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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506962/pair-feeding-but-not-insulin-phloridzin-or-rosiglitazone-treatment-curtails-markers-of-beta-cell-dedifferentiation-in-db-db-mice
#1
Emi Ishida, Ja Young Kim-Muller, Domenico Accili
Beta cell failure is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Among several cellular biological mechanisms of cellular dysfunction, we and others have recently proposed that dedifferentiation of beta cells can explain the slowly progressive onset and partial reversibility of beta-cell failure. Accordingly, we provided evidence of such processes in humans and experimental animal models of insulin-resistant diabetes. In this study, we asked whether beta cell dedifferentiation can be prevented with diet or pharmacological treatment of diabetes...
May 15, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493069/comparison-of-molecular-marker-expression-in-early-zebrafish-brain-development-following-chronic-ethanol-or-morpholino-treatment
#2
Chengjin Zhang, Oswald Boa-Amponsem, Gregory J Cole
This study was undertaken to ascertain whether defined markers of early zebrafish brain development are affected by chronic ethanol exposure or morpholino knockdown of agrin, sonic hedgehog, retinoic acid, and fibroblast growth factors, four signaling molecules that are suggested to be ethanol sensitive. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 2% ethanol from 6 to 24 hpf or injected with agrin, shha, aldh1a3, or fgf8a morpholinos. In situ hybridization was employed to analyze otx2, pax6a, epha4a, krx20, pax2a, fgf8a, wnt1, and eng2b expression during early brain development...
May 10, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476022/aldh1a3-in-cscs
#3
Kelly E Sullivan, Richard A Cerione, Kristin F Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465496/the-hunt-for-elusive-cancer-stem-cells
#4
Salvatore Condello, Nkechiyere G Nwani, Daniela Matei
News on: The stem cell/cancer stem cell marker ALDH1A3 regulates the expression of the survival factor tissue transglutaminase, in mesenchymal glioma stem cells by Sullivan et al. Onctoarget. 2017; 8:22325-22343. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.16479.
April 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443495/aldh1a3-correlates-with-luminal-phenotype-in-prostate-cancer
#5
Shangqian Wang, Chao Liang, Meiling Bao, Xiao Li, Lei Zhang, Shuang Li, Chao Qin, Pengfei Shao, Jie Li, Lixin Hua, Zengjun Wang
Prostate cancer is the most common male malignancies in the United States. The specific characteristics of different disease stages have been deeply investigated. We present our data on ALDH1A3 as a potential therapeutic target for the prostate cancer based on several functional investigations. Also, we used The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets for primary prostate cancer to detect the relevance of ALDH1A3 and prostate cancer luminal phenotype. We found that ALDH1A3 correlated with androgen receptor signaling pathway in primary prostate cancer, which is consistent with its luminal layer localization...
April 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423611/the-stem-cell-cancer-stem-cell-marker-aldh1a3-regulates-the-expression-of-the-survival-factor-tissue-transglutaminase-in-mesenchymal-glioma-stem-cells
#6
Kelly E Sullivan, Kathy Rojas, Richard A Cerione, Ichiro Nakano, Kristin F Wilson
Tissue transglutaminase (tTG), a dual-function enzyme with GTP-binding and acyltransferase activities, has been implicated in the survival and chemotherapy resistance of aggressive cancer cells and cancer stem cells, including glioma stem cells (GSCs). Using a model system comprising two distinct subtypes of GSCs referred to as proneural (PN) and mesenchymal (MES), we find that the phenotypically aggressive and radiation therapy-resistant MES GSCs exclusively express tTG relative to PN GSCs. As such, the self-renewal, proliferation, and survival of these cells was sensitive to treatment with tTG inhibitors, with a benefit being observed when combined with the standard of care for high grade gliomas (i...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364347/cyp1a1-based-on-metabolism-of-xenobiotics-by-cytochrome-p450-regulates-chicken-male-germ-cell-differentiation
#7
Dong Li, Man Wang, Shaoze Cheng, Chen Zhang, Yilin Wang, Wenhui Zhang, Ruifeng Zhao, Changhua Sun, Yani Zhang, Bichun Li
This study aimed to explore the regulatory mechanism of metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 during the differentiation process of chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and consummate the induction differentiation system of chicken embryonic stem cells (cESCs) into SSCs in vitro. We performed RNA-Seq in highly purified male ESCs, male primordial germ cells (PGCs), and SSCs that are associated with the male germ cell differentiation. Thereinto, the metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 was selected and analyzed with Venny among male ESC vs male PGC, male PGC vs SSC, and male ESC vs SSC groups and several candidates differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were excavated...
