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hydroxy fatty acid

X Feng, R R White, H A Tucker, M D Hanigan
Methionine is considered one of the most important essential AA for milk protein synthesis in dairy cows. Supplementation of unprotected, free Met is nearly 100% degraded by ruminal microorganisms, which complicates supplementation. 2-Hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid (HMTBa) can be converted to Met in the body and is used as a Met source in dairy production. However, results of published studies assessing the effects of supplementing Met sources, including HMTBa, on performance variables are inconsistent...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Shan Leng, Tanja Winter, Harold M Aukema
There is much data on the effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on tissue fatty acid compositions, but comparable comprehensive data on their oxygenated metabolites (oxylipins) is limited. The effects of providing female and male rats with diets high in α-linolenic acid (ALA), EPA or DHA for 6 weeks on oxylipins and fatty acids in kidney, liver and serum were therefore examined. The oxylipin profile generally reflected fatty acids, but it also revealed unique effects of individual n-3 fatty acids that were not apparent from fatty acid data alone...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Sofiya Gancheva, Tomas Jelenik, Elisa Álvarez-Hernández, Michael Roden
Excessive energy intake and reduced energy expenditure drive the development of insulin resistance and metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolic signals derived from dietary intake or secreted from adipose tissue, gut, and liver contribute to energy homeostasis. Recent metabolomic studies identified novel metabolites and enlarged our knowledge on classic metabolites. This review summarizes the evidence of their roles as mediators of interorgan crosstalk and regulators of insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Salih Saricaoglu, Imen Nouioui, Hilal Ay, Hayrettin Saygin, Kadriye Inan Bektas, Kiymet Guven, Demet Cetin, Hans-Peter Klenk, Kamil Isik, Nevzat Sahin
Strain H2R21T , a novel actinobacterium, isolated from a forest soil sample collected from Heybeliada, Istanbul, Turkey, and a polyphasic approach was used for characterisation of the strain. Chemotaxonomic and morphological characterisation of strain H2R21T indicated that it belongs to the genus Nonomuraea. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that the strain is closely related to Nonomuraea purpurea 1SM4-01T (99.1%) and Nonomuraea solani CGMCC 4.7037T (98.4%). DNA-DNA relatedness values were found to be lower than 70% between the isolate and its phylogenetic neighbours N...
May 16, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Joonwon Kim, Hee-Wang Yoo, Minsuk Kim, Eun-Jung Kim, Changmin Sung, Pyung-Gang Lee, Beom Gi Park, Byung-Gee Kim
ω-Hydroxy palmitic acid (ω-HPA) is a valuable compound for an ingredient of artificially synthesized ceramides and an additive for lubricants and adhesives. Production of such a fatty acid derivative is limited by chemical catalysis, but plausible by biocatalysis. However, its low productivity issue, including formations of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) byproducts in host cells, remains as a hurdle toward industrial biological processes. In this study, to achieve selective and high-level production of ω-HPA from glucose in Escherichia coli, FadR, a native transcriptional regulator of fatty acid metabolism, and its regulon were engineered...
April 29, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Toshiyuki Takasu, Shoji Takakura
Ipragliflozin is a selective sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor that increases urinary glucose excretion and subsequently improves hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To assess the beneficial effect of ipragliflozin on the mass and function of pancreatic β-cells under diabetic conditions, obese T2DM db/db mice were treated with ipragliflozin for 5 weeks. Glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, pathological changes in pancreatic islet cells and insulin content were evaluated...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Kajal Chakraborty, Dexy Joseph
Ethyl acetate extracts of seaweeds were chromatographically fractionated to yield 14-methyl pentyl tetrahydro-8-hydroxy-10-methylnaphthalene-8-carboxylate (1) and tetrahydro-4-isopropyl-9-(9, 14-dimethyldec-9-enyl)-pyran-1-one (2) from Sargassum ilicifolium, whereas Padina gymnospora afforded dihydro-2-(10-(hydroxymethyl)-7,15-dimethyl-9-oxoundec-11-enyl)-2-methyl-2H-pyran-1(4H)-one (3) and 1-(decahydro-1-hydroxy-7-methyl-8-vinylnaphthalen-2-yl)ethanone (4) as major constituents. Compound 1 displayed significantly higher antioxidant activity (IC50  < 1 mg/mL, p < 0...
