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toxoplasmosis treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283010/-effects-of-azithromycin-and-chlorella-vulgaris-treatment-on-certain-cytokine-values-and-nk-cell-activity-in-an-acute-murine-toxoplasmosis-model
#1
Deniz Gözde Çelik Payçu, Özden Büyükbaba Boral
Toxoplasmosis is a common infection with a complicated treatment process. Azithromycin (AZT) is a macrolide antibiotic that can be effectively used in patients with cerebral and ocular toxoplasmosis and has fewer side effects. Chlorella vulgaris (CV), a single-cell green algae that contains nutrients and has various biological effects. CV extract (CVE) has been shown to have protective effects against infections via immune enhancement by increasing the cytotoxicity of NK cells, IL-12 and IFN-γ levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of AZT and CV, individually and in combination, against acute toxoplasmosis in mice, and their effects on NK cell cytotoxixity, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-2 levels...
January 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276701/genomics-of-apicomplexan-parasites
#2
Lakshmipuram Seshadri Swapna, John Parkinson
The increasing prevalence of infections involving intracellular apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium (the causative agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively) represent a significant global healthcare burden. Despite their significance, few treatments are available; a situation that is likely to deteriorate with the emergence of new resistant strains of parasites. To lay the foundation for programs of drug discovery and vaccine development, genome sequences for many of these organisms have been generated, together with large-scale expression and proteomic datasets...
February 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274286/galectins-expressed-differently-in-genetically-susceptible-c57bl-6-and-resistant-balb-c-mice-during-acute-ocular-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#3
S-J Chen, Y-X Zhang, S-G Huang, F-L Lu
Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) caused by Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of infectious uveitis, however little is known about its immunopathological mechanism. Susceptible C57BL/6 (B6) and resistant BALB/c mice were intravitreally infected with 500 tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii. B6 mice showed more severe ocular pathology and higher parasite loads in the eyes. The levels of galectin (Gal)-9 and its receptors (Tim-3 and CD137), interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly higher in the eyes of B6 mice than those of BALB/c mice; however, the levels of IFN-α and -β were significantly decreased in the eyes and CLNs of B6 mice but significantly increased in BALB/c mice after infection...
March 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266723/contribution-of-dopamine-neurotransmission-in-proconvulsant-effect-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-male-mice
#4
Jalal Babaie, Mohammad Sayyah, Pezhman Fard-Esfahani, Majid Golkar, Kourosh Gharagozli
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders worldwide with no distinguishable cause in 60% of patients. One-third of world's population is infected with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). This intracellular parasite has high tendency to excitable cells including neurons. We assessed seizure susceptibility and involvement of dopaminergic system in male mice with acute and chronic T. gondii infection. Mice were infected by intraperitoneal injection of T. gondii cysts. Acute and chronic stages of infection were determined by quantification of SAG1/BAG1 transcripts and level of repetitive REP-529 sequence in the brain of mice by real-time PCR...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224388/ocular-safety-of-intravitreal-clindamycin-hydrochloride-released-by-plga-implants
#5
Gabriella M Fernandes-Cunha, Silvia Ligório Fialho, Gisele Rodrigues da Silva, Armando Silva-Cunha, Min Zhao, Francine Behar-Cohen
BACKGROUND: Drug ocular toxicity is a field that requires attention. Clindamycin has been injected intravitreally to treat ocular toxoplasmosis, the most common cause of eye posterior segment infection worldwide. However, little is known about the toxicity of clindamycin to ocular tissues. We have previously showed non intraocular toxicity in rabbit eyes of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) implants containing clindamycin hydrochloride (CLH) using only clinical macroscotopic observation...