March 31, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280900/paracrine-gaba-and-insulin-regulate-pancreatic-alpha-cell-proliferation-in-a-mouse-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#8
Allen L Feng, Yun-Yan Xiang, Le Gui, Gesthika Kaltsidis, Qingping Feng, Wei-Yang Lu
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of increased proliferation of alpha cells in recent-onset type 1 diabetes. Pancreatic beta cells express GAD and produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which inhibits alpha cell secretion of glucagon. We explored the roles of GABA in alpha cell proliferation in conditions corresponding to type 1 diabetes in a mouse model and in vitro. METHODS: Type 1 diabetes was induced by injecting the mice with streptozotocin (STZ)...
March 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257834/anxa1ac2-26-peptide-a-possible-therapeutic-approach-in-inflammatory-ocular-diseases
#9
Laila Toniol Cardin, Nathália Martins Sonehara, Kallyne Kioko Oliveira Mimura, Anemari Ramos Dinarte Dos Santos, Wilson Araújo da Silva, Lays Martin Sobral, Andréia Machado Leopoldino, Bianca Rodrigues da Cunha, Eloiza H Tajara, Sonia Maria Oliani, Flávia Cristina Rodrigues-Lisoni
The eye is immunologically privileged when inflammatory responses are suppressed. One component responsible for the suppression of inflammatory responses is the blood retinal barrier, which comprises the retinal pigment epithelium. The destruction of this barrier initiates inflammation, which can affect any part of the eye. Therefore, inflammatory response is controlled by the action of anti-inflammatory mediators, among these mediators, annexin A1 (ANXA1) protein acts as a modulator of inflammation. In this study we aimed to improve the knowledge of this area by investigating how a peptide of the ANXA1 protein (ANXA1Ac2-26) modulates the morphology, proliferation, migration and expression of genes and proteins in human retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19)...
May 30, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216163/il-33-facilitates-endocrine-resistance-of-breast-cancer-by-inducing-cancer-stem-cell-properties
#10
Haiyan Hu, Jiaxing Sun, Chunhong Wang, Xiangmao Bu, Xiangping Liu, Yan Mao, Haibo Wang
Breast cancers with estrogen receptor (ER) expressions account for the majority of all clinical cases. Due to hormone therapy with tamoxifen, prognoses of patients with ER-positive breast cancer are significantly improved. However, endocrine resistance to tamoxifen is common and inevitable, leading to compromised efficacy of hormone therapy. Herein, we identify a crucial role of IL-33 in inducing endocrine resistance of breast cancer. IL-33 overexpression in breast cancer cells results in resistance to tamoxifen-induced tumor growth inhibition, while IL-33 knockdown corrects this problem...
April 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040834/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-plays-no-functional-role-in-stem-cell-like-properties-in-anaplastic-thyroid-cancer-cell-lines
#11
Mika Shimamura, Tomomi Kurashige, Norisato Mitsutake, Yuji Nagayama
Recent studies have revealed that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is a candidate marker for thyroid cancer stem cells, although its activity is flexible. The goal of this study is to clarify the functional significance of ALDH enzymatic activity on thyroid cancer stem cells properties in anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines. In vitro sphere formation assay was used to judge the stemness of 4 anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines (FRO, ACT1, 8505C, and KTC3). Two well-known ALDH inhibitors, N,N-diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB) and disulfiram (DS), were first used...
