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toxoplasmosis treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414523/presence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-drinking-water-from-an-endemic-region-in-southern-mexico
#1
Ivonne B Hernandez-Cortazar, Karla Y Acosta-Viana, Eugenia Guzman-Marin, Antonio Ortega-Pacheco, Jose C Segura-Correa, Matilde Jimenez-Coello
Toxoplasmosis can be acquired through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii, highly resistant to the routinely disinfection processes; based on chlorination commonly used in the water supply industry. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of T. gondii DNA in samples of public drinking water from an endemic region of southern Mexico. In total 74 samples of water (5 L each) were collected from the three well fields (I, II, and III) and 71 independent wells, distributing public drinking water to the city of Merida Yucatan, after passing through the chlorination process...
April 17, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397514/fatal-disseminated-toxoplasmosis-in-a-zoological-collection-of-meerkats-i-suricata-suricatta-i
#2
Monica Burger, Elizabeth C Du Plessis, Essa Suleman, Brett R Gardner
Two confirmed cases of fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis occurred in an urban zoological collection of meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Both cases are suspected to be the result of feral cats gaining access to the enclosure. Toxoplasmosis has rarely been documented in meerkats. Subsequent to prophylactic treatment of all the animals and structural changes being implemented within the enclosure, no new cases have been recorded to date. Very little information is available on the disease in viverrids.
March 31, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394985/-chagas-disease-affecting-the-central-nervous-system-in-a-patient-with-aids-demonstrated-by-quantitative-molecular-methods
#3
Alberto Fica, Marcia Salinas, María Isabel Jercic, Jeannette Dabanch, Andrés Soto, Sergio Quintanilla, Carlos Flores
Although infrequent, Trypanosoma cruzi reactivation is possible among patients with HIV/AIDS infection that develop a tumor-like or granulomatous lesion in the CNS. We report the case of a 60 years old male patient with HIV/AIDS and low CD4 lymphocytes count with cerebellar symptoms and mild paresis, associated to supra and infratentorial hypodense lesions and positive serology tests both to T. gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi. Empirical therapy against toxoplasmosis was prescribed together with antiretroviral therapy but without a favorable response...
February 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329892/ocular-toxoplasmosis-therapy-related-adverse-drug-reactions-and-their-management
#4
M Helfenstein, S Zweifel, D Barthelmes, F Meier, J Fehr, C Böni
Background There are different treatment options for ocular toxoplasmosis (OT). "Classic" therapy consists of pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and folinic acid combined with systemic steroids and is still widely used. However, potentially severe side effects of this therapy have been reported. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence and types of adverse drug reactions in patients treated for OT. Clinical management of each adverse drug reaction was assessed. Patients and Methods In this retrospective analysis, we reviewed data of patients with OT, who were consecutively examined between December 2011 and December 2015 at the Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Zurich...
March 22, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326747/laboratory-methods-for-diagnostics-of-hiv-infection-and-hiv-associated-neuroinfections
#5
Pavol Beno, Alzbeta Kaiglova, Martin Samohyl
HIV Infection resulting in AIDS remains serious global public health problem. In the fight with the global health problem plays a key role a simple, reliable and fast diagnostics. An important method in diagnostics is the identification and detection of viral capside p24 antigen levels. Fourth generation tests for the diagnostics of HIV infection simultaneously detect the presence of HIV antibodies and p24 antigen. Based on the monitoring of CD4 count, we can estimate the stage in which the infection is, and we can also suggest a therapeutic approach...
January 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283010/-effects-of-azithromycin-and-chlorella-vulgaris-treatment-on-certain-cytokine-values-and-nk-cell-activity-in-an-acute-murine-toxoplasmosis-model
#6
Deniz Gözde Çelik Payçu, Özden Büyükbaba Boral
Toxoplasmosis is a common infection with a complicated treatment process. Azithromycin (AZT) is a macrolide antibiotic that can be effectively used in patients with cerebral and ocular toxoplasmosis and has fewer side effects. Chlorella vulgaris (CV), a single-cell green algae that contains nutrients and has various biological effects. CV extract (CVE) has been shown to have protective effects against infections via immune enhancement by increasing the cytotoxicity of NK cells, IL-12 and IFN-γ levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of AZT and CV, individually and in combination, against acute toxoplasmosis in mice, and their effects on NK cell cytotoxixity, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-2 levels...
