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hydroxy fatty acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448884/antiproliferative-hydroxy-fatty-acids-from-the-fodder-legume-stylosanthes-guianensis
#1
Marco Clericuzio, Bruno Burlando, Barbara Borghesi, Annalisa Salis, Gianluca Damonte, Stefania Ribulla, Laura Cornara
Stylosanthes guianensis is a fodder legume native from South America and widely grown worldwide. Dried plant material was purchased on the web and taxonomically identified by light and SEM microscopy, and morphological analysis of plants germinated from seeds. The plant was extracted with dichloromethane:2-propanol (9:1). Bioguided fractionation using calcein-AM cytotoxicity assay on HeLa and A431 tumor cells allowed to isolate a lipophilic fraction, endowed with strong cytotoxicity. By means of 1- and 2-D NMR, HPLC-MS, and HR-ESIMS it could be seen that the fraction was an inseparable mixture of complex lipids, mainly consisting of esterified 3-hydroxy fatty acids...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442572/the-phospholipase-ipla2%C3%AE-is-a-major-mediator-releasing-oxidized-aliphatic-chains-from-cardiolipin-integrating-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-and-signaling
#2
Gao-Yuan Liu, Sung Ho Moon, Christopher M Jenkins, Maoyin Li, Harold F Sims, Shaoping Guan, Richard W Gross
Cardiolipin (CL) is a dimeric phospholipid with critical roles in mitochondrial bioenergetics and signaling. Recently, inhibition of the release of oxidized fatty acyl chains from CL by the calcium independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) selective inhibitor (R)-BEL suggested that iPLA2γ is responsible for the hydrolysis of oxidized CL and subsequent signaling mediated by the released oxidized fatty acids. However, chemical inhibition by BEL is subject to off-target pharmacologic effects. Accordingly, to unambiguously determine the role of iPLA2γ in the hydrolysis of oxidized CL, we compared alterations in oxidized CLs and the release of oxidized aliphatic chains from CL in experiments with purified recombinant iPLA2γ, germline iPLA2γ(-/-) mice, cardiac myocyte-specific iPLA2γ transgenic mice, and wild-type mice...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440547/development-of-lc-qtof-ms-method-for-human-lung-tissue-fingerprinting-a-preliminary-application-to-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#3
Michal Ciborowski, Joanna Kisluk, Karolina Pietrowska, Paulina Samczuk, Ewa Parfieniuk, Tomasz Kowalczyk, Miroslaw Kozlowski, Adam Kretowski, Jacek Niklinski
The major histologic subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) include adenocarcinoma (ADC), squamous cell lung carcinoma (SCC), and large-cell carcinoma (LCC). Clinical trials of targeted agents and newer chemotherapy agents yielded differences in outcomes according to histologic subgroups providing a rationale for histology-based treatment in NSCLC. Currently NSCLC subtyping is performed based on histopathological examinations and immunohistochemistry. However available methods leave about 10% of NSCLC cases as not otherwise specified...
April 25, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437190/consuming-a-ketogenic-diet-while-receiving-radiation-and-chemotherapy-for-locally-advanced-lung-cancer-and-pancreatic-cancer-the-university-of-iowa-experience-of-two-phase-1-clinical-trials
#4
Amir Zahra, Melissa A Fath, Emyleigh Opat, Kranti A Mapuskar, Sudershan K Bhatia, Daniel C Ma, Samuel N Rodman Iii, Travis P Snyders, Catherine A Chenard, Julie M Eichenberger-Gilmore, Kellie L Bodeker, Logan Ahmann, Brian J Smith, Sandy A Vollstedt, Heather A Brown, Taher Abu Hejleh, Gerald H Clamon, Daniel J Berg, Luke I Szweda, Douglas R Spitz, John M Buatti, Bryan G Allen
Ketogenic diets are low in carbohydrates and high in fat, which forces cells to rely more heavily upon mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids for energy. Relative to normal cells, cancer cells are believed to exist under a condition of chronic mitochondrial oxidative stress that is compensated for by increases in glucose metabolism to generate reducing equivalents. In this study we tested the hypothesis that a ketogenic diet concurrent with radiation and chemotherapy would be clinically tolerable in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic cancer and could potentially exploit cancer cell oxidative metabolism to improve therapeutic outcomes...
