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hydroxy fatty acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631071/oxidation-of-c18-hydroxy-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-to-epoxide-or-ketone-by-catalase-related-hemoproteins-activated-with-iodosylbenzene
#1
Tarvi Teder, William E Boeglin, Alan R Brash
Small catalase-related hemoproteins with a facility to react with fatty acid hydroperoxides were examined for their potential mono-oxygenase activity when activated using iodosylbenzene. The proteins tested were a Fusarium graminearum 41 kD catalase hemoprotein (Fg-cat, gene FGSG_02217), a Pseudomonas fluorescens Pfl01 catalase (37.5 kD, accession number WP_011333788.1), and a Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis 33 kD catalase (gene MAP-2744c). 13-Hydroxy-octadecenoic acids (which are normally unreactive) were selected as substrates because these enzymes react specifically with the corresponding 13S-hydroperoxides (Pakhomova et al...
June 19, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628909/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-impairs-the-cytochrome-p-450-dependent-metabolism-of-%C3%AE-tocopherol-vitamin-e
#2
Desirée Bartolini, Pierangelo Torquato, Carolina Barola, Angelo Russo, Chiara Rychlicki, Danilo Giusepponi, Guido Bellezza, Angelo Sidoni, Roberta Galarini, Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni, Francesco Galli
This study aims to investigate in in vivo and in vitro models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) the enzymatic metabolism of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and its relationship to vitamin E-responsive genes with key role in the lipid metabolism and detoxification of the liver. The experimental models included mice fed a high-fat diet combined or not with fructose (HFD+F) and HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells treated with the lipogenic agents palmitate, oleate or fructose. CYP4F2 protein, a cytochrome P-450 isoform with proposed α-tocopherol ω-hydroxylase activity, decreased in HFD and even more in HFD+F mice liver; this finding was associated with increased hepatic levels of α-tocopherol and decreased formation of the corresponding long-chain metabolites α-13-hydroxy and α-13-carboxy chromanols...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623919/effects-of-karela-bitter-melon-momordica-charantia-on-genes-of-lipids-and-carbohydrates-metabolism-in-experimental-hypercholesterolemia-biochemical-molecular-and-histopathological-study
#3
Dalia Yossri Saad, Mohamed Mohamed Soliman, Ahmed A Baiomy, Magdy Hassan Yassin, Hanan Basiouni El-Sawy
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia is a serious diseases associated with type-2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disorders and liver diseases. Humans seek for safe herbal medication such as karela (Momordica charantia/bitter melon) to treat such disorders to avoid side effect of pharmacotherapies widely used. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups; control group with free access to food and water, cholesterol administered group (40 mg/kg BW orally); karela administered group (5 g /kg BW orally) and mixture of cholesterol and karela...
June 17, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623042/corneocyte-lipid-envelope-cle-the-key-structure-for-skin-barrier-function-and-ichthyosis-pathogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Masashi Akiyama
Research on the genetic abnormalities and pathogenetic processes of ichthyoses has progressed remarkably, and many causative genes and molecules have been identified in ichthyoses and ichthyosis syndromes. Most of the genes/molecules causative of ichthyosis are associated with the barrier function of the stratum corneum, and defects in the skin barrier play important roles in the pathogenesis of various ichthyosis phenotypes. It has been elucidated that, of the ichthyosis-causative genes, ABCA12, ALOXE3, ALOX12B, CYP4F22, CERS3, ABHD5, PNPLA1 and ELOVL4 work in the formation of the corneocyte lipid envelope (CLE), a structure that is essential to sound skin barrier function...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621732/lipid-accumulation-in-hepg2-cells-is-attenuated-by-strawberry-extract-through-ampk-activation
#5
Tamara Y Forbes-Hernández, Francesca Giampieri, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Sadia Afrin, Luca Mazzoni, Mario D Cordero, Bruno Mezzetti, José L Quiles, Maurizio Battino
Regulation of lipid metabolism is essential for treatment and prevention of several chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, which are responsible for most deaths worldwide. It has been demonstrated that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a direct impact on lipid metabolism by modulating several downstream-signaling components. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the in vitro effect of a methanolic strawberry extract on AMPK and its possible repercussion on lipid metabolism in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2)...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612528/-effects-of-gubentongluo-formula-on-oxidative-stress-reflected-by-expressions-of-ppar%C3%AE-and-l-fabp-in-mice-with-iga-nephropathy
#6
Wen-Wen Li, Di Huang, Pei-Cheng Shen, Qing Wu, Chuan Sun, Xian-Xian Wang, Li-Qun He
OBJECTIVES: To determine the underlying mechanism of Gubentongluo Formula in the treatment of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal group (n =10), IgAN group (n =10), control group (n =10) and treatment group (n =10). Mice in the normal and IgAN groups were intragastricly administered with normal saline for 12 weeks; while those in the control and treatment groups were given fenofibrate [30 mg/(kg!$d) and Gubentongluo Formula [1...
