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hydroxy fatty acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521794/in-vitro-synthesis-of-9-10-dihydroxyhexadecanoic-acid-using-recombinant-escherichia-coli
#1
Anees Kaprakkaden, Preeti Srivastava, Virendra Swarup Bisaria
BACKGROUND: Hydroxy fatty acids are widely used in food, chemical and cosmetic industries. A variety of dihydroxy fatty acids have been synthesized so far; however, no studies have been done on the synthesis of 9,10-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid. In the present study recombinant E. coli has been used for the heterologous expression of fatty acid hydroxylating enzymes and the whole cell lysate of the induced culture was used for in vitro production of 9,10-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid. RESULTS: A first of its kind proof of principle has been successfully demonstrated for the production of 9,10-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid using three different enzymes viz...
May 18, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512002/cell-surface-g-protein-coupled-receptors-for-tumor-associated-metabolites-a-direct-link-to-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Bojana Ristic, Yangzom D Bhutia, Vadivel Ganapathy
Mitochondria are the sites of pyruvate oxidation, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, ketogenesis, and fatty acid oxidation. Attenuation of mitochondrial function is one of the most significant changes that occurs in tumor cells, directly linked to oncogenesis, angiogenesis, Warburg effect, and epigenetics. In particular, three mitochondrial enzymes are inactivated in cancer: pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA synthase-2 (HMGCS2). These enzymes are subject to regulation via acetylation/deacetylation...
May 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509971/description-of-chryseobacterium-timonianum-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-patient-with-pneumonia
#3
Rita Abou Abdallah, Teresa Cimmino, Sophie Baron, Frédéric Cadoret, Caroline Michelle, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Fadi Bittar
Using a polyphasic taxonomic strategy, an aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, yellow pigmented rod isolated from a sputum sample of a patient with pneumonia was characterised. This bacterial strain, designated G972(T), could not be identified by our systematic MALDI-TOF screening on a MicroFlex. This led to the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, which shows 98.57% sequence identity with that of Chryseobacterium indologenes 16777(T), the phylogenetic closely related type strain of a species with standing in nomenclature, which putatively classifies it as a new species...
May 16, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506390/assessment-of-pharmacokinetic-interaction-between-omega-3-carboxylic-acids-and-the-statins-rosuvastatin-and-simvastatin-results-of-2-phase-i-studies-in-healthy-volunteers
#4
Elliot Offman, Michael Davidson, Catarina Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 carboxylic acids (OM3-CA) can lower triglyceride levels. OM3-CA is often prescribed concomitantly with a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the article was to assess the potential for pharmacokinetic interaction between OM3-CA and the statins rosuvastatin and simvastatin. METHODS: Data from 2 phase I studies (ECLIPSE III and OM-EPA-007 [NCT01486433]) were analyzed. In ECLIPSE III, 59 participants received OM3-CA 4 g once daily for 13 days, with rosuvastatin 40 mg (single dose) co-administered with the 11th dose...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497532/arabidopsis-thaliana-epoxide-hydrolase1-ateh1-is-a-cytosolic-epoxide-hydrolase-involved-in-the-synthesis-of-poly-hydroxylated-cutin-monomers
#5
Emmanuelle Pineau, Lin Xu, Hugues Renault, Adrien Trolet, Nicolas Navrot, Pascaline Ullmann, Bertrand Légeret, Gaëtan Verdier, Fred Beisson, Franck Pinot
Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are present in all living organisms. They have been extensively characterized in mammals; however, their biological functions in plants have not been demonstrated. Based on in silico analysis, we identified AtEH1 (At3g05600), a putative Arabidopsis thaliana epoxide hydrolase possibly involved in cutin monomer synthesis. We expressed AtEH1 in yeast and studied its localization in vivo. We also analyzed the composition of cutin from A. thaliana lines in which this gene was knocked out...