February 21, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201950/uveitis-as-an-initial-manifestation-of-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome
#6
Chui-Lien Tsen, Shih-Chou Chen, Yao-Shen Chen, Shwu-Jiuan Sheu
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a multisystem disease that can involve the human eyes. Using ophthalmic examination records from January 2006 to November 2015, we retrospectively reviewed all patients who were diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in our hospital. The study was performed at a tertiary referral center in southern Taiwan. Data included age, gender, ophthalmic examinations, systemic conditions, CD4 cell counts, course, and treatment. Eleven patients were identified as having AIDS with uveitis as their presenting manifestation...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182168/drugs-in-development-for-toxoplasmosis-advances-challenges-and-current-status
#7
REVIEW
P Holland Alday, Joseph Stone Doggett
Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169858/central-nervous-system-infections-in-immunocompromised-patients
#8
Romain Sonneville, Eric Magalhaes, Geert Meyfroidt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although rare, central nervous system (CNS) infections are increasingly being recognized in immunocompromised patients. The goal of the present review is to provide a practical diagnostic approach for the intensivist, and to briefly discuss some of the most prevalent conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Immunocompromised patients presenting with new neurological symptoms should always be suspected of a CNS infection. These infections carry a poor prognosis, especially if intracranial hypertension, severely altered mental status or seizures are present...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168222/tgprelid-a-mitochondrial-protein-linked-to-multidrug-resistance-in-the-parasite-toxoplasma-gondii
#9
Victoria Jeffers, Edwin T Kamau, Ananth R Srinivasan, Jonathan Harper, Preethi Sankaran, Sarah E Post, Joseph M Varberg, William J Sullivan, Jon P Boyle
New drugs to control infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are needed as current treatments exert toxic side effects on patients. Approaches to develop novel compounds for drug development include screening of compound libraries and targeted inhibition of essential cellular pathways. We identified two distinct compounds that display inhibitory activity against the parasite's replicative stage: F3215-0002, which we previously identified during a compound library screen, and I-BET151, an inhibitor of bromodomains, the "reader" module of acetylated lysines...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163699/a-systematic-review-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activities-of-anti-toxoplasma-drugs-and-compounds-2006-2016
#10
REVIEW
Mahbobeh Montazeri, Mehdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Saeed Mehrzadi, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Ahmad Daryani
The currently available anti-Toxoplasma agents have serious limitations. This systematic review was performed to evaluate drugs and new compounds used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Data was systematically collected from published papers on the efficacy of drugs/compounds used against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) globally during 2006-2016. The searched databases were PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, ISI Web of Science, EBSCO, and Scopus. One hundred and eighteen papers were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review, which were both in vitro and in vivo studies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151845/high-frequency-of-bone-marrow-depression-during-congenital-toxoplasmosis-therapy-in-a-cohort-of-children-identified-by-neonatal-screening-in-minas-gerais-brazil
#11
Ericka Viana Machado Carellos, Juliana Queiroz de Andrade, Roberta Maia Castro Romanelli, Jacqueline Domingos Tibúrcio, José Nélio Januário, Daniel Vítor Vasconcelos-Santos, Rosângela Maria Figueiredo, Gláucia Manzan Queiroz de Andrade
BACKGROUND: There are few studies reporting frequency and control of adverse events associated with congenital toxoplasmosis treatment. The objective of this study is to describe treatment adherence and adverse hematologic events in a cohort of children identified with congenital toxoplasmosis in Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Children were treated with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine and folinic acid and were evaluated clinically and by laboratory tests at regular intervals...
January 31, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148555/targeting-toxoplasma-gondii-cpsf3-as-a-new-approach-to-control-toxoplasmosis
#12
Andrés Palencia, Alexandre Bougdour, Marie-Pierre Brenier-Pinchart, Bastien Touquet, Rose-Laurence Bertini, Cristina Sensi, Gabrielle Gay, Julien Vollaire, Véronique Josserand, Eric Easom, Yvonne R Freund, Hervé Pelloux, Philip J Rosenthal, Stephen Cusack, Mohamed-Ali Hakimi
Toxoplasma gondii is an important food and waterborne pathogen causing toxoplasmosis, a potentially severe disease in immunocompromised or congenitally infected humans. Available therapeutic agents are limited by suboptimal efficacy and frequent side effects that can lead to treatment discontinuation. Here we report that the benzoxaborole AN3661 had potent in vitro activity against T. gondii Parasites selected to be resistant to AN3661 had mutations in TgCPSF3, which encodes a homologue of cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 3 (CPSF-73 or CPSF3), an endonuclease involved in mRNA processing in eukaryotes...
March 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138052/estimating-burdens-of-neglected-tropical-zoonotic-diseases-on-islands-with-introduced-mammals
#13
Luz A de Wit, Donald A Croll, Bernie Tershy, Kelly M Newton, Dena Spatz, Nick D Holmes, A Marm Kilpatrick
Many neglected tropical zoonotic diseases are maintained by introduced mammals, and on islands the most common introduced species are rodents, cats, and dogs. Management of introduced mammals, including control or eradication of feral populations, which is frequently done for ecological restoration, could also reduce or eliminate the diseases these animals carry. Understanding the burden of these zoonotic diseases is crucial for quantifying the potential public health benefits of introduced mammal management...
