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toxoplasmosis treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769499/toxoplasma-gondii-seropositivity-and-its-possible-associated-risk-factors-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-clinic-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-dhaka-bangladesh
#1
C R Naheen, S Tarafder, S Khan
Toxoplasmosis is a well-documented cause of bad obstetric history (BOH) and a major reason of congenitally acquired infection. This observational study was conducted to detect the rate of seropositivity of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and observe their risk factors associated with disease transmission attending the antenatal clinic of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2015 to August 2016. The study subjects included 150 pregnant women of different gestational ages...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765610/x-ray-and-cryo-em-structures-of-inhibitor-bound-cytochrome-bc-1-complexes-for-structure-based-drug-discovery
#2
Kangsa Amporndanai, Rachel M Johnson, Paul M O'Neill, Colin W G Fishwick, Alexander H Jamson, Shaun Rawson, Stephen P Muench, S Samar Hasnain, Svetlana V Antonyuk
Cytochrome bc 1 , a dimeric multi-subunit electron-transport protein embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane, is a major drug target for the treatment and prevention of malaria and toxoplasmosis. Structural studies of cytochrome bc 1 from mammalian homologues co-crystallized with lead compounds have underpinned structure-based drug design to develop compounds with higher potency and selectivity. However, owing to the limited amount of cytochrome bc 1 that may be available from parasites, all efforts have been focused on homologous cytochrome bc 1 complexes from mammalian species, which has resulted in the failure of some drug candidates owing to toxicity in the host...
March 1, 2018: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704469/current-treatment-of-ocular-toxoplasmosis-in-immunocompetent-patients-a-network-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Yanxia Zhang, Xiao Lin, Fangli Lu
Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is the most frequent form of infectious posterior uveitis caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. To evaluate the available evidence in peer-reviewed publications about the most effective therapy for OT in immunocompetent patients, herein a systematic literature search was conducted using Embase, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) database from January 1987 to October 2017, with search terms "OT", "retinochoroiditis", "treatment", and "immunocompetent"; search filters "controlled clinical trial", "randomized clinical trial", and "clinical trial"...
April 25, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693038/successful-treatment-of-cerebral-toxoplasmosis-using-pyrimethamine-oral-solution-compounded-from-inexpensive-bulk-powder
#4
Hayley A Hodgson, Taeyong Sim, Hemil Gonzalez, Mariam Aziz, Yoona Rhee, Paul O Lewis, Neel Jhobalia, Beth Shields, Sheila K Wang
A price increase of pyrimethamine tablets in the United States has made the life-saving drug difficult to acquire for hospitalized patients who need it most. We report the successful use of a pyrimethamine oral suspension compounded from an economical bulk powder in a patient with acute toxoplasmic encephalitis.
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684680/licochalcone-a-an-effective-and-low-toxicity-compound-against-toxoplasma-gondii-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#5
Hongfei Si, Chunyan Xu, Jili Zhang, Xukun Zhang, Bing Li, Xuzheng Zhou, Jiyu Zhang
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan, is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, which can cause serious public health problems. The current drugs used to treat toxoplasmosis have many limitations. This study evaluated the anti-T. gondii activity and potential mechanism of Licochalcone A (Lico A) in vitro and in vivo. The safe concentration of Lico A in HFF cells was determined by MTT cell viability assays. The presence of T. gondii was assessed by qPCR and Giemsa staining. Azithromycin and sulfadiazine, commonly used effective treatments, served as drug controls...
March 1, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682373/concentric-and-eccentric-target-mri-signs-in-a-case-of-hiv-associated-cerebral-toxoplasmosis
#6
Adam D Roche, Dominic Rowley, Francesca M Brett, Seamus Looby
Cerebral toxoplasmosis is one of the most common causes of focal brain lesions in immunocompromised patients, such as those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Differentiating toxoplasmosis from other central nervous system (CNS) lesions provides a significant clinical challenge. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain is key to prompt diagnosis and treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis. Several specific signs on MRI of brain have been described in recent literature including the "concentric target sign" and "eccentric target sign...