May 12, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495596/the-role-of-omega-3-and-omega-9-fatty-acids-for-the-treatment-of-neuropathic-pain-after-neurotrauma
#6
REVIEW
Iriana Galán-Arriero, Diego Serrano-Muñoz, Julio Gómez-Soriano, Carlos Goicoechea, Julian Taylor, Ana Velasco, Gerardo Ávila-Martín
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as Docosaexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), mediate neuroactive effects in experimental models of traumatic peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury. Cellular mechanisms of PUFAs include reduced neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, enhanced neurotrophic support, and activation of cell survival pathways. Bioactive omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids, such as Oleic Acid (OA) and 2-Hydroxy Oleic Acid (2-OHOA), also show therapeutic effects in neurotrauma models...
May 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492313/size-composition-and-source-profiles-of-inhalable-bioaerosols-from-colorado-dairies
#7
Joshua Schaeffer, Stephen J Reynolds, Sheryl Magzamen, Amanda VanDyke, Neil Gottel, Jack Gilbert, Sarah Owens, Jarrad T Hampton-Marcell, John Volckens
Particulate matter emissions from agricultural livestock operations contain both chemical and biological constituents that represent a potential human health hazard. The size and composition of these dusts, however, have not been well described. We evaluated the full size distribution (from 0 to 100 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and chemical/biological composition of inhalable dusts inside several Colorado dairy parlors. Four aerodynamic size fractions (<3, 3-10, 10-30, and >30μm) were collected and analyzed using a combination of physiochemical techniques to understand the structure of bacterial communities and chemical constituents...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491059/elucidation-of-the-role-of-3-hydroxy-fatty-acids-in-cryptococcus-amoeba-interactions
#8
Uju L Madu, Adepemi O Ogundeji, Carolina H Pohl, Jacobus Albertyn, Olihile M Sebolai
We previously reported that 3-hydroxy fatty acids promoted the survival of cryptococcal cells when acted upon by amoebae. To expand on this, the current study sought to explain how these molecules may protect cells. Our data suggest that 3-hydroxy fatty acids may subvert the internalization of cryptococcal cells via suppression of the levels of a fetuin A-like amoebal protein, which may be important for enhancing phagocytosis. Additionally, we show that an acapsular strain (that is devoid of 3-hydroxy fatty acids) was protected against the effects of hydrogen peroxide when exogenous 3-hydroxy fatty acids were present, but not in the absence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485254/high-dietary-arachidonic-acid-levels-induce-changes-in-complex-lipids-and-immune-related-eicosanoids-and-increase-levels-of-oxidised-metabolites-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#9
Anne-Catrin Adam, Kai K Lie, Mari Moren, Kaja H Skjærven
This study explores the effect of high dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) levels (high ARA) compared with low dietary ARA levels (control) on the general metabolism using zebrafish as the model organism. The fatty acid composition of today's 'modern diet' tends towards higher n-6 PUFA levels in relation to n-3 PUFA. Low dietary n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio is a health concern, as n-6 PUFA give rise to eicosanoids and PG, which are traditionally considered pro-inflammatory, especially when derived from ARA. Juvenile zebrafish fed a high-ARA diet for 17 d had a lower whole-body n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio compared with zebrafish fed a low-ARA (control) diet (0·6 in the control group v...
May 9, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463779/isolation-and-structural-characterization-of-glucosylceramides-from-ethiopian-plants-by-lc-apci-ms-ms
#10
Efrem N Tessema, Tsige Gebre-Mariam, Christian E H Schmelzer, Reinhard H H Neubert
Chronic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and aged skin are characterized by defective skin barrier and dryness which are associated with reduced levels of skin ceramides (CERs). The beneficial effects of plant-derived CERs for skin hydration and skin barrier recovery have been shown in several studies. Although plenty of glucosylceramide (GlcCER)-based dietary supplements meant for skin barrier improvement have been marketed, there are limited commercial sources of plant GlcCERs. In an attempt to explore alternative GlcCER sources, a reversed phase LC-MS/MS method with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface was developed for separation and structural identification of GlcCERs isolated from three plants...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459089/data-on-the-uptake-and-metabolism-of-testosterone-by-the-common-mussel-mytilus-spp
#11
Tamar I Schwarz, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Benjamin H Maskrey, Alexander P Scott
