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toxoplasmosis treatment

Cem Ozgonul, Cagri Giray Besirli
Ocular toxoplasmosis, a chorioretinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii, is the most common etiology of posterior uveitis in many countries. Accurate diagnosis depends heavily on the characteristic clinical features of this disease, but atypical presentations, especially in immunocompromised patients, may create diagnostic challenges and lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Molecular biology techniques to diagnose ocular toxoplasmosis have been available for many years and are now accessible as standard laboratory tests in many countries...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Research
Anuradha Basavaraju
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite presenting as a zoonotic infection distributed worldwide. In HIV-positive individuals, it causes severe opportunistic infections, which is of major public health concern as it results in physical and psychological disabilities. In healthy immunocompetent individuals, it causes asymptomatic chronic persistent infections, but in immunosuppressed patients, there is reactivation of the parasite if the CD4 counts fall below 200 cells/μl. The seroprevalence rates are variable in different geographic areas...
July 2016: Tropical Parasitology
Sarman Singh
Toxoplasmosis is caused by a coccidian parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. The parasite is highly prevalent both in humans and in warm-blooded animals. Cat family animals are definitive host, and these animals excrete the infective oocysts in their feces. Humans, though not definitive host, get infection by consuming water or food contaminated with cat feces. Rarely, infection can also take place through transfusing the infected blood, through transplantation of infected organs, or transplacentally from infected mother to fetus...
July 2016: Tropical Parasitology
Cristina Rostkowska, Caroline M Mota, Taísa C Oliveira, Fernanda M Santiago, Lilian A Oliveira, Gaspar H Korndörfer, Regina M Q Lana, Monica L Rossi, Neusa L Nogueira, Xavier Simonnet, Tiago W P Mineo, Deise A O Silva, José R Mineo
Artemisia annua is used as a source of artemisinin, a potent therapeutic agent used for the treatment of infectious diseases, chiefly malaria. However, the low concentration (from 0.01 to 1.4% of dried leaf matter) of artemisinin in the plant obtained with the traditional cropping system makes it a relatively expensive drug, especially in developing countries. Considering that artemisinin and silicon (Si) are both stored in A. annua glandular trichomes, and that Si accumulation has never been investigated, this study aimed to look into Si effects on A...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Maharan Kabha, Snir Dekalo, Sophie Barnes, Ishay Mintz, Haim Matzkin, Mario Sofer
Background: Obstructive nephropathy is an uncommon side effect of sulfadiazine, which is used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. We present a case of acute renal colic and urine extravasation of a patient shortly after she was started on this medication. Case Presentation: A 31-year-old female presented with acute renal colic 2 weeks after starting treatment with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine for ocular toxoplasmosis. Results: A noncontrast computed tomography revealed left hydronephrosis and fluid located around the kidney and in the left gutter...
2016: J Endourol Case Rep
Josephine Mbuagbaw, Ahmadou M Jingi, Jean Jacques N Noubiap, Arnaud D Kaze, Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Jean Joel R Bigna, Edvine Wawo Yonta, Kathleen Ngu Blackett
OBJECTIVE: To describe the trends in mortality and the spectrum of disease in HIV-infected and -uninfected inpatients in a population in Yaoundé. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Internal Medicine Unit, University Hospital Centre, Yaoundé, Cameroon. PARTICIPANTS: All deaths registered between January 2000 and May 2007 in the unit. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features and results of all investigations done, cause of death...
September 2016: JRSM Open
Mahbobeh Montazeri, Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Mehdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Ahmad Daryani
Current therapies against toxoplasmosis are limited and drugs have significant side effects and low efficacies. We evaluated the potential anti-Toxoplasma activity of propranolol 2, 3 mg/kg/day in vivo in acute and chronic phases. Propranolol as the stabilizing cell membrane is a suitable drug for inhibiting the entrance of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) tachyzoites into cells. The acute phase was performed using propranolol, pyrimethamine, propranolol plus pyrimethamine before (pre-treatment) and after (post-treatment) intraperitoneally challenge with 1×10(3) tachyzoites of the virulent RH strain of T...
