Read by QxMD icon Read

hydroxy fatty acid

Prama Pallavi, Marc Pretze, Julio Caballero, Yingchun Li, Björn B Hofmann, Eleni Stamellou, Sarah Klotz, Carmen Wängler, Björn Wängler, Ralf Loesel, Steffen Roth, Bastian Theisinger, Handan Moerz, Uta Binzen, Wolfgang Greffrath, Rolf-Detlef Treede, Martin C Harmsen, Bernhard K Krämer, Mathias Hafner, Benito A Yard, Anna-Isabelle Kälsch
We studied the chemical entities within N-octanoyl dopamine (NOD) responsible for transient receptor potential channels of the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (TRPV1) activation and inhibition of inflammation. The efficacy of NOD to activate TRPV1 was significantly higher compared to variants in which the ortho-dihydroxy groups were acetylated, one of the hydroxy groups was omitted (N-octanoyl tyramine) or the ester functionality consisted of a bulky fatty acid (N-pivaloyl dopamine). Shortening of the amide linker (ΔNOD) slightly increased its efficacy which further increased by interchanging the carbonyl and amide groups (ΔNODR)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Cédric Garcia, Nicolas Montée, Julien Faccini, Jennifer Series, Olivier Meilhac, Anne-Valérie Cantero, Pauline Le Faouder, Meyer Elbaz, Bernard Payrastre, Cécile Vindis
BACKGROUND: While high-density lipoproteins (HDL) have anti-thrombotic effects by reducing platelet activation, the relationship between HDL levels and the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unclear since HDL particles are heterogeneous in composition and biological properties OBJECTIVE: We characterized the effects of HDL2 and HDL3 subclasses from ACS patients and non-coronary artery disease (CAD) subjects on platelet activation. METHODS: We measured platelet aggregation and ex vivo thrombus formation, analyzed signaling pathways by flow cytometry and performed a targeted lipidomics analysis on HDL subclasses RESULTS: Analysis of human platelet aggregation in suspension, adhesion on von Willebrand factor and thrombus formation on collagen under arterial shear demonstrated that HDL2 subclass from ACS patients had a higher antiplatelet potency compared to ACS HDL3 particles and HDL subclasses from non-CAD subjects...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Anamaria Todea, Diana Aparaschivei, Valentin Badea, Carmen G Boeriu, Francisc Peter
evelopments of past years placed the bio-based polyesters as competitive substitutes for fossil-based polymers. Moreover, enzymatic polymerization using lipase catalysts has become an important green alternative to chemical polymerization for the synthesis of polyesters with biomedical applications, as several drawbacks related to the presence of traces of metal catalysts, toxicity and higher temperatures could be avoided. Copolymerization of ε-caprolactone (CL) with four hydroxy-fatty acids (HFA) from renewable sources, e...
March 15, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Christopher M Jenkins, Kui Yang, Gaoyuan Liu, Sung Ho Moon, Beverly G Dilthey, Richard W Gross
Plasmalogens are phospholipids critical for cell function and signaling that contain a vinyl-ether linkage at the   sn -1 position and are highly enriched in arachidonic acid (AA) at the sn -2 position. However, the enzyme(s) responsible for the cleavage of the vinyl ether linkage in plasmalogens has remained elusive.  Herein, we report that cytochrome c , in the presence of either cardiolipin (CL), O2 and H2 O2 , or oxidized CL and O2 , catalyzes the oxidation of the plasmalogen vinyl ether linkage, promoting its hydrolytic cleavage and resultant production of 2-AA-lysolipids and highly reactive α-hydroxy fatty aldehydes...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Georg Hölzl, Christian Sohlenkamp, Miguel Angel Vences-Guzmán, Nicolas Gisch
Amino acid-containing acyloxyacyl lipids are composed of a 3-hydroxy fatty acid amide-bound to the α-amino group of an amino acid. A second fatty acid is ester-linked to the 3-hydroxy group of the first fatty acid. Most commonly, ornithine is the headgroup of these lipids, but glycine, serineglycine, glutamine and lysine have also been described in bacteria. Ornithine lipids (OL) can be synthesized by about 50% of the sequenced bacterial species, and several covalent modifications of its basic structure have been described...
March 7, 2018: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Theofilos Mailis, Helen Skaltsa
Twenty compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of Salvia willeana (Holmboe) Hedge, growing wild in Cyprus. These compounds comprise one new and one known acetophenone, one megastigmane glucoside, five phenolic derivatives, two caffeic acid oligomers, three flavonoids, two lignans, two triterpene acids, one monoterpene glucoside, and two fatty acids. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by means of NMR [(Rotating-frame OverhauserEffect SpectroscopY) (¹H-¹H-COSY (COrrelation SpectroscopΥ), ¹H-13 C-HSQC (Heteronuclear Single Quantum Correlation), HMBC (Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation), NOESY (Nuclear Overhauser Effect SpectroscopY), ROESY (Rotating-frame Overhauser Effect SpectroscopY)] and MS spectral analyses...