March 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608940/association-between-resistance-to-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-and-carnitine-profile-in-patients-on-maintenance-hemodialysis
#7
Daigo Kamei, Ken Tsuchiya, Kosaku Nitta, Michio Mineshima, Takashi Akiba
OBJECTIVE: Patients on dialysis are in a chronic carnitine-deficient state. This condition may be associated with abnormalities in fatty acid and organic acid metabolism; however, the details are unknown. We investigated the association between carnitine profiles before and after dialysis and the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) resistance index (ERI), which is a significant prognostic factor in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. DESIGN AND METHODS: cross-sectional study...
June 13, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600685/aquidulcibacter-paucihalophilus-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-novel-member-of-family-caulobacteraceae-isolated-from-cyanobacterial-aggregates-in-a-eutrophic-lake
#8
Haiyuan Cai, Yuan Shi, Yanan Wang, Henglin Cui, Helong Jiang
A bacterial strain, TH1-2(T), was isolated from cyanobacterial aggregates in the eutrophic Lake Taihu, Jiangsu Province, China. Cells were observed to be Gram-negative, slightly curved and rod-shaped. Optimal growth was obtained at pH 7.0 (range 5.5-8.5) and 30 °C (range 20-37 °C) in trypticase soy broth (TSB) without NaCl. Growth was not observed in TSB with 1.0% (w/v) NaCl added. The cells were found to be positive for oxidase and catalase activities. The major fatty acids were identified as 3-hydroxy hexadecanoic acid (C16:0 3-OH), C16:1 ω5c and summed feature 8 (consisting of C18:1 ω6c and cis-11-Octadecenoic acid (C18:1 ω7c)...
June 9, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596007/structural-profiling-of-wax-biopolymer-from-pinus-roxburghii-sarg-needles-using-spectroscopic-methods
#9
Pallavi Dubey, Pradeep Sharma, Vineet Kumar
Pinus roxburghii Sarg. is the most abundant species in Himalayan region. The needles of the species largely contribute to the forest biomass and remain the major cause of forest fires leading to climate change, biodiversity loss, etc. Intriguingly, the layer of needles contains wax, a biomacromolecule with potential chemical functionalities for value addition. In the present study, a distinctive approach towards complete structural analysis of the isolated wax in its native state has been done using (1)H, (13)C, HSQC, HMBC, COSY, TOCSY along with GC-MS of the methyl esters of constituent fatty acids...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595450/a-new-malyngamide-from-the-marine-cyanobacterium-moorea-producens
#10
Weina Jiang, Wei Zhou, Raymie Othman, Hajime Uchida, Ryuichi Watanabe, Toshiyuki Suzuki, Bryan Sakamoto, Hiroshi Nagai
A new malyngamide (1) was isolated along with seven known compounds (2-8) from the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens collected in Hawaii. Compound 1 represented the first reported malyngamide with a hydroxy moiety at C-7 of the characteristic fatty acid portion of the compound. Compound 1 showed cytotoxicity against L1210 cell line at an IC50 value of 2.9 mM and lethal toxicity against the shrimp Palaemon paucidens at a LD100 value of 33.3 mg/kg. The bioactivity of compound 1 was approximately 10-100 times weaker than those of isomalyngamides A and B (3, 4)...