September 19, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Leah T Le, Serena S Spudich
Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV has transformed from a fatal disease to a chronic illness that often presents with milder central nervous system (CNS) symptoms laced with related confounders. The immune recovery associated with access to cART has led to a new spectrum of immune-mediated presentations of infection, phenotypically distinct from the conditions observed in advanced disease.HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) entails a categorized continuum of disorders reflecting an array of clinical presentation, outcome, and increasing level of severity: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD)...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
Magloire Ondounda, Chinenye Ilozue, Caroline Magne
BACKGROUND: Cerebro-meningeal pathology is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the aetiology is often difficult to ascertain with certainty. OBJECTIVE: To describe the major suspected and identified causes of meningeal or encephalitic syndromes in HIV infection in Libreville, Gabon. METHODS: A descriptive study using clinical records of patients hospitalised in the Department of Medicine in the Military Hospital of Libreville (Gabon) between January 2006 and May 2010...
June 2016: African Health Sciences
Fatemeh Rezaei, Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh, Ahmad Daryani, Mehdi Sharif, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Shahabeddin Sarvi
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan with worldwide distribution and in spite of increasing information about its biology, treatment of toxoplasmosis is restricted to a few drugs and unfortunately using of each of drugs is associated with significant side effects in patients. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of cromolyn sodium and ketotifen as alternative drugs for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. In vitro; in case group, concentrations of 1, 5, 10 and 15 µg/ml of ketotifen and cromolyn sodium were added to RPMI medium containing peritoneal macrophages...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Vikrant Sudan, A K Tewari, Harkirat Singh, R Singh
Of late, toxoplasmosis has gained immense importance as an opportunist parasite in immunocompromised patients. In immunocompromised subjects, the disease is supposed to occur in acute form and causes acute toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, the exact pathogenesis of other vital organs, particularly in acute form of infection, is still a matter of debate. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the pathogenesis of acute form of toxoplasmosis using cryopreserved human RH strain of the parasite in murine models...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Fábio Barreto Morais, Tiago Eugênio Faria E Arantes, Cristina Muccioli
PURPOSE: To describe treatment practices for ocular toxoplasmosis among members of the Brazilian Uveitis Society. METHODS: An online questionnaire sent to specialists, between October 2014 and March 2015. RESULTS: Most respondents (67.9%) treat all active cases. Most specialists consider visual acuity <20/200 (88.2%), severe vitreous inflammation (94.1%), and ocular disease during acquired infection (88.2%) as absolute indications for treatment...
September 6, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Narges Kalantari, Masomeh Ghasemi, Masomeh Bayani, Salman Ghaffari
This study analyzed the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in mice experimentally infected with T. gondii undergoing honey treatment. Thirty male mice were divided in groups: pre-treatment/infected (1), infected/non-treated (2), infected/treated (3), non-infected/treated (4) and control (5). Honey was applied for groups 1, 3, 4 by gavage and the mice in group 1-3 were infected by T. gondii tissue cysts. The parasite load and the level of mRNA expression of the aforementioned cytokines in the brains of mice were assessed by qPCR...
December 2016: Cytokine
Rita Magano, Rita Jorge, Margarida Prata, Maria Conceição Ventura, José Gabriel Saraiva da Cunha
Infections of central nervous system (CNS) include a broad group of conditions and pose a particular challenge to physicians, especially in immunocompromised individuals. This case refers to a 26-year-old male patient with a history of smoked hashish and drug abuse admitted to the infectious disease department with hemiballismus of left hemibody and a positive HIV serologic test. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study showed lesions at lower left and right cerebellar hemisphere, one of them thalamus - mesencephalic suggesting an opportunistic infection or an HIV associated encephalopathy...