2018: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673005/seroepidemiological-map-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-and-associated-risk-factors-in-preconception-period-in-china-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-study
#7
Qiongjie Zhou, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yiping Zhang, Shikun Zhang, Xiaotian Li, Ganesh Acharya
AIM: The aims of this study were to investigate the regional differences in seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in preconception period among Chinese women of reproductive age and to evaluate associated risk factors. METHODS: This national, population-based, cross-sectional serosurvey covered all 31 provinces and province-level municipalities in Mainland China. Married women intending to get pregnant within 6 months between 2010 and 2012 were recruited. Information on demographic characteristics (age, place of residence, occupation, dietary habits and exposure to cat) was obtained using interviews, and venous blood samples were collected to screen for Toxoplasma gondii infection...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663900/congenital-toxoplasmosis-in-tunisia-prenatal-and-neonatal-diagnosis-and-postnatal-follow-up-of-35-cases
#8
Boudaouara Yosr, Aoun Karim, Maatoug Rania, Souissi Olfa, Bouratbine Aïda, Ben Abdallah Rym
Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) results from transplacental passage of Toxoplasma gondii to the fetus during acute maternal infection. Our study aims to report clinical and biological patterns of 35 cases of CT diagnosed at the department of the Parasitology of the Pasteur Institute of Tunis and to access the performance of prenatal and early postnatal diagnosis techniques. Serological screening of maternal infection was performed by Immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG detection and IgG avidity determination. Prenatal diagnosis was based on both Toxoplasma DNA detection in the amniotic fluid and monthly ultrasound examinations...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656829/-uveitis-treated-with-biotherapy-and-or-dmard-analysis-from-the-french-pharmacovigilance-study-base
#9
L Cabane, S Baillif, B Baldin, V Breuil, L Euller-Ziegler, N Tieulié
PURPOSE: To report the characteristics of uveitis cases occurring while on biologic therapy or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) reported to the French national pharmacovigilance database. METHODS: All the uveitis cases occurring in patients with chronic rheumatologic diseases, chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases or connective tissue diseases, while treated with DMARDs and/or biologic therapies between 2000 and 2015 and reported to the French National Pharmacovigilance Database were collected...
April 13, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652970/-congenital-toxoplasmosis-serology-pcr-parasite-isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#10
Liliana Carral, Federico Kaufer, Lais Pardini, Ricardo Durlach, Gastón Moré, María C Venturini, Cristina Freuler
Congenital toxoplasmosis diagnosis in the newborn is a very important issue due to the need for early treatment to prevent future sequels. Aim To compare available methods at the institution for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. Material and Methods In this study we have evaluated the different diagnostic tests used in 67 congenital exposed newborns, including serological tests, PCR, parasite isolation and molecular characterization. Results The ISAGA IgM and IgA tests showed sensitivity (Se) of 87 and 91%, respectively, and specificity (Sp) of 100%...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650289/optimization-of-dipeptidic-inhibitors-of-cathepsin-l-for-improved-toxoplasma-gondii-selectivity-and-cns-permeability
#11
Jeffery D Zwicker, Nicolas A Diaz, Alfredo J Guerra, Paul D Kirchhoff, Bo Wen, Duxin Sun, Vern B Carruthers, Scott D Larsen
The neurotropic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is the second leading cause of death due to foodborne illness in the US, and has been designated as one of five neglected parasitic infections by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Currently, no treatment options exist for the chronic dormant-phase Toxoplasma infection in the central nervous system (CNS). T. gondii cathepsin L (TgCPL) has recently been implicated as a novel viable target for the treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis. In this study, we report the first body of SAR work aimed at developing potent inhibitors of TgCPL with selectivity vs the human cathepsin L...
March 9, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644250/symptomatic-acute-toxoplasmosis-in-returning-travelers
#12
Andrés F Henao-Martínez, Carlos Franco-Paredes, Alan G Palestine, Jose G Montoya
We report a family who acquired acute toxoplasmosis after a trip to Central America. One member developed severe clinical manifestations including bilateral chorioretinitis, hepatitis, and myocarditis requiring therapy. Symptomatic acute toxoplasmosis is unusual and possesses a diagnostic challenge. We discuss the clinical and epidemiological implications, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment plan.