June 8, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576934/cholesteryl-esters-of-%C3%AF-o-acyl-hydroxy-fatty-acids-in-vernix-caseosa
#11
Aneta Kalužíková, Vladimír Vrkoslav, Eva Harazim, Michal Hoskovec, Richard Plavka, Miloš Buděšínský, Zuzana Bosáková, Josef Cvačka
Cholesteryl esters of ω-(O-acyl)-hydroxy fatty acids (Chl-ωOAHFAs) were identified for the first time in vernix caseosa and characterized using chromatography and mass spectrometry. Chl-ωOAHFAs were isolated using adsorption chromatography on silica gel and magnesium hydroxide. Their general structure was established using high-resolution and tandem mass spectrometry of intact lipids, and products of their transesterification and derivatizations. Individual molecular species were characterized using non-aqueous reversed-phase HPLC coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576420/effects-of-dietary-arachidonic-acid-on-the-reproductive-physiology-of-female-atlantic-cod-gadus-morhua-l
#12
Birgitta Norberg, Lene Kleppe, Eva Andersson, Anders Thorsen, Grethe Rosenlund, Kristin Hamre
The present study was designed to investigate potential effects of arachidonic acid (ARA) on the reproductive physiology of female Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Two-year old Atlantic cod of both sexes were equally distributed into eight sea cages after completion of their first spawning in May 2005. Four experimental groups were established and fed diets with different levels of ARA corresponding to 0.5, 1, 2 and 4% of total fatty acid. Ovarian growth and development was documented every month. Fatty acid composition was analysed in ovaries, liver and plasma at the beginning of the experiment, one month prior to spawning, and in spent fish, one month after spawning was completed...
May 30, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571749/altered-expression-of-epidermal-lipid-bio-synthesis-enzymes-in-atopic-dermatitis-skin-is-accompanied-by-changes-in-stratum-corneum-lipid-composition
#13
M O Danso, W Boiten, V van Drongelen, K M Gmelig, G Gooris, A El Ghalbzouri, S Absalah, R Vreeken, S Kezic, J van Smeden, A P M Lavrijsen, J A Bouwstra
BACKGROUND: The barrier dysfunction in atopic dermatitis (AD) skin correlates with stratum corneum (SC) lipid abnormalities including reduction of global lipid content, shorter ceramide (CER) as well as free fatty acid (FFA) chain length and altered CER subclass levels. However, the underlying cause of these changes in lipid composition has not been fully investigated. AIM: We investigated whether the expression of CER and FFA biosynthesis enzymes are altered in AD skin compared with control skin and determine whether changes in enzyme expression can be related with changes in lipid composition...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569513/gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-studies-of-the-component-composition-of-carboxylic-acids-of-the-rhizomes-of-iris-medwedewii-and-iris-carthaliniae-iridaceae
#14
Javanshir I Isayev, Оlga O Mykhailenko, Vladumir M Kovalyov, Gamid M Gurbanov, Murad Y Suleymanov
The composition of carboxylic acids of the rhizomes of Iris carthaliniae and Iris medwedewii by the gas chromatography - mass spectrometry method has been studied for the first time. The total content of carboxylic acids for I. carthaliniae was 1.34%, including (%) - 0.65 fatty; 0.36 mono-, di- and tri-carboxylic; 0.33 phenol carboxylic acids. The yield of carboxylic acids for I. medwedewii was 1.58%, including (%) - 0.73 fatty; 0.38 mono-, di- and tri-carboxylic; 0.47 phenol carboxylic acids. The dominant fatty acids in the rhizomes of I...