This article provides data in support of the research article entitled "Rapid uptake, biotransformation, esterification and lack of depuration of testosterone and its metabolites by the common mussel, Mytilus spp." (T.I. Schwarz, I. Katsiadaki, B.H. Maskrey, A.P. Scott, 2017) [1]. The uptake of tritiated testosterone (T) from water by mussels is presented. The two main radioactive peaks formed from T and present in the fatty acid ester fraction of mussel tissues were shown to have the same elution positions on a thin layer chromatography plate as 17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one (DHT) and 5α-androstan-3β,17β-diol (3β,17β-A5α)...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457553/effect-of-source-of-trace-minerals-in-either-forage-or-by-product-based-diets-fed-to-dairy-cows-1-production-and-macronutrient-digestibility
#12
M J Faulkner, W P Weiss
Excess rumen-soluble Cu and Zn can alter rumen microbial populations and reduce fiber digestibility. Because of differences in particle size and chemical composition, ruminal and total-tract digestibility of fiber from forage- and by-product-based diets can differ. We hypothesized that, because of differences in mineral solubility, diets with hydroxy rather than sulfate trace minerals would have greater fiber digestibility, but the effect may depend on source of fiber. Eighteen multiparous cows were used in a split-plot replicated Latin square with two 28-d periods to evaluate the effects of Cu, Zn, and Mn source (sulfates or hydroxy; Micronutrients USA LLC, Indianapolis, IN) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) source (forage diet = 26% NDF vs...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455137/influence-of-static-magnetic-field-exposure-on-fatty-acid-composition-in-salmonella-hadar
#13
Ramla Ben Mouhoub, Alya El May, Imed Cheraief, Ahmed Landoulsi
We have been interested, in this work, to investigate the effect of the exposure to static magnetic field at 200 mT (SMF) on the fatty acid (FA) composition of Salmonella enterica subsp Enterica serovar Hadar isolate 287: effects on the proportion of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (SFAs, UFAs), cyclopropane fatty acids (CFAs) and hydroxy fatty acids after exposure to the static magnetic field at 200 mT (SMF). Analysis with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) of total lipid showed that the proportion of the most fatty acids was clearly affected...
April 25, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448884/antiproliferative-hydroxy-fatty-acids-from-the-fodder-legume-stylosanthes-guianensis
#14
Marco Clericuzio, Bruno Burlando, Barbara Borghesi, Annalisa Salis, Gianluca Damonte, Stefania Ribulla, Laura Cornara
Stylosanthes guianensis is a fodder legume native from South America and widely grown worldwide. Dried plant material was purchased on the web and taxonomically identified by light and SEM microscopy, and morphological analysis of plants germinated from seeds. The plant was extracted with dichloromethane:2-propanol (9:1). Bioguided fractionation using calcein-AM cytotoxicity assay on HeLa and A431 tumor cells allowed to isolate a lipophilic fraction, endowed with strong cytotoxicity. By means of 1- and 2-D NMR, HPLC-MS, and HR-ESIMS it could be seen that the fraction was an inseparable mixture of complex lipids, mainly consisting of esterified 3-hydroxy fatty acids...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442572/the-phospholipase-ipla2%C3%AE-is-a-major-mediator-releasing-oxidized-aliphatic-chains-from-cardiolipin-integrating-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-and-signaling
#15
Gao-Yuan Liu, Sung Ho Moon, Christopher M Jenkins, Maoyin Li, Harold F Sims, Shaoping Guan, Richard W Gross
Cardiolipin (CL) is a dimeric phospholipid with critical roles in mitochondrial bioenergetics and signaling. Recently, inhibition of the release of oxidized fatty acyl chains from CL by the calcium independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) selective inhibitor (R)-BEL suggested that iPLA2γ is responsible for the hydrolysis of oxidized CL and subsequent signaling mediated by the released oxidized fatty acids. However, chemical inhibition by BEL is subject to off-target pharmacologic effects. Accordingly, to unambiguously determine the role of iPLA2γ in the hydrolysis of oxidized CL, we compared alterations in oxidized CLs and the release of oxidized aliphatic chains from CL in experiments with purified recombinant iPLA2γ, germline iPLA2γ(-/-) mice, cardiac myocyte-specific iPLA2γ transgenic mice, and wild-type mice...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440547/development-of-lc-qtof-ms-method-for-human-lung-tissue-fingerprinting-a-preliminary-application-to-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#16
Michal Ciborowski, Joanna Kisluk, Karolina Pietrowska, Paulina Samczuk, Ewa Parfieniuk, Tomasz Kowalczyk, Miroslaw Kozlowski, Adam Kretowski, Jacek Niklinski
The major histologic subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) include adenocarcinoma (ADC), squamous cell lung carcinoma (SCC), and large-cell carcinoma (LCC). Clinical trials of targeted agents and newer chemotherapy agents yielded differences in outcomes according to histologic subgroups providing a rationale for histology-based treatment in NSCLC. Currently NSCLC subtyping is performed based on histopathological examinations and immunohistochemistry. However available methods leave about 10% of NSCLC cases as not otherwise specified...