January 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280256/late-onset-cerebral-toxoplasmosis-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#7
Ahmed M Khalaf, Mahmoud A Hashim, Mohammed Alsharabati, Kenneth Fallon, Joel K Cure, Peter Pappas, Shin Mineishi, Ayman Saad
BACKGROUND Toxoplasmosis is an uncommon but potentially fatal complication following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Post-transplant toxoplasmosis is often a reactivation of prior infection and typically occurs within the first 6 months of transplant. Herein, we report that cerebral toxoplasmosis may occur 22 months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. CASE REPORT We describe a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis that occurred 22 months after an allogeneic HCT while the patient was on aerosolized pentamidine for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276701/genomics-of-apicomplexan-parasites
#8
Lakshmipuram Seshadri Swapna, John Parkinson
The increasing prevalence of infections involving intracellular apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium (the causative agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively) represent a significant global healthcare burden. Despite their significance, few treatments are available; a situation that is likely to deteriorate with the emergence of new resistant strains of parasites. To lay the foundation for programs of drug discovery and vaccine development, genome sequences for many of these organisms have been generated, together with large-scale expression and proteomic datasets...
February 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274286/galectins-expressed-differently-in-genetically-susceptible-c57bl-6-and-resistant-balb-c-mice-during-acute-ocular-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#9
S-J Chen, Y-X Zhang, S-G Huang, F-L Lu
Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) caused by Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of infectious uveitis, however little is known about its immunopathological mechanism. Susceptible C57BL/6 (B6) and resistant BALB/c mice were intravitreally infected with 500 tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii. B6 mice showed more severe ocular pathology and higher parasite loads in the eyes. The levels of galectin (Gal)-9 and its receptors (Tim-3 and CD137), interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly higher in the eyes of B6 mice than those of BALB/c mice; however, the levels of IFN-α and -β were significantly decreased in the eyes and CLNs of B6 mice but significantly increased in BALB/c mice after infection...
March 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266723/contribution-of-dopamine-neurotransmission-in-proconvulsant-effect-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-male-mice
#10
Jalal Babaie, Mohammad Sayyah, Pezhman Fard-Esfahani, Majid Golkar, Kourosh Gharagozli
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders worldwide with no distinguishable cause in 60% of patients. One-third of world's population is infected with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). This intracellular parasite has high tendency to excitable cells including neurons. We assessed seizure susceptibility and involvement of dopaminergic system in male mice with acute and chronic T. gondii infection. Mice were infected by intraperitoneal injection of T. gondii cysts. Acute and chronic stages of infection were determined by quantification of SAG1/BAG1 transcripts and level of repetitive REP-529 sequence in the brain of mice by real-time PCR...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224388/ocular-safety-of-intravitreal-clindamycin-hydrochloride-released-by-plga-implants
#11
Gabriella M Fernandes-Cunha, Silvia Ligório Fialho, Gisele Rodrigues da Silva, Armando Silva-Cunha, Min Zhao, Francine Behar-Cohen
BACKGROUND: Drug ocular toxicity is a field that requires attention. Clindamycin has been injected intravitreally to treat ocular toxoplasmosis, the most common cause of eye posterior segment infection worldwide. However, little is known about the toxicity of clindamycin to ocular tissues. We have previously showed non intraocular toxicity in rabbit eyes of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) implants containing clindamycin hydrochloride (CLH) using only clinical macroscotopic observation...
February 21, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201950/uveitis-as-an-initial-manifestation-of-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome
#12
Chui-Lien Tsen, Shih-Chou Chen, Yao-Shen Chen, Shwu-Jiuan Sheu
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a multisystem disease that can involve the human eyes. Using ophthalmic examination records from January 2006 to November 2015, we retrospectively reviewed all patients who were diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in our hospital. The study was performed at a tertiary referral center in southern Taiwan. Data included age, gender, ophthalmic examinations, systemic conditions, CD4 cell counts, course, and treatment. Eleven patients were identified as having AIDS with uveitis as their presenting manifestation...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182168/drugs-in-development-for-toxoplasmosis-advances-challenges-and-current-status
#13
REVIEW
P Holland Alday, Joseph Stone Doggett
Toxoplasma gondii causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye diseases. Medicines that are currently used to treat toxoplasmosis commonly have toxic side effects and require prolonged courses that range from weeks to more than a year. The need for long treatment durations and the risk of relapsing disease are in part due to the lack of efficacy against T. gondii tissue cysts. The challenges for developing a more effective treatment for toxoplasmosis include decreasing toxicity, achieving therapeutic concentrations in the brain and eye, shortening duration, eliminating tissue cysts from the host, safety in pregnancy, and creating a formulation that is inexpensive and practical for use in resource-poor areas of the world...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169858/central-nervous-system-infections-in-immunocompromised-patients