December 31, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917009/induced-expression-of-cancer-stem-cell-markers-aldh1a3-and-sox-2-in-hierarchical-reconstitution-of-apoptosis-resistant-human-breast-cancer-cells
#12
Karin Kashii-Magaribuchi, Rie Takeuchi, Yuko Haisa, Akemi Sakamoto, Aimi Itoh, Yuki Izawa, Miyuki Isa, Mayu Fukuzawa, Motonobu Murakami, Rei Takahashi
We established an experimental system that can induce p53-dependent apoptosis by doxycycline treatment to analyze characteristics of the apoptosis-resistant cancer cell subpopulation in the human breast cancer cell line HCC1937. Expression patterns of the stem cell markers, ALDH1A3 and Sox-2, the luminal differentiation marker, GATA3 and the proliferation index marker, Ki-67 were analyzed using immunostaining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). After doxycycline treatment, the number of viable cells was gradually decreased over seven days in a time-dependent manner due to p53-induced apoptosis; however, the number of smaller-sized ALDH1A3(+) cells assessed by immunostaining increased sharply after 1 day of doxycycline treatment, suggesting their apoptosis-resistant nature...
November 1, 2016: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852047/prognostic-gene-expression-profiling-in-esophageal-cancer-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Els Visser, Ingrid A Franken, Lodewijk A A Brosens, Jelle P Ruurda, Richard van Hillegersberg
BACKGROUND: Individual variability in prognosis of esophageal cancer highlights the need for advances in personalized therapy. This systematic review aimed at elucidating the prognostic role of gene expression profiles and at identifying gene signatures to predict clinical outcome. METHODS: A systematic search of the Medline, Embase and the Cochrane library databases (2000-2015) was performed. Articles associating gene expression profiles in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma to survival, response to chemo(radio)therapy and/or lymph node metastasis were identified...
January 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845622/sam68-promotes-self-renewal-and-glycolytic-metabolism-in-mouse-neural-progenitor-cells-by-modulating-aldh1a3-pre-mrna-3-end-processing
#14
Piergiorgio La Rosa, Pamela Bielli, Claudia Compagnucci, Eleonora Cesari, Elisabetta Volpe, Stefano Farioli Vecchioli, Claudio Sette
The balance between self-renewal and differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) dictates neurogenesis and proper brain development. We found that the RNA- binding protein Sam68 (Khdrbs1) is strongly expressed in neurogenic areas of the neocortex and supports the self-renewing potential of mouse NPCs. Knockout of Khdrbs1 constricted the pool of proliferating NPCs by accelerating their cell cycle exit and differentiation into post-mitotic neurons. Sam68 function was linked to regulation of Aldh1a3 pre-mRNA 3'-end processing...
November 15, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842518/mir-199a-5p-confers-tumor-suppressive-role-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#15
Jiawei Chen, Vivian Y Shin, Man T Siu, John C W Ho, Isabella Cheuk, Ava Kwong
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a poor prognostic factor for breast cancer since no effective targeted therapy is readily available. Our previous studies confirmed miR-199a-5p is a TNBC-specific circulating biomarker, however, its functional roles in breast cancer is largely unknown. Thus, we investigated the functional implication of miR-199a-5p in TNBC and its potential underlying mechanisms. METHODS: MTT assay was performed to investigate the cell proliferation after transient transfection of miR-199a-5p in MDA-MB-231 cell line, followed by cell cycle analysis...