April 24, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431319/response-of-plasma-glucagon-like-peptide-2-to-feeding-pattern-and-intraruminal-administration-of-volatile-fatty-acids-in-sheep
#5
M Elsabagh, Y Inabu, T Obitsu, T Sugino
Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), a gut peptide secreted by enteroendocrine L cells, has recently been identified as a key regulator of intestinal growth and absorptive function in ruminants. However, reports on GLP-2 secretion are few, and more information regarding its secretion dynamics is needed. In this study, two experiments were conducted to elucidate the daily rhythm of GLP-2 secretion in response to feeding regimen and to investigate the effect of volatile fatty acids (VFA) on GLP-2 release in sheep...
March 11, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417225/comparative-proteomic-analysis-provides-insight-into-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic-acid-biosynthesis-in-honey-bee-workers
#6
Xiao-Hui Yang, Shi-Fa Yang, Rui-Ming Wang
10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) is the major compound produced from the mandibular glands (MGs) of honey bee workers. However, little information is available on the molecular mechanisms of 10-HDA biosynthesis. In our study, based on investigating the 10-HDA secretion pattern and the morphological characteristics of MGs from honey bee workers of different ages, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed in the MGs of workers with different 10-HDA production. In total, 59 up-regulated protein species representing 45 unique proteins were identified in high 10-HDA-producing workers by 2-DE-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS...
April 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416387/differential-regulation-of-the-lipoxygenase-pathway-in-shrimp-hepatopancreases-and-ovaries-during-ovarian-development-in-the-black-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-monodon
#7
Wananit Wimuttisuk, Punsa Tobwor, Pacharawan Deenarn, Chakapong Intaraudom, Thapanee Pruksatrakul, Sutichai Nithithanasilp, Somjai Wongtripop, Suwanchai Phomklad, Panomkorn Chaithongsakul, Vanicha Vichai
Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are critical to the success of ovarian development in marine crustaceans, especially for domesticated species such as the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. These fatty acids are stored in a midgut gland called the hepatopancreas and subsequently serve as an energy source or are incorporated in yolk during ovarian development. PUFAs are known precursors of hydroxy fatty acids, including hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (HEPE), which are catalyzed by lipoxygenases (LOX)...
April 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409238/studies-on-lipid-a-isolated-from-phyllobacterium-trifolii-petp02-t-lipopolysaccharide
#8
Katarzyna Zamlynska, Iwona Komaniecka, Kamil Zebracki, Andrzej Mazur, Anna Sroka-Bartnicka, Adam Choma
The structure of lipid A from lipopolysaccharide of Phyllobacterium trifolii PETP02(T), a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacterium, was studied. It was found that the lipid A backbone was composed of two 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucose (GlcpN3N) residues connected by a β-(1 → 6) glycosidic linkage, substituted by galacturonic acid (GalpA) at position C-1 and partly decorated by a phosphate residue at C-4' of the non-reducing GlcpN3N. Both diaminosugars were symmetrically substituted by 3-hydroxy fatty acids (14:0(3-OH) and 16:0(3-OH))...
April 13, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406627/diindolylmethane-derivatives-potent-agonists-of-the-immunostimulatory-orphan-g-protein-coupled-receptor-gpr84
#9
Thanigaimalai Pillaiyar, Meryem Köse, Katharina Sylvester, Heike Weighardt, Dominik Thimm, Gleice Borges, Irmgard Förster, Ivar von Kügelgen, Christa E Müller
The Gi protein-coupled receptor GPR84, which is activated by (hydroxy)fatty acids, is highly expressed on immune cells. Recently 3,3'-diindolylmethane was identified as a heterocyclic, non-lipid-like GPR84 agonist. We synthesized a broad range of diindolylmethane derivatives by condensation of indoles with formaldehyde in water under microwave irradiation. The products were evaluated at the human GPR84 in cAMP and β-arrestin assays. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) were steep. 3,3'-Diindolylmethanes bearing small lipophilic residues at the 5- and/or 7-position of the indole rings displayed the highest activity in cAMP assays, the most potent agonists being di-(5-fluoro-1H-indole-3-yl)methane (38, PSB-15160, EC50 80...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391860/lipidomic-analysis-for-carbonyl-species-derived-from-fish-oil-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#10
Joon Hyuk Suh, Yue S Niu, Wei-Lun Hung, Chi-Tang Ho, Yu Wang
Lipid peroxidation gives rise to carbonyl species, some of which are reactive and play a role in the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases. Oils are ubiquitous sources that can be easily oxidized to generate these compounds under oxidative stress. In this present work, we developed a targeted lipidomic method for the simultaneous determination of thirty-five aldehydes and ketones derived from fish oil, the omega-3 fatty acid-rich source, by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The analytes include highly toxic reactive carbonyl species (RCS) such as acrolein, crotonaldehyde, trans-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE), trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), trans-4-oxo-2-nonenal (ONE), glyoxal and methylglyoxal, all of which are promising biomarkers of lipid peroxidation...