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604975/primary-cns-lymphoma-in-hiv-infection
#13
Dieta Brandsma, Jacoline E C Bromberg
Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) has been designated an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining disease since 1983 and accounts for up to 15% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. The majority of HIV patients are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related. The most likely etiology is ineffective immunoregulation of EBV, inducing oncogenic protein expression, and subsequent loss of apoptosis and increased proliferation of lymphocytes. PCNSL generally presents with supratentorial, single or multiple, contrast-enhancing lesions...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604970/central-nervous-system-infection-with-toxoplasma-gondii
#14
Christina M Marra
Central nervous system infection by Toxoplasma gondii, or Toxoplasma encephalitis, is the most common cause of brain mass lesions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. It usually presents as one or more brain abscesses, but it can also cause a diffuse encephalitis or ventriculitis. Individuals who are Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G-seropositive, who have peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell concentrations below 200/μL, are not on antiretroviral therapy, and are not taking trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to prevent Pneumocystis pneumonia, are at particular risk for Toxoplasma encephalitis...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583086/dual-infection-of-the-central-nervous-system-caused-by-cryptococcus-and-toxoplasma-in-a-patient-with-aids-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Jose Armando Gonzales Zamora
Dual infection of the central nervous system secondary to Cryptococcus and Toxoplasma is very uncommon, even in the setting of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report the case of a 52-year-old patient who was admitted with multiple cranial nerve deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging showed supratentorial and infratentorial enhancing lesions. He was newly diagnosed with HIV infection with a CD4 count of 59 cells/uL and HIV viral load of 299,619 copies/mL. Diagnosis of Cryptococcus meningitis was made by Cryptococcal antigen in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
March 27, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580227/first-case-report-of-m1-macrophage-polarization-in-an-untreated-symptomatic-patient-with-toxoplasmosis
#16
Graziano De Luca, Chiara Di Lisio, Giuseppe Lattanzio, Tommaso D'Antuono, Marcella Liberatore, Francesca Bianca Aiello
BACKGROUND: In immunocompetent patients, acute toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic. We identified M1 macrophages in a case of symptomatic acute Toxoplasma gondii infection that resolved without treatment. M1 macrophages have been demonstrated in animal models of toxoplasmosis, but not in humans. CASE PRESENTATION: A 63-year-old woman presented with laterocervical and axillary bilateral lymphadenopathy. Her anamnesis defined an episode of high fever and prolonged asthenia 4 months previously, which suggested an infectious disease...
March 27, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565998/two-key-cathepsins-tgcpb-and-tgcpl-are-targeted-by-the-vinyl-sulfone-inhibitor-k11777-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models-of-toxoplasmosis
#17
Juan D Chaparro, Timmy Cheng, Uyen Phuong Tran, Rosa M Andrade, Sara B T Brenner, Grace Hwang, Shara Cohn, Ken Hirata, James H McKerrow, Sharon L Reed
Although toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic infections worldwide, therapeutic options remain limited. Cathepsins, proteases that play key roles in the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis and many other protozoan infections, are important potential therapeutic targets. Because both TgCPB and TgCPL play a role in T. gondii invasion, we evaluated the efficacy of the potent, irreversible vinyl sulfone inhibitor, K11777 (N-methyl-piperazine-Phe-homoPhe-vinylsulfone-phenyl). The inhibitor's toxicity and pharmacokinetic profile have been well-studied because of its in vitro and in vivo activity against a number of parasites...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563791/anti-toxoplasma-activity-of-various-molecular-weights-and-concentrations-of-chitosan-nanoparticles-on-tachyzoites-of-rh-strain
#18
Aref Teimouri, Sanaz Jafarpour Azami, Hossein Keshavarz, Fariba Esmaeili, Rasoul Alimi, Sara Ayazian Mavi, Saeedeh Shojaee
Background: Natural polysaccharides such as chitosan (CS) are widely used as antimicrobial agents. In recent years, and considering that CS has a strong antimicrobial potential, interest has been focused on antimicrobial activity of chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs). The main factors affecting the antibacterial activity of chitosan include molecular weight (MW) and concentration. In this regard, the aim of this study was to produce various MWs and concentrations of CS NPs, through the ionic gelation method, and investigate their potential anti-parasitic activity against tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563388/prevalence-of-opportunistic-infections-and-causes-of-death-among-hospitalized-hiv-infected-patients-in-sichuan-china
#19
Wenwen Pang, Pengcheng Shang, Qingfeng Li, Jiao Xu, Lei Bi, Jing Zhong, Xiaofang Pei
Opportunistic infections (OIs) are the most significant complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The prevalence of OIs differs among various countries in part due to different climates and socio-economic conditions. We, therefore, carried out the retrospective study at the Public Health Clinical Center of Chengdu, Sichuan to comprehensively investigate the prevalence of OIs, predictors of OIs, and risk factors for in-hospital death among HIV-infected patients. Sichuan in West China is characterized by the largest population living with HIV/Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) across China...
March 2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559568/tgtkl1-is-a-unique-plant-like-nuclear-kinase-that-plays-an-essential-role-in-acute-toxoplasmosis
#20
Joseph M Varberg, Isabelle Coppens, Gustavo Arrizabalaga, Rajshekhar Y Gaji
In the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii , protein kinases have been shown to play key roles in regulating parasite motility, invasion, replication, egress, and survival within the host. The tyrosine kinase-like (TKL) family of proteins are an unexplored set of kinases in Toxoplasma Of the eight annotated TKLs in the Toxoplasma genome, a recent genome-wide loss-of-function screen showed that six are important for tachyzoite fitness. By utilizing an endogenous tagging approach, we showed that these six T...
March 20, 2018: MBio
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