April 25, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437190/consuming-a-ketogenic-diet-while-receiving-radiation-and-chemotherapy-for-locally-advanced-lung-cancer-and-pancreatic-cancer-the-university-of-iowa-experience-of-two-phase-1-clinical-trials
#17
Amir Zahra, Melissa A Fath, Emyleigh Opat, Kranti A Mapuskar, Sudershan K Bhatia, Daniel C Ma, Samuel N Rodman Iii, Travis P Snyders, Catherine A Chenard, Julie M Eichenberger-Gilmore, Kellie L Bodeker, Logan Ahmann, Brian J Smith, Sandy A Vollstedt, Heather A Brown, Taher Abu Hejleh, Gerald H Clamon, Daniel J Berg, Luke I Szweda, Douglas R Spitz, John M Buatti, Bryan G Allen
Ketogenic diets are low in carbohydrates and high in fat, which forces cells to rely more heavily upon mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids for energy. Relative to normal cells, cancer cells are believed to exist under a condition of chronic mitochondrial oxidative stress that is compensated for by increases in glucose metabolism to generate reducing equivalents. In this study we tested the hypothesis that a ketogenic diet concurrent with radiation and chemotherapy would be clinically tolerable in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic cancer and could potentially exploit cancer cell oxidative metabolism to improve therapeutic outcomes...
April 24, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431319/response-of-plasma-glucagon-like-peptide-2-to-feeding-pattern-and-intraruminal-administration-of-volatile-fatty-acids-in-sheep
#18
M Elsabagh, Y Inabu, T Obitsu, T Sugino
Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), a gut peptide secreted by enteroendocrine L cells, has recently been identified as a key regulator of intestinal growth and absorptive function in ruminants. However, reports on GLP-2 secretion are few, and more information regarding its secretion dynamics is needed. In this study, two experiments were conducted to elucidate the daily rhythm of GLP-2 secretion in response to feeding regimen and to investigate the effect of volatile fatty acids (VFA) on GLP-2 release in sheep...
March 11, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417225/comparative-proteomic-analysis-provides-insight-into-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic-acid-biosynthesis-in-honey-bee-workers
#19
Xiao-Hui Yang, Shi-Fa Yang, Rui-Ming Wang
10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) is the major compound produced from the mandibular glands (MGs) of honey bee workers. However, little information is available on the molecular mechanisms of 10-HDA biosynthesis. In our study, based on investigating the 10-HDA secretion pattern and the morphological characteristics of MGs from honey bee workers of different ages, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed in the MGs of workers with different 10-HDA production. In total, 59 up-regulated protein species representing 45 unique proteins were identified in high 10-HDA-producing workers by 2-DE-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS...
April 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416387/differential-regulation-of-the-lipoxygenase-pathway-in-shrimp-hepatopancreases-and-ovaries-during-ovarian-development-in-the-black-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-monodon
#20
Wananit Wimuttisuk, Punsa Tobwor, Pacharawan Deenarn, Chakapong Intaraudom, Thapanee Pruksatrakul, Sutichai Nithithanasilp, Somjai Wongtripop, Suwanchai Phomklad, Panomkorn Chaitongsakul, Vanicha Vichai
Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are critical to the success of ovarian development in marine crustaceans, especially for domesticated species such as the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. These fatty acids are stored in a midgut gland called the hepatopancreas and subsequently serve as an energy source or are incorporated in yolk during ovarian development. PUFAs are known precursors of hydroxy fatty acids, including hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (HEPE), which are catalyzed by lipoxygenases (LOX)...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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