#14
Romain Sonneville, Eric Magalhaes, Geert Meyfroidt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although rare, central nervous system (CNS) infections are increasingly being recognized in immunocompromised patients. The goal of the present review is to provide a practical diagnostic approach for the intensivist, and to briefly discuss some of the most prevalent conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Immunocompromised patients presenting with new neurological symptoms should always be suspected of a CNS infection. These infections carry a poor prognosis, especially if intracranial hypertension, severely altered mental status or seizures are present...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168222/tgprelid-a-mitochondrial-protein-linked-to-multidrug-resistance-in-the-parasite-toxoplasma-gondii
#15
Victoria Jeffers, Edwin T Kamau, Ananth R Srinivasan, Jonathan Harper, Preethi Sankaran, Sarah E Post, Joseph M Varberg, William J Sullivan, Jon P Boyle
New drugs to control infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are needed as current treatments exert toxic side effects on patients. Approaches to develop novel compounds for drug development include screening of compound libraries and targeted inhibition of essential cellular pathways. We identified two distinct compounds that display inhibitory activity against the parasite's replicative stage: F3215-0002, which we previously identified during a compound library screen, and I-BET151, an inhibitor of bromodomains, the "reader" module of acetylated lysines...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163699/a-systematic-review-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activities-of-anti-toxoplasma-drugs-and-compounds-2006-2016
#16
REVIEW
Mahbobeh Montazeri, Mehdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Saeed Mehrzadi, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Ahmad Daryani
The currently available anti-Toxoplasma agents have serious limitations. This systematic review was performed to evaluate drugs and new compounds used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Data was systematically collected from published papers on the efficacy of drugs/compounds used against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) globally during 2006-2016. The searched databases were PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, ISI Web of Science, EBSCO, and Scopus. One hundred and eighteen papers were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review, which were both in vitro and in vivo studies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151845/high-frequency-of-bone-marrow-depression-during-congenital-toxoplasmosis-therapy-in-a-cohort-of-children-identified-by-neonatal-screening-in-minas-gerais-brazil
#17
Ericka Viana Machado Carellos, Juliana Queiroz de Andrade, Roberta Maia Castro Romanelli, Jacqueline Domingos Tibúrcio, José Nélio Januário, Daniel Vítor Vasconcelos-Santos, Rosângela Maria Figueiredo, Gláucia Manzan Queiroz de Andrade
BACKGROUND: There are few studies reporting frequency and control of adverse events associated with congenital toxoplasmosis treatment. The objective of this study is to describe treatment adherence and adverse hematologic events in a cohort of children identified with congenital toxoplasmosis in Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Children were treated with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine and folinic acid and were evaluated clinically and by laboratory tests at regular intervals...
January 31, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148555/targeting-toxoplasma-gondii-cpsf3-as-a-new-approach-to-control-toxoplasmosis
#18
Andrés Palencia, Alexandre Bougdour, Marie-Pierre Brenier-Pinchart, Bastien Touquet, Rose-Laurence Bertini, Cristina Sensi, Gabrielle Gay, Julien Vollaire, Véronique Josserand, Eric Easom, Yvonne R Freund, Hervé Pelloux, Philip J Rosenthal, Stephen Cusack, Mohamed-Ali Hakimi
Toxoplasma gondii is an important food and waterborne pathogen causing toxoplasmosis, a potentially severe disease in immunocompromised or congenitally infected humans. Available therapeutic agents are limited by suboptimal efficacy and frequent side effects that can lead to treatment discontinuation. Here we report that the benzoxaborole AN3661 had potent in vitro activity against T. gondii Parasites selected to be resistant to AN3661 had mutations in TgCPSF3, which encodes a homologue of cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 3 (CPSF-73 or CPSF3), an endonuclease involved in mRNA processing in eukaryotes...
March 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138052/estimating-burdens-of-neglected-tropical-zoonotic-diseases-on-islands-with-introduced-mammals
#19
Luz A de Wit, Donald A Croll, Bernie Tershy, Kelly M Newton, Dena Spatz, Nick D Holmes, A Marm Kilpatrick
Many neglected tropical zoonotic diseases are maintained by introduced mammals, and on islands the most common introduced species are rodents, cats, and dogs. Management of introduced mammals, including control or eradication of feral populations, which is frequently done for ecological restoration, could also reduce or eliminate the diseases these animals carry. Understanding the burden of these zoonotic diseases is crucial for quantifying the potential public health benefits of introduced mammal management...
January 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138010/diagnosis-treatment-and-prevention-of-congenital-toxoplasmosis-in-the-united-states
#20
Yvonne A Maldonado, Jennifer S Read
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Pediatrics
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