November 14, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759097/crystal-structure-of-human-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1a3-complexed-with-nad-and-retinoic-acid
#16
Andrea Moretti, Jianfeng Li, Stefano Donini, Robert W Sobol, Menico Rizzi, Silvia Garavaglia
The aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3 (ALDH1A3) catalyzes the oxidation of retinal to the pleiotropic factor retinoic acid using NAD(+). The level of ALDHs enzymatic activity has been used as a cancer stem cell marker and seems to correlate with tumour aggressiveness. Elevated ALDH1A3 expression in mesenchymal glioma stem cells highlights the potential of this isozyme as a prognosis marker and drug target. Here we report the first crystal structure of human ALDH1A3 complexed with NAD(+) and the product all-trans retinoic acid (REA)...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724856/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-activity-plays-a-key-role-in-the-aggressive-phenotype-of-neuroblastoma
#17
Marjorie Flahaut, Nicolas Jauquier, Nadja Chevalier, Katya Nardou, Katia Balmas Bourloud, Jean-Marc Joseph, David Barras, Christian Widmann, Nicole Gross, Raffaele Renella, Annick Mühlethaler-Mottet
BACKGROUND: The successful targeting of neuroblastoma (NB) by associating tumor-initiating cells (TICs) is a major challenge in the development of new therapeutic strategies. The subfamily of aldehyde dehydrogenases 1 (ALDH1) isoenzymes, which comprises ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, and ALDH1A3, is involved in the synthesis of retinoic acid, and has been identified as functional stem cell markers in diverse cancers. By combining serial neurosphere passages with gene expression profiling, we have previously identified ALDH1A2 and ALDH1A3 as potential NB TICs markers in patient-derived xenograft tumors...
October 10, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717089/chromosomal-microarray-in-a-highly-consanguineous-population-diagnostic-yield-utility-of-regions-of-homozygosity-and-novel-mutations
#18
M A Alabdullatif, M A Al Dhaibani, M Y Khassawneh, A W El-Hattab
Chromosomal microarray (CMA) has significantly improved diagnosing copy number variations (CNVs). Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays confer additional utility in detecting regions of homozygosity (ROH). Investigating ROH for genes associated with recessive disorders for follow-up sequencing can aid in diagnosis. In this study, we performed a retrospective review of clinical and molecular data for 227 individuals from a highly consanguineous population who previously had a CMA. Pathogenic CNVs were identified in 32 (14%) cases; ROH suggesting uniparental disomy (UPD) in three (1%) cases, and an additional 25 (11%) individuals were diagnosed with recessive disorders caused by mutations in ROH candidate genes, thereby increasing the CMA diagnostic yield to 26%...
September 22, 2016: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706811/oncogenic-targets-mmp7-s100a9-nppb-and-aldh1a3-from-transcriptome-profiling-of-fap-and-pirc-adenomas-are-downregulated-in-response-to-tumor-suppression-by-clotam
#19
Furkan U Ertem, Wenqian Zhang, Kyle Chang, Wan Mohaiza Dashwood, Praveen Rajendran, Deqiang Sun, Ala Abudayyeh, Eduardo Vilar, Maen Abdelrahim, Roderick H Dashwood
Intervention strategies in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients and other high-risk colorectal cancer (CRC) populations have highlighted a critical need for endoscopy combined with safe and effective preventive agents. We performed transcriptome profiling of colorectal adenomas from FAP patients and the polyposis in rat colon (Pirc) preclinical model, and prioritized molecular targets for prevention studies in vivo. At clinically relevant doses in the Pirc model, the drug Clotam (tolfenamic acid, TA) was highly effective at suppressing tumorigenesis both in the colon and in the small intestine, when administered alone or in combination with Sulindac...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592281/citral-reduces-breast-tumor-growth-by-inhibiting-the-cancer-stem-cell-marker-aldh1a3
#20
Margaret Lois Thomas, Roberto de Antueno, Krysta Mila Coyle, Mohammad Sultan, Brianne Marie Cruickshank, Michael Anthony Giacomantonio, Carman Anthony Giacomantonio, Roy Duncan, Paola Marcato
Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) can be identified by increased Aldefluor fluorescence caused by increased expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A3 (ALDH1A3), as well as ALDH1A1 and ALDH2. In addition to being a CSC marker, ALDH1A3 regulates gene expression via retinoic acid (RA) signaling and plays a key role in the progression and chemotherapy resistance of cancer. Therefore, ALDH1A3 represents a druggable anti-cancer target of interest. Since to date, there are no characterized ALDH1A3 isoform inhibitors, drugs that were previously described as inhibiting the activity of other ALDH isoforms were tested for anti-ALDH1A3 activity...
November 2016: Molecular Oncology
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