the treatment of infectious diseases, chiefly malaria. However, the low concentration (from 0.01 to 1.4% of dried leaf matter) of artemisinin in the plant obtained with the traditional cropping system makes it a relatively expensive drug, especially in developing countries. Considering that artemisinin and silicon (Si) are both stored in A. annua glandular trichomes, and that Si accumulation has never been investigated, this study aimed to look into Si effects on A...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704057/sulfadiazine-induced-obstructive-nephropathy-presenting-with-upper-urinary-tract-extravasation
#12
Maharan Kabha, Snir Dekalo, Sophie Barnes, Ishay Mintz, Haim Matzkin, Mario Sofer
Background: Obstructive nephropathy is an uncommon side effect of sulfadiazine, which is used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. We present a case of acute renal colic and urine extravasation of a patient shortly after she was started on this medication. Case Presentation: A 31-year-old female presented with acute renal colic 2 weeks after starting treatment with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine for ocular toxoplasmosis. Results: A noncontrast computed tomography revealed left hydronephrosis and fluid located around the kidney and in the left gutter...
2016: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688899/patterns-and-trends-in-mortality-among-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-patients-in-a-major-internal-medicine-unit-in-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#13
Josephine Mbuagbaw, Ahmadou M Jingi, Jean Jacques N Noubiap, Arnaud D Kaze, Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Jean Joel R Bigna, Edvine Wawo Yonta, Kathleen Ngu Blackett
OBJECTIVE: To describe the trends in mortality and the spectrum of disease in HIV-infected and -uninfected inpatients in a population in Yaoundé. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Internal Medicine Unit, University Hospital Centre, Yaoundé, Cameroon. PARTICIPANTS: All deaths registered between January 2000 and May 2007 in the unit. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features and results of all investigations done, cause of death...
September 2016: JRSM Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645234/evaluation-of-propranolol-effect-on-experimental-acute-and-chronic-toxoplasmosis-using-q-pcr
#14
Mahbobeh Montazeri, Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Mehdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Ahmad Daryani
Current therapies against toxoplasmosis are limited and drugs have significant side effects and low efficacies. We evaluated the potential anti-Toxoplasma activity of propranolol 2, 3 mg/kg/day in vivo in acute and chronic phases. Propranolol as the stabilizing cell membrane is a suitable drug for inhibiting the entrance of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) tachyzoites into cells. The acute phase was performed using propranolol, pyrimethamine, propranolol plus pyrimethamine before (pre-treatment) and after (post-treatment) intraperitoneally challenge with 1×10(3) tachyzoites of the virulent RH strain of T...
September 19, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643907/hiv-associated-neurologic-disorders-and-central-nervous-system-opportunistic-infections-in-hiv
#15
Leah T Le, Serena S Spudich
Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV has transformed from a fatal disease to a chronic illness that often presents with milder central nervous system (CNS) symptoms laced with related confounders. The immune recovery associated with access to cART has led to a new spectrum of immune-mediated presentations of infection, phenotypically distinct from the conditions observed in advanced disease.HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) entails a categorized continuum of disorders reflecting an array of clinical presentation, outcome, and increasing level of severity: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD)...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605978/cerebro-meningeal-infections-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-study-of-116-cases-in-libreville-gabon
#16
Magloire Ondounda, Chinenye Ilozue, Caroline Magne
BACKGROUND: Cerebro-meningeal pathology is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the aetiology is often difficult to ascertain with certainty. OBJECTIVE: To describe the major suspected and identified causes of meningeal or encephalitic syndromes in HIV infection in Libreville, Gabon. METHODS: A descriptive study using clinical records of patients hospitalised in the Department of Medicine in the Military Hospital of Libreville (Gabon) between January 2006 and May 2010...
June 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605827/the-inhibitory-effect-of-cromolyn-sodium-and-ketotifen-on-toxoplasma-gondii-entrance-into-host-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#17
Fatemeh Rezaei, Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh, Ahmad Daryani, Mehdi Sharif, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Shahabeddin Sarvi
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan with worldwide distribution and in spite of increasing information about its biology, treatment of toxoplasmosis is restricted to a few drugs and unfortunately using of each of drugs is associated with significant side effects in patients. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of cromolyn sodium and ketotifen as alternative drugs for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. In vitro; in case group, concentrations of 1, 5, 10 and 15 µg/ml of ketotifen and cromolyn sodium were added to RPMI medium containing peritoneal macrophages...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605794/pathobiology-of-human-rh-strain-induced-experimental-toxoplasmosis-in-murine-model
#18
Vikrant Sudan, A K Tewari, Harkirat Singh, R Singh
Of late, toxoplasmosis has gained immense importance as an opportunist parasite in immunocompromised patients. In immunocompromised subjects, the disease is supposed to occur in acute form and causes acute toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, the exact pathogenesis of other vital organs, particularly in acute form of infection, is still a matter of debate. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the pathogenesis of acute form of toxoplasmosis using cryopreserved human RH strain of the parasite in murine models...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598330/current-practices-in-ocular-toxoplasmosis-a-survey-of-brazilian-uveitis-specialists
#19
Fábio Barreto Morais, Tiago Eugênio Faria E Arantes, Cristina Muccioli
PURPOSE: To describe treatment practices for ocular toxoplasmosis among members of the Brazilian Uveitis Society. METHODS: An online questionnaire sent to specialists, between October 2014 and March 2015. RESULTS: Most respondents (67.9%) treat all active cases. Most specialists consider visual acuity <20/200 (88.2%), severe vitreous inflammation (94.1%), and ocular disease during acquired infection (88.2%) as absolute indications for treatment...
September 6, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591508/effect-of-honey-on-mrna-expression-of-tnf-%C3%AE-il-1%C3%AE-and-il-6-following-acute-toxoplasmosis-in-mice
#20
Narges Kalantari, Masomeh Ghasemi, Masomeh Bayani, Salman Ghaffari
This study analyzed the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in mice experimentally infected with T. gondii undergoing honey treatment. Thirty male mice were divided in groups: pre-treatment/infected (1), infected/non-treated (2), infected/treated (3), non-infected/treated (4) and control (5). Honey was applied for groups 1, 3, 4 by gavage and the mice in group 1-3 were infected by T. gondii tissue cysts. The parasite load and the level of mRNA expression of the aforementioned cytokines in the brains of mice were assessed by qPCR...
December 2016: Cytokine
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