September 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Virginie Maillard, Alice Desmarchais, Maeva Durcin, Svetlana Uzbekova, Sebastien Elis
BACKGROUND: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) belonging to a family of biologically active fatty acids (FA), which are known to have numerous health benefits. N-3 PUFAs affect reproduction in cattle, and notably directly affect follicular cells. In terms of reproduction in cattle, n-3 PUFA-enriched diets lead to increased follicle size or numbers. METHODS: The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of DHA (1, 10, 20 and 50 μM) on proliferation and steroidogenesis (parametric and/or non parametric (permutational) ANOVA) of bovine granulosa cells in vitro and mechanisms of action through protein expression (Kruskal-Wallis) and signaling pathways (non parametric ANOVA) and to investigate whether DHA could exert part of its action through the free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFAR4)...
April 26, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Jackeline Franco, Christina Ferreira, Tiago J Paschoal Sobreira, John P Sundberg, Harm HogenEsch
Lipids are important structural and functional components of the skin. Alterations in the lipid composition of the epidermis are associated with inflammation and can affect the barrier function of the skin. SHARPIN-deficient cpdm mice develop a chronic dermatitis with similarities to atopic dermatitis in humans. Here, we used a recently-developed approach named multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-profiling and single ion monitoring to rapidly identify discriminative lipid ions. Shorter fatty acyl residues and increased relative amounts of sphingosine ceramides were observed in cpdm epidermis compared to wild type mice...
2018: PloS One
Mi Young Ahn, Ban Ji Kim, Hyung Joo Yoon, Jae Sam Hwang, Kun-Koo Park
Anti-diabetes activity of Catharsius molossus (Ca, a type of dung beetle) glycosaminoglycan (G) was evaluated to reduce glucose, creatinine kinase, triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in db mice. Diabetic mice in six groups were administrated intraperitoneally: Db heterozygous (Normal), Db homozygous (CON), Heuchys sanguinea glycosaminoglycan (HEG, 5 mg/kg), dung beetle glycosaminoglycan (CaG, 5 mg/kg), bumblebee ( Bombus ignitus ) queen glycosaminoglycan (IQG, 5 mg/kg) and metformin (10 mg/kg), for 1 month...
April 2018: Toxicological Research
Jung-Ung An, Seung-Hye Hong, Deok-Kun Oh
Lipoxygenase (LOX) is the key enzyme involved in the synthesis of oxylipins as signaling compounds that are important for cell growth and development, inflammation, and pathogenesis in various organisms. The regiospecificity of LOX from Myxococcus xanthus, a gram-negative bacterium, was investigated. The enzyme catalyzed oxygenation at the n-9 position in C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to form 12S- and 14S-hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs), respectively, and oxygenation at the n-6 position in C18 PUFAs to form 13-HFAs...
April 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Daniel Lunn, Gracen A Smith, James G Wallis, John Browse
Researchers have long endeavored to produce modified fatty acids in easily managed crop plants where they are not natively found. An important step toward this goal has been biosynthesis of these valuable products in model oilseeds. The successful production of such fatty acids has revealed barriers to broad application of this technology, including low seed oil and low proportion of the introduced fatty acid. An additional barrier, rarely examined in the literature, is reduced seed vigor. Here, we analyze the impact on seedling development of transgenic production of hydroxy-fatty acids...
April 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
Dongfang Wang, Xiaoyu Sun, Jingjing Yan, Biao Ren, Bing Cao, Qingbin Lu, Yaqiong Liu, Jing Zeng, Ninghua Huang, Qing Xie, Haiwei Gu, Jingyu Wang
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a multifactorial psychiatric disorder. Currently, its molecular pathogenesis remains largely unknown, and no reliable test for diagnosis and therapy monitoring is available. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their derived eicosanoid signaling abnormalities are relevant to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, comprehensive analysis of eicosanoids and related mediators for schizophrenia is very rare. In this study, we applied a targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based method to monitor 158 PUFAs, eicosanoids and related mediators from enzyme-dependent or independent pathways, in the serum samples of 109 healthy controls, and 115 schizophrenia patients at baseline and after an 8-week period of antipsychotic therapy...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Renate Gessmann, Hans Brückner, Albrecht Berg, Kyriacos Petratos
The crystal structure of the natural nonapeptide antibiotic helioferin has been determined and refined to 0.9 Å resolution. Helioferin consists of helioferin A and B, which contain 2-(2'-aminopropyl)aminoethanol (Apae) and 2-[(2'-aminopropyl)methylamino]ethanol (Amae) at their respective alkanolamine termini. In addition, helioferin contains the unusual amino-acid residues α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and (2S,4S,6S)-2-amino-6-hydroxy-4-methyl-8-oxodecanoic acid (Ahmod). The amino-terminus is capped with 2-methyl-n-1-octanoic acid (M8a)...
