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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345167/dietary-supplements-for-health-adaptation-and-recovery-in-athletes
#1
Eric S Rawson, Mary P Miles, D Enette Larson-Meyer
Some dietary supplements are recommended to athletes based on data that supports improved exercise performance. Other dietary supplements are not ergogenic per se, but may improve health, adaptation to exercise, or recovery from injury, and so could help athletes to train and/or compete more effectively. In this review, we describe several dietary supplements that may improve health, exercise adaptation, or recovery. Creatine monohydrate may improve: recovery from and adaptation to intense training, recovery from periods of injury with extreme inactivity, cognitive processing, and reduce severity of or enhance recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343612/structural-and-functional-characterisation-of-the-cytochrome-p450-enzyme-cyp268a2-from-mycobacterium-marinum
#2
Stella A Child, Elise F Naumann, John B Bruning, Stephen G Bell
Members of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase family CYP268 are found across a broad range of Mycobacterium species including the pathogens Mycobacterium avium, M. colombiense,M. kansasii and Mmarinum CYP268A2, from M. marinum , which is the first member of this family to be studied, was purified and characterised. CYP268A2 was found to bind a variety of substrates with high affinity, including branched and straight-chain fatty acids (C10-C12), acetate esters, and aromatic compounds. The enzyme was also found to bind phenylimidazole inhibitors but not larger azoles, such as ketoconazole...
January 17, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331331/interaction-of-ceramides-and-tear-lipocalin
#3
Ben J Glasgow, Adil R Abduragimov
The distribution of lipids in tears is critical to their function. Lipids in human tears may retard evaporation by forming a surface barrier at the air interface. Lipids complexed with the major lipid binding protein in tears, tear lipocalin, reside in the bulk (aqueous) and may have functions unrelated to the surface. Many new lipids species have been revealed through recent mass spectrometric studies. Their association with lipid binding proteins has not been studied. Squalene, (O-acyl) omega-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFA) and ceramides are examples...
January 10, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329795/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-adipose-tissue-biology
#4
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl, Jan Kopecky
This review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism, i.e. how adipose-resident immune cells and adipocytes affect each other and define the immune-metabolic interface; and (ii) the characteristic features of "healthy adipocytes" in WAT, which are relatively small fat cells endowed with a high capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, triacylglycerol/fatty acid (TAG/FA) cycling and de novo lipogenesis (DNL)...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325723/double-function-hydroperoxide-lyases-epoxyalcohol-synthases-cyp74c-of-higher-plants-identification-and-conversion-into-allene-oxide-synthases-by-site-directed-mutagenesis
#5
Yana Y Toporkova, Svetlana S Gorina, Elena K Bessolitsyna, Elena O Smirnova, Valeria S Fatykhova, Fredi Brühlmann, Tatiana M Ilyina, Lucia S Mukhtarova, Alexander N Grechkin
The CYP74C subfamily of fatty acid hydroperoxide transforming enzymes includes hydroperoxide lyases (HPLs) and allene oxide synthases (AOSs). This work reports a new facet of the putative CYP74C HPLs. Initially, we found that the recombinant CYP74C13_MT (Medicago truncatula) behaved predominantly as the epoxyalcohol synthase (EAS) towards the 9(SS)-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid. At the same time, the CYP74C13_MT mostly possessed the HPL activity towards the 13(S)-hydroperoxides of linoleic and α-linolenic acids...
January 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320678/effect-of-ceramide-tail-length-on-the-structure-of-model-stratum-corneum-lipid-bilayers
#6
Timothy C Moore, Remco Hartkamp, Christopher R Iacovella, Annette L Bunge, Clare McCabe
Lipid bilayers composed of non-hydroxy sphingosine ceramide (CER NS), cholesterol (CHOL), and free fatty acids (FFAs), which are components of the human skin barrier, are studied via molecular dynamics simulations. Since mixtures of these lipids exist in dense gel phases with little molecular mobility at physiological conditions, care must be taken to ensure that the simulations become decorrelated from the initial conditions. Thus, we propose and validate an equilibration protocol based on simulated tempering, in which the simulation takes a random walk through temperature space, allowing the system to break out of metastable configurations and hence become decorrelated from its initial configuration...