2017: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562048/lychee-litchi-chinensis-sonn-pulp-phenolic-extract-confers-a-protective-activity-against-alcoholic-liver-disease-in-mice-by-alleviating-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#15
Juan Xiao, Ruifen Zhang, Fei Huang, Lei Liu, Yuanyuan Deng, Yongxuan Ma, Zhencheng Wei, Xiaojun Tang, Yan Zhang, Mingwei Zhang
Mitochondria play an important role in the initiation and development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Our previous studies found lychee pulp phenolic extract (LPPE) exerted protective effect against ALD partly by inhibiting fatty acid β-oxidation, and phenolic-rich lychee pulp extract improved restraint stress-induced liver injury by inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LPPE exerted protective effect against ALD via modulating mitochondrial function. The mice were treated with an ethanol-containing liquid diet alone or in combination with LPPE for 8 weeks...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560522/2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzoic-acid-attenuates-the-carbon-tetra-chloride-induced-hepatotoxicity-and-its-lipid-abnormalities-in-rats-via-anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-mechanism
#16
Ghedeir M Alshammari, Aristatile Balakrishnan, Thirunavukkarasu Chinnasamy
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Liver inflammation stimulates various inflammatory cytokines and initiates injury through oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to curtaile the liver injury through natural principles such as 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid (HMBA). METHODS: The current study examines the hepatoprotective and lipid lowering effect of HMBA against carbon tetra chloride (CCl4)-mediated liver toxicity in male Wistar rats. RESULTS: The hepatoprotective effects of HMBA against CCl4-induced liver damage, were evident from low serum transaminases activities, reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation and collagen content, restoration of total glutathione, and recouping of the inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, and IL-6 levels...
May 30, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554628/effect-of-the-presence-of-protein-on-lipolysis-and-lipid-oxidation-occurring-during-in-vitro-digestion-of-highly-unsaturated-oils
#17
Bárbara Nieva-Echevarría, Encarnación Goicoechea, María D Guillén
The effect of the presence of ovalbumin and soy protein isolate on lipolysis and oxidation taking place during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of slightly oxidized sunflower and flaxseed oils was addressed. The extent of lipolysis, the molar proportions of acyl groups/fatty acids after digestion, and the oxidation products formed were studied by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The presence of proteins provoked a higher hydrolysis in triglycerides, a lower decrease of polyunsaturated chains, and a lower generation of oxidation compounds (conjugated dienes in chains having also hydroperoxy/hydroxy groups, epoxides and aldehydes); the formation of hydroxides was clearly favoured over that of hydroperoxides...
November 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544323/mass-spectrometric-evidence-for-the-modification-of-small-molecules-in-a-cobalt-60-irradiated-rodent-diet
#18
J K Prasain, L S Wilson, A Arabshahi, C Grubbs, S Barnes
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of radiation on the content of animal diet constituents using global metabolomics. Aqueous methanolic extracts of control and cobalt-60 irradiated NIH 7001 diets were comprehensively analyzed using nanoLC-MS/MS. Among the over two thousand ions revealed by XCMS followed by data preprocessing, 94 positive and 143 negative metabolite ions had greater than 1.5 fold changes and p-values <0.01. Use of Metaboanalyst statistical software demonstrated complete separation of the irradiated and non-radiated diets in unsupervised principal components analysis and supervised partial least squares discriminant analysis...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536987/sexual-deception-in-the-eucera-pollinated-ophrys-leochroma-a-chemical-intermediate-between-wasp-and-andrena-pollinated-species
#19
Monica Cuervo, Demetra Rakosy, Carlos Martel, Stefan Schulz, Manfred Ayasse
Ophrys flowers mimic sex pheromones of attractive females of their pollinators and attract males, which attempt to copulate with the flower and thereby pollinate it. Virgin females and orchid flowers are known to use the same chemical compounds in order to attract males. The composition of the sex pheromone and its floral analogue, however, vary between pollinator genera. Wasp-pollinated Ophrys species attract their pollinators by using polar hydroxy acids, whereas Andrena-pollinated species use a mixture of non-polar hydrocarbons...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521794/in-vitro-synthesis-of-9-10-dihydroxyhexadecanoic-acid-using-recombinant-escherichia-coli
#20
Anees Kaprakkaden, Preeti Srivastava, Virendra Swarup Bisaria
BACKGROUND: Hydroxy fatty acids are widely used in food, chemical and cosmetic industries. A variety of dihydroxy fatty acids have been synthesized so far; however, no studies have been done on the synthesis of 9,10-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid. In the present study recombinant E. coli has been used for the heterologous expression of fatty acid hydroxylating enzymes and the whole cell lysate of the induced culture was used for in vitro production of 9,10-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid. RESULTS: A first of its kind proof of principle has been successfully demonstrated for the production of 9,10-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid using three different enzymes viz...
May 18, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
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