2016: IDCases
Jian Zhou, Gang Lu, Shenyi He
Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite and can infect warmblooded animals and humans all over the world. Development of effective vaccines is considered the only ideal way to control infection with T. gondii. However, only one live vaccine is commercially available for use in sheep and goats. Thus more effective antigenic proteins are searched for. In the present study we report a novel protein by secreted T. gondii termed Myc regulation 1 (MYR1). The physical and chemical characteristics, epitopes, hydrophilicity and functional sites of MYR1 were analysed by multiple bioinformatic approaches...
2016: Folia Parasitologica
Sarah C Sasson, Sarah Davies, Raymond Chan, Leo Davies, Roger Garsia
BACKGROUND: Patients with thymoma with immunodeficiency (TWI)/Good's syndrome characteristically have evidence of combined immunodeficiency including low or absent B-cells, hypogammaglobulinemia and defects in T-cell mediated immunity. These patients can present with common or opportunistic infections. CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old female was diagnosed with cerebral toxoplasmosis. This occurred on a background of metastatic thymoma previously treated with chemotherapy and myasthenia gravis (MG) treated with mycophenolate mofetil, monthly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and pyridostigmine...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Gabriela Brito de Oliveira, Maria Almerice Lopes da Silva, Leandro Batista Wanderley, Carolina da Cunha Correia, Eduardo Caetano Brandão Ferreira, Zulma Maria de Medeiros, José Luiz Lima Filho, Fábio Lopes de Melo, Paulo Sérgio Ramos de Araújo, Alfredo Henrique Cecílio Marins Santos
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of space occupying brain lesion in patients with HIV/AIDS in Brazil. In the post-HAART era, it is responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study consists of a case series of 56 patients diagnosed with cerebral toxoplasmosis whose clinical features, brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid aspects were analyzed. RESULTS: Cerebral toxoplasmosis led to the diagnosis of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 27 (48...
November 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Ibrahim Al Nasr, Faiyaz Ahmed, Fawaz Pullishery, Saeed El-Ashram, Vardharajula Venkata Ramaiah
Toxoplasmosis is a globally distributed parasitic protozoan disease, caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The infection can result in more severe symptoms with potentially life-threatening in case of immunocompromised individuals. Sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine are the two drugs used as a part of standard therapy for toxoplasmosis. Researchers have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of medicinal plants for toxoplasmosis, which can be used as an alternative to standard drug therapy with reduced side effects. Traditional herbal plants are used by people to cure a large number of parasitic disorders...
August 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Mahdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Abdol Sattar Pagheh, Shabnam Asfaram, Mohammad Taghi Rahimi, Saeed Mehrzadi, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Shirzad Gholami, Ahmad Daryani
The objective of the current study was to systematically review papers discussing the efficacy of medicinal herbs against Toxoplasma gondii. Data were systematically collected from published papers about the efficacy of herbs used against T. gondii globally from 1988 to 2015, from PubMed, Google Scholar, ISI Web of Science, EBSCO, Science Direct, and Scopus. Forty-nine papers were included in the current systematic review reporting the evaluation of medicinal plants against T. gondii globally, both in vitro and in vivo...
July 4, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Masahiko Sumi, Kazumi Norose, Kenji Hikosaka, Hiroko Kaiume, Wataru Takeda, Takehiko Kirihara, Taro Kurihara, Keijiro Sato, Toshimitsu Ueki, Yuki Hiroshima, Hiroshi Kuraishi, Masahide Watanabe, Hikaru Kobayashi
The prognosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis, including disseminated toxoplasmosis involving the lungs, following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is extremely poor due to the difficulties associated with early diagnosis and the rapidly progressive deterioration of multiorgan function. In our institution, we identified nine cases of toxoplasmosis, representing incidences of 2.2 and 19.6 % among all HSCT recipients and seropositive HSCT recipients, respectively. Of the patients with toxoplasmosis, six had pulmonary toxoplasmosis...
August 16, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
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