January 9, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317615/biotransformation-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-to-bioactive-hepoxilins-and-trioxilins-by-microbial-enzymes
#7
Jung-Ung An, Yong-Seok Song, Kyoung-Rok Kim, Yoon-Joo Ko, Do-Young Yoon, Deok-Kun Oh
Hepoxilins (HXs) and trioxilins (TrXs) are involved in physiological processes such as inflammation, insulin secretion and pain perception in human. They are metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, formed by 12-lipoxygenase (LOX) and epoxide hydrolase (EH) expressed by mammalian cells. Here, we identify ten types of HXs and TrXs, produced by the prokaryote Myxococcus xanthus, of which six types are new, namely, HXB5, HXD3, HXE3, TrXB5, TrXD3 and TrXE3...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316682/effect-of-omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-oxylipins-in-a-routine-clinical-setting
#8
Christoph Schmöcker, Ingrid W Zhang, Stefanie Kiesler, Ursula Kassner, Annika I Ostermann, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Nils H Schebb, Karsten-H Weylandt
Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) is the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), especially in Western diet. A high omega-6/omega-3 ratio in Western diets is implicated in the development of cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes. Studies in animal models and in humans have demonstrated beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA (n-3 PUFA) in a variety of diseases, including cardiac arrhythmias and inflammatory diseases, as well as breast and colon cancer. The molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of n-3 PUFA are still not well understood...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315972/differential-induction-of-polar-and-non-polar-metabolism-during-wound-induced-suberization-in-potato-solanum-tuberosum-l-tubers
#9
Kathlyn N Woolfson, Meghan L Haggitt, Yanni Zhang, Alexandra Kachura, Anica Bjelica, M Alejandra Rey Rincon, Karina M Kaberi, Mark A Bernards
Wound-induced suberin deposition involves the temporal and spatial coordination of phenolic and fatty acid metabolism. Phenolic metabolism leads to both soluble metabolites that accumulate as defense compounds as well as hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives that form the basis of the poly(phenolic) domain found in suberized tissue. Fatty acid metabolism involves the biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids, 1-alkanols, ω-hydroxy fatty acids and α,ω-dioic acids that form a poly(aliphatic) domain, commonly referred to as suberin...
January 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311488/role-of-supplementary-selenium-on-the-induction-of-insulin-resistance-and-oxidative-stress-in-nsy-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#10
Koichi Murano, Hirofumi Ogino, Tomofumi Okuno, Tomohiro Arakawa, Hitoshi Ueno
The role of supplementary selenium on the induction of insulin resistance and oxidative stress in a diabetic mouse model was investigated in NSY mice on a high fat diet (HFD) and administered seleno-L-methionine (SeMet)-containing water for 12 weeks. Significant increases in oral glucose tolerance-tested (OGTT), insulin tolerance-tested, and non-fasting blood glucose levels were observed in mice on a HFD, as well as the significant increases in OGTT and non-fasting plasma insulin levels. Mice on a HFD had decreased plasma adiponectin levels and increased free fatty acid (FFA) levels...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300431/effects-of-protein-essential-amino-acids-b-hydroxy-b-methylbutyrate-creatine-dehydroepiandrosterone-and-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-muscle-mass-muscle-strength-and-physical-performance-in-older-people-aged-60-years-and-over-a-systematic-review-on-the-literature
#11
C Beaudart, V Rabenda, M Simmons, A Geerinck, I Araujo De Carvalho, J-Y Reginster, J Amuthavalli Thiyagarajan, O Bruyère
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review to investigate the effects protein, essential amino acids (EAA), β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB), creatine, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and fatty acid supplementation on muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance of elderly subjects. METHODS: Using the electronic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE we identified RCTs published until February 2016 which assessed the effects of these nutrient supplementation on muscle strength, muscle mass or physical performance...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299636/skeletal-muscle-insulin-resistance-is-induced-by-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal-a-by-product-of-n-3-fatty-acid-peroxidation
#12
Christophe O Soulage, Laura Sardón Puig, Laurent Soulère, Bader Zarrouki, Michel Guichardant, Michel Lagarde, Nicolas J Pillon
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and its progression towards type 2 diabetes. The peroxidation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids produces 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (4-HHE), a lipid aldehyde with potent electrophilic properties able to interfere with many pathophysiological processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of 4-HHE in the development of insulin resistance. METHODS: 4-HHE concentration was measured in plasma from humans and rats by GC-MS...
January 3, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296890/the-lipid-peroxidation-product-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-induces-tissue-factor-decryption-via-ros-generation-and-the-thioredoxin-system
#13
Shabbir A Ansari, Usha R Pendurthi, L Vijaya Mohan Rao
Many pathophysiologic agents transform cryptic tissue factor (TF) on cells to prothrombotic TF, and one such stimulus is 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), the most abundant aldehyde produced by the oxidation of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. HNE was shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and p38 MAPK activation, but the link between them and their role in TF decryption are unclear. The present study was carried out to elucidate potential mechanisms involved in HNE-induced TF decryption in monocytic cells...
November 28, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295499/long-term-administration-of-queen-bee-acid-qba-to-rodents-reduces-anxiety-like-behavior-promotes-neuronal-health-and-improves-body-composition
#14
Michael J Weiser, Vivian Grimshaw, Kelly M Wynalda, M Hasan Mohajeri, Christopher M Butt
BACKGROUND: Queen bee acid (QBA; 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid) is the predominant fatty acid in royal jelly (RJ) and has activity at estrogen receptors, which affect brain function and body composition. However, few, long-term studies have assessed QBA effects in brain health and body composition. METHODS: Primary hippocampal neurons were treated with QBA (0-30 µM) and challenged with glutamate or hypoxia. QBA was fed to aged, male Sprague-Dawley rats (12-24 mg/kg/day) and to adult male and female Balb/C mice (30-60 mg/kg/day) for ≥3...