January 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138010/diagnosis-treatment-and-prevention-of-congenital-toxoplasmosis-in-the-united-states
#14
Yvonne A Maldonado, Jennifer S Read
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125765/corticosteroids-as-adjuvant-therapy-for-ocular-toxoplasmosis
#15
REVIEW
Smitha Jasper, Satyanarayana S Vedula, Sheeja S John, Saban Horo, Yasir J Sepah, Quan Dong Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Ocular infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite, may result in inflammation in the retina, choroid, and uvea, and consequently lead to complications such as glaucoma, cataract, and posterior synechiae. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects of adjunctive use of corticosteroids to anti-parasitic therapy versus anti-parasitic therapy alone for ocular toxoplasmosis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register (2016; Issue 11)), MEDLINE Ovid, Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE Ovid Daily (January 1946 to December 2016), Embase (January 1980 to December 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS (January 1982 to December 2016)), the ISRCTN registry (www...
January 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118394/genetic-polymorphisms-and-phenotypic-profiles-of-sulfadiazine-resistant-and-sensitive-toxoplasma-gondii-isolates-obtained-from-newborns-with-congenital-toxoplasmosis-in-minas-gerais-brazil
#16
Letícia Azevedo Silva, João Luís Reis-Cunha, Daniella Castanheira Bartholomeu, Ricardo Wagner Almeida Vítor
BACKGROUND: Previous Toxoplasma gondii studies revealed that mutations in the dhps (dihydropteroate synthase) gene are associated with resistance to sulfonamides. Although Brazilian strains are genotypically different, very limited data are available regarding the susceptibility of strains obtained from human to sulfonamides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sulfadiazine (SDZ) against Brazilian isolates of T. gondii and verify whether isolates present polymorphisms in the dhps gene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086758/toxoplasmosis-associated-iris-involving-the-cns-a-case-report-with-longitudinal-analysis-of-t-cell-subsets
#17
Rita Rb-Silva, Claudia Nobrega, Eugénia Reiriz, Soraia Almeida, Rui Sarmento-Castro, Margarida Correia-Neves, Ana Horta
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients may present an unforeseen clinical worsening after initiating antiretroviral therapy known as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This syndrome is characterized by a heightened inflammatory response toward infectious or non-infectious triggers, and it may affect different organs. Diagnosis of IRIS involving the central nervous system (CNS-IRIS) is challenging due to heterogeneous manifestations, absence of biomarkers to identify this condition, risk of long-term sequelae and high mortality...
January 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052948/tb-or-not-to-be-kikuchi-fujimoto-disease-a-rare-but-important-differential-for-tb
#18
C McKenna, T Whitfield, N Patel, A Bonington
A 29-year-old British Pakistani woman presented with a 2-month history of drenching fevers, night sweats, lethargy and tender cervical and axillary lymphadenopathy. Initial investigations, bloods and imaging were unremarkable. Fever persisted during her admission, and treatment for tuberculosis (TB) lymphadenitis was started postbiopsy until histology confirmed a diagnosis of Kikuchi-Fujimoto's disease (KFD). KFD has a non-specific presentation of fever, night sweats and lymphadenopathy and commonly raises a clinical suspicion of a number of other serious conditions such as TB, lymphoma, HIV, systemic lupus erythematous, toxoplasmosis and infectious mononucleosis...
January 4, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043526/hiv-and-tuberculosis-trends-and-survival-of-coinfection-in-a-referral-center-in-tehran-a-12-year-study
#19
Parvaneh Baghaei, Payam Tabarsi, Syna Jabehdari, Majid Marjani, Afshin Moniri, Parissa Farnia, Ali Akbar Velayati
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The risk of mortality and morbidity among tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients is significantly higher than that of patients infected with TB alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of TB-HIV patients in a TB-referral center during a 10-year follow-up. METHODS: All TB-HIV patients in our referral center were enrolled in the study from 2003 to 2014, and patients were divided into two groups: HIV-TB patients without a history of TB treatment (new cases of TB) and HIV-TB patients with a history of TB treatment...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012901/pravastatin-and-simvastatin-inhibit-the-adhesion-replication-and-proliferation-of-toxoplasma-gondii-rh-strain-in-hela-cells
#20
Raquel Arruda Sanfelice, Suelen Santos da Silva, Larissa Rodrigues Bosqui, Milena Menegazzo Miranda-Sapla, Bellisa Freitas Barbosa, Rafaela José Silva, Eloísa A Vieira Ferro, Luciano Aparecido Panagio, Italmar Teodorico Navarro, Juliano Bordignon, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Wander Rogerio Pavanelli, Ricardo Sergio Almeida, Idessania Nazareth Costa
The conventional treatment for toxoplasmosis with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine shows toxic effects to the host, and it is therefore necessary to search for new drugs. Some studies suggest the use of statins, which inhibit cholesterol synthesis in humans and also the initial processes of isoprenoid biosynthesis in the parasite. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the activity of the statins pravastatin and simvastatin in HeLa cells infected in vitro with the RH strain of T. gondii. HeLa cells (1×10(5)) were infected with T...
March 2017: Acta Tropica
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