April 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
Marco Fiorillo, Maria Peiris-Pagès, Rosa Sanchez-Alvarez, Lucia Bartella, Leonardo Di Donna, Vincenza Dolce, Giovanni Sindona, Federica Sotgia, Anna Rita Cappello, Michael P Lisanti
Here, we show that a 2:1 mixture of Brutieridin and Melitidin, termed "BMF", has a statin-like properties, which blocks the action of the rate-limiting enzyme for mevalonate biosynthesis, namely HMGR (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA-reductase). Moreover, our results indicate that BMF functionally inhibits several key characteristics of CSCs. More specifically, BMF effectively i) reduced ALDH activity, ii) blocked mammosphere formation and iii) inhibited the activation of CSC-associated signalling pathways (STAT1/3, Notch and Wnt/beta-catenin) targeting Rho-GDI-signalling...
April 4, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Xiao-Yu Hu, Yun Li, Long-Quan Li, Yuan Zheng, Jia-Hong Lv, Shu-Chun Huang, Weinong Zhang, Liang Liu, Ling Zhao, Zhuiguo Liu, Xiu-Ju Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health burden in China, and its prevalence is increasing. This study aimed to determine the risk factors and biomarkers of NAFLD. DESIGN: An observational cross-sectional primary survey. SETTING: Central China. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 1479 participants aged over 18 and below 80 years, not currently being treated for cancer or infectious disease or no surgery in the previous year, and no history of cancer or an infectious disease...
April 5, 2018: BMJ Open
Zaigao Tan, Jong Moon Yoon, Anupam Chowdhury, Kaitlin Burdick, Laura R Jarboe, Costas D Maranas, Jacqueline V Shanks
Background: As a versatile platform chemical, construction of microbial catalysts for free octanoic acid production from biorenewable feedstocks is a promising alternative to existing petroleum-based methods. However, the bio-production strategy has been restricted by the low capacity of E. coli inherent fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, a combination of integrated computational and experimental approach was performed to manipulate the E. coli existing metabolic network, with the objective of improving bio-octanoic acid production...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Ana Rita de Toledo-Piza, Maria Isabel de Oliveira, Giuseppina Negri, Ronaldo Zucatelli Mendonça, Cristina Adelaide Figueiredo
Influenza viruses cause worldwide outbreaks and pandemics in humans and animals every year with considerable morbidity and mortality. The molecular diversity of secondary metabolites extracted from mollusks is a good alternative for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds with unique structures and diverse biological activities. Phyllocaulis boraceiensis is a hermaphroditic slug that exudes mucus, in which was detected hydroxy polyunsaturated fatty acids that exhibited potent antiviral activity against measles virus...
April 3, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Barbara Lettiero, Maria Inasu, Siker Kimbung, Signe Borgquist
Apart from the relevant lipid-lowering effects, statins have demonstrated significant, although heterogeneous, anti-tumor activities in preventing breast cancer (BC) progression. To characterize the critical pathways behind the diverse responses to therapy, we investigated statin-induced changes in regulation of lipid metabolism and abundance of neutral lipid-containing cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) in BC cells displaying different sensitivity to atorvastatin. Following atorvastatin treatment, accumulated LD levels inversely mirrored the marginal anti-proliferative effects in a dose and time-dependent manner in the less-sensitive BC cells...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michelle M Chen, Clarence Hale, Shanaka Stanislaus, Jing Xu, Murielle M Véniant
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a potent regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis in vivo ; its most closely related subfamily member, FGF19, is known to be a critical negative regulator of bile acid synthesis. To delineate whether FGF21 also plays a functional role in bile acid metabolism, we evaluated the effects of short- and long-term exposure to native FGF21 and long-acting FGF21 analogs on hepatic signal transduction, gene expression and enterohepatic bile acid levels in primary hepatocytes and in rodent and monkey models...
May 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
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