June 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387122/asperphenins-a-and-b-lipopeptidyl-benzophenones-from-a-marine-derived-aspergillus-sp-fungus
#11
Lijuan Liao, Song Yi Bae, Tae Hyung Won, Minjung You, Seong-Hwan Kim, Dong-Chan Oh, Sang Kook Lee, Ki-Bong Oh, Jongheon Shin
Asperphenins A (1) and B (2), novel diastereomeric lipopeptidyl benzophenone metabolites, were isolated from a marine-derived Aspergillus sp. fungus. On the basis of the results of combined spectroscopic analyses, the structures of these compounds were determined to be linear assemblies of three motifs: a hydroxy fatty acid, a tripeptide, and a trihydroxybenzophenone. The absolute configurations were assigned using chemical modifications and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. The novel compounds exhibited significant cytotoxicity on diverse cancer cells...
April 7, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386666/electrophoretic-profiles-of-lipopolysaccharides-from-rhizobium-strains-nodulating-pisum-sativum-do-not-reflect-phylogenetic-relationships-between-these-strains
#12
Jolanta Kutkowska, Monika Marek-Kozaczuk, Jerzy Wielbo, Marek Wójcik, Teresa Urbanik-Sypniewska
Rhizobia that nodulate peas comprise a heterogeneous group of bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between phylogeny and electrophoretic and hydroxy fatty acid lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profiles of pea microsymbionts. Based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting data, the pea microsymbionts were grouped into two clusters distinguished at 58% similarity level. Based on the concatenated 16S rRNA, recA, and atpD housekeeping gene data, the microsymbionts appeared to be most closely related to Rhizobium leguminosarum biovars viciae and trifolii...
April 6, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384546/in%C3%A2-vitro-biological-evaluation-of-new-antimycobacterial-salicylanilide-tuftsin-conjugates
#13
Zsuzsa Baranyai, Martin Krátký, Rudolf Vosátka, Eleonóra Szabó, Zsuzsanna Senoner, Sándor Dávid, Jiřina Stolaříková, Jarmila Vinšová, Szilvia Bősze
Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an intracellular pathogen that can survive in host cells, mainly in macrophages. An increase of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis qualifies this infectious disease as a major public health problem worldwide. The cellular uptake of the antimycobacterial agents by infected host cells is limited. Our approach is to enhance the cellular uptake of the antituberculars by target cell-directed delivery using drug-peptide conjugates to achieve an increased intracellular efficacy...
March 24, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371855/enzymatic-and-non-enzymatic-mechanisms-contribute-to-lipid-oxidation-during-seed-aging
#14
Ayla Oenel, Agnes Fekete, Markus Krischke, Sophie C Faul, Gabriele Gresser, Michel Havaux, Martin J Mueller, Susanne Berger
Storage of seeds is accompanied by loss of germination and oxidation of storage and membrane lipids. A lipidomic analysis revealed that during natural and artificial aging of Arabidopsis seeds levels of several diacylglycerols and free fatty acids such as linoleic acid and linolenic acid as well as free oxidized fatty acids and oxygenated triacylglycerols increased. Lipids can be oxidized by enzymatic or non-enzymatic processes. In the enzymatic pathway, lipoxygenases catalyze the first oxygenation step of polyunsaturated fatty acids...
March 20, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371347/genetic-engineering-of-the-branched-fatty-acid-metabolic-pathway-of-bacillus-subtilis-for-the-overproduction-of-surfactin-c14-isoform
#15
Debarun Dhali, François Coutte, Anthony Argüelles Arias, Sandrine Auger, Vladimir Bidnenko, Gabrielle Chataigné, Michael Lalk, Joachim Niehren, Joana de Sousa, Cristian Versari, Philippe Jacques
Surfactin, a lipopeptide produced by Bacillus subtilis, is one of the most powerful biosurfactants known. This molecule consists of a cyclic heptapeptide linked to a β-hydroxy fatty acid chain. The isomery and the length of the fatty acid (FA) chain are responsible for the surfactin's activities. In this study, the gene codY, which encode for the global transcriptional regulator and the gene lpdV, located in the bkd operon (lpdV, bkdAA, bkdAB and bkdB genes), which is responsible for the last step of the branched chain amino acid (BCAA) degradation in acyl-CoA were deleted...