December 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282829/electrochemical-oxidation-of-phosphatidylethanolamines-studied-by-mass-spectrometry
#15
Simone Colombo, Giulia Coliva, Agnieszka Kraj, Jean-Pierre Chervet, Maria Fedorova, Pedro Domingues, M Rosário Domingues
Phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) are widely present in cellular membranes and lipoproteins. Oxidation of PEs fatty acyl chains generates several oxidized products, exerting a vast number of biological functions, not totally unveiled yet. In vitro biomimetic models have been used to identify oxidized PEs and to develop analytical strategies for their targeted detection in vivo. Most of the models are based on oxidation by reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the oxidative metabolism of PE also relies on controlled reactions catalyzed by enzymes as lipoxygenase (LOX), which can be mimicked by electrochemical (EC) oxidation...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247604/biosynthesis-of-the-nylon-12-monomer-%C3%AF-aminododecanoic-acid-with-novel-cyp153a-alkj-and-%C3%AF-ta-enzymes
#16
Ahsan Md Murshidul, Jeon Hyunwoo, Nadarajan Saravanan Prabhu, Chung Taeowan, Yoo Hee-Wang, Kim Byung-Gee, Patil Mahesh Daga, Yun Hyungdon
Bioplastics are derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable oils, cellulose, and starches. An important and high-performance member of the bioplastic family is Nylon 12. The biosynthesis of ω-amino dodecanoic acid (ω-AmDDA), the monomer of Nylon 12 from vegetable oil derivatives is considered as an alternative to petroleum-based monomer synthesis. In this study, for the production of ω-AmDDA from dodecanoic acid (DDA), the cascade of novel P450 (CYP153A), alcohol dehydrogenase (AlkJ) and ω-transaminase (ω-TA) was developed...
December 16, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241456/designer-rhamnolipids-by-reduction-of-congener-diversity-production-and-characterization
#17
Till Tiso, Rabea Zauter, Hannah Tulke, Bernd Leuchtle, Wing-Jin Li, Beate Behrens, Andreas Wittgens, Frank Rosenau, Heiko Hayen, Lars Mathias Blank
BACKGROUND: Rhamnolipids are biosurfactants featuring surface-active properties that render them suitable for a broad range of industrial applications. These properties include their emulsification and foaming capacity, critical micelle concentration, and ability to lower surface tension. Further, aspects like biocompatibility and environmental friendliness are becoming increasingly important. Rhamnolipids are mainly produced by pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We previously designed and constructed a recombinant Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which synthesizes rhamnolipids by decoupling production from host-intrinsic regulations and cell growth...
December 14, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230323/baseline-oxidative-stress-is-associated-with-memory-changes-in-omega-3-fatty-acid-treated-coronary-artery-disease-patients
#18
Graham Mazereeuw, Nathan Herrmann, Ana C Andreazza, Gustavo Scola, David W L Ma, Paul I Oh, Krista L Lanctôt
Objective: This study investigated whether pretreatment oxidative stress, measured by lipid hydroperoxides (LPH), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), 8-isoprostane (8-ISO), and malondialdehyde (MDA), was associated with improvement in immediate recall among n-3 PUFA-treated coronary artery disease patients. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of the CAROTID trial (NCT00981383). Composite immediate recall, measured using the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition, and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, was assessed...
2017: Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224354/high-speed-counter-current-chromatography-hsccc-purification-of-antifungal-fatty-acids-from-plant-seed-oil-and-lactobacillus-fermentation
#19
Nuan Yi Liang, Pengfei Cai, Datong Wu, Yuanjiang Pan, Jonathan M Curtis, Michael G Gänzle
Hydroxy unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) can function as antifungal agents. To investigate the antifungal spectrum, i.e. the scope of in vitro fungal inhibition activities of HUFA and their potential applications, three HUFA were produced by microbial transformation or extracted from plant seed oils; compounds included coriolic acid (13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid) from Coriaria seed oil, 10-hydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid from cultures of Lactobacillus hammesii and 13-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid from cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum TMW1...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220387/psra-controls-the-synthesis-of-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quinolone-signal-via-repression-of-the-fade-homolog-pa0506
#20
Greg Wells, Samantha Palethorpe, Everett C Pesci
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous, Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that can cause disease in various sites within the human body. This bacterium is a major source of nosocomial infections that are often difficult to treat due to high intrinsic antibiotic resistance and coordinated virulence factor production. P. aeruginosa utilizes three cell-to-cell signaling systems to regulate numerous genes in response to cell density. One of these systems utilizes the small molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (Pseudomonas quinolone signal [PQS]) as a signal that acts as a co-inducer for the transcriptional regulator PqsR...
2017: PloS One
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