April 3, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350171/stereochemistry-of-endogenous-palmitic-acid-ester-of-9-hydroxystearic-acid-and-relevance-of-absolute-configuration-to-regulation
#16
Andrew T Nelson, Matthew J Kolar, Qian Chu, Ismail Syed, Barbara B Kahn, Alan Saghatelian, Dionicio Siegel
Lipids have fundamental roles in the structure, energetics, and signaling of cells and organisms. The recent discovery of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs), lipids with potent antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities, indicates that our understanding of the composition of lipidome and the function of lipids is incomplete. The ability to synthesize and test FAHFAs was critical in elucidating the roles of these lipids, but these studies were performed with racemic mixtures, and the role of stereochemistry remains unexplored...
March 28, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343576/the-metabolic-response-in-fish-to-mildly-elevated-water-temperature-relates-to-species-dependent-muscular-concentrations-of-imidazole-compounds-and-free-amino-acids
#17
Fikremariam Geda, Annelies M Declercq, Sofie C Remø, Rune Waagbø, Marta Lourenço, Geert P J Janssens
Fish species show distinct differences in their muscular concentrations of imidazoles and free amino acids (FAA). This study was conducted to investigate whether metabolic response to mildly elevated water temperature (MEWT) relates to species-dependent muscular concentrations of imidazoles and FAA. Thirteen carp and 17 Nile tilapia, housed one per aquarium, were randomly assigned to either acclimation (25°C) or MEWT (30°C) for 14 days. Main muscular concentrations were histidine (HIS; P<0.001) in carp versus N-α-acetylhistidine (NAH; P<0...
April 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341437/lipid-functions-in-skin-differential-effects-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-cutaneous-ceramides-in-a-human-skin-organ-culture-model
#18
Alexandra C Kendall, Magdalena Kiezel-Tsugunova, Luke C Brownbridge, John L Harwood, Anna Nicolaou
Ceramides are important for skin health, with a multitude of species found in both dermis and epidermis. The epidermis contains linoleic acid-Ester-linked Omega-hydroxylated ceramides of 6-Hydroxy-sphingosine, Sphingosine and Phytosphingosine bases (CER[EOH], CER[EOS] and CER[EOP], respectively), that are crucial for the formation of the epidermal barrier, conferring protection from environmental factors and preventing trans-epidermal water loss. Furthermore, a large number of ceramides, derivatives of the same sphingoid bases and various fatty acids, are produced by dermal and epidermal cells and perform signalling roles in cell functions ranging from differentiation to apoptosis...
March 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339712/effect-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-treatment-on-plasma-lipid-profile-and-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-hetian-broiler
#19
Z Xie, J Zhang, S Ma, X Huang, Y Huang
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether adding a Chinese herbal hedicine (CHM, including astragalus membranaceus, codonopsis pilosula, poria cocos, bighead atractylodes rhizome, fructus crataegi, folium epimedii, radix saposhnikoviae, and pericarpium citri reticulatae) diet has effects on lipid metabolism in the liver of the broiler. Six-hundred-thirty Hetian broilers were divided into 3 groups including base diet (control), 0.3%, or 1% CHM diets, for 130 days. The results showed that CHM treatment significantly increased the slaughter performance...
February 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335388/a-combination-of-flaxseed-oil-and-astaxanthin-improves-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-and-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#20
Jiqu Xu, Shuang Rong, Hui Gao, Chang Chen, Wei Yang, Qianchun Deng, Qingde Huang, Lingyun Xiao, Fenghong Huang
Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are crucial pathophysiological mechanisms for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, we examined the effect of a combination of flaxseed oil (FO) and astaxanthin (ASX) on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet. ASX was dissolved in flaxseed oil (1 g/kg; FO + ASX). Animals were fed diets containing 20% fat, where the source was lard, or 75% lard and 25% FO + ASX, or 50% lard and 50% FO + ASX, or FO + ASX, for 10 weeks...
March 13, 2017: Nutrients
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