March 6, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Lin Lei, Jingnan Chen, Yuwei Liu, Lijun Wang, Guohua Zhao, Zhen-Yu Chen
Rice bran oil (RBO) possesses a plasma cholesterol-lowering activity, while effect of wheat bran oil (WBO) on plasma cholesterol remains unknown. The present study compared the cholesterol-lowering activity of WBO with that of RBO in hamsters. Fifty-four male hamsters were divided into seven groups fed either a noncholesterol diet (NCD) or one of six high-cholesterol diets, namely HCD diet (0.2% cholesterol +9.5% lard), HCD+C diet (0.2% cholesterol +9.5% lard +0.5% cholestyramine), WL diet (0.2% cholesterol +4...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Inês C Santos, Jonathan Smuts, Woo-Sik Choi, Younghoon Kim, Seoung Bum Kim, Kevin A Schug
The identification of microorganisms is very important in different fields and alternative methods are necessary for a rapid and simple identification. The use of fatty acids for bacterial identification is gaining attention as phenotypic characteristics are reflective of the genotype and are more easily analyzed. In this work, gas chromatography-vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy (GC-VUV) was used to determine bacteria fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), to identify and discriminate different environmental bacteria based on their fatty acid profile...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Soo Jin Yang, Hyun Ju Do, Youngae Jung, Geum-Sook Hwang, Min-Jeong Shin
The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor voglibose (VO) was recently reported to have a protective effect against weight gain as well as affect various metabolic changes related to food intake and gut-brain signaling. We hypothesized that VO prevents weight gain by altering neurometabolome profiles in the hypothalamus to reduce food intake. To test this hypothesis, we assessed metabolite profiles in the hypothalamus of standard diet- or high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice in the absence or presence of VO. In total, 29 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 3 groups: (1) lean control, (2) HF, and (3) HF + VO...
March 1, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Noriko A Cassman, Késia S Lourenço, Janaína B do Carmo, Heitor Cantarella, Eiko E Kuramae
Background: The production of 1 L of ethanol from sugarcane generates up to 12 L of vinasse, which is a liquid waste containing an as-yet uncharacterized microbial assemblage. Most vinasse is destined for use as a fertilizer on the sugarcane fields because of the high organic and K content; however, increased N2 O emissions have been observed when vinasse is co-applied with inorganic N fertilizers. Here we aimed to characterize the microbial assemblage of vinasse to determine the gene potential of vinasse microbes for contributing to negative environmental effects during fertirrigation and/or to the obstruction of bioethanol fermentation...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Marc Foretz, Benoit Viollet
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of multiple cellular metabolic pathways, including lipid metabolism. Some of the well-known substrates of AMPK are acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, regulatory enzymes of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis, respectively. The discovery that both of them are inactivated by AMPK suggested the therapeutic potential of AMPK activation in the treatment of metabolic diseases associated with lipid disorders, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
D M Sun, S Y Mao, W Y Zhu, J H Liu
Starter feeding is usually used in lamb production to improve rumen development and to facilitate the weaning process, but molecular mechanism of which is not well understood. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effect of starter feeding on the expression of ruminal epithelial genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism in pre-weaned lambs. We selected eight pairs of 10-day-old lamb twins. One twin was fed ewe milk (M, n=8), while the other was fed ewe milk plus starter (M+S, n=8)...
February 26, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Ran Furman, Jin V Lee, Paul H Axelsen
The quantitative analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acyl (PUFA) chain oxidation products in tissue samples by mass spectrometry is hindered by the lack of durable internal standards for the large number of possible products. To address this problem in a study of oxidative PUFA degradation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, uniformly13 C-labeled arachidonic acid (ARA) was produced biosynthetically, and allowed to oxidize under controlled conditions into a mixture of U-13 C-labeled ARA oxidation products. The components of this mixture were characterized with respect to their partitioning behavior during lipid extraction, their durability during saponification, trends in mouse brain tissue concentrations during post mortem intervals, and their overall suitability as internal standards for multiple-reaction monitoring tandem mass spectrometry...
February 21, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Jan Madacki, Françoise Laval, Anna Grzegorzewicz, Anne Lemassu, Monika Záhorszká, Michael Arand, Michael McNeil, Mamadou Daffé, Mary Jackson, Marie-Antoinette Lanéelle, Jana Korduláková
Mycolic acids are the hallmark of the cell envelope in mycobacteria, which include the important human pathogens Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae Mycolic acids are very long C60-C90 α-alkyl β-hydroxy fatty acids having a variety of functional groups on their hydrocarbon chain that define several mycolate types. Mycobacteria also produce an unusually large number of putative epoxide hydrolases, but the physiological functions of these enzymes are still unclear. Here, we report that the mycobacterial epoxide hydrolase EphD is involved in mycolic acid metabolism...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kang Xiao, Xiu-Hong Yue, Wen-Chao Chen, Xue-Rong Zhou, Lian Wang, Lin Xu, Feng-Hong Huang, Xia Wan
Medium chain hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) at ω-1, 2, or 3 positions (ω-1/2/3) are rare in nature but are attractive due to their potential applications in industry. They can be metabolically engineered in Escherichia coli , however, the current yield is low. In this study, metabolic engineering with P450BM3 monooxygenase was applied to regulate both the chain length and sub-terminal position of HFA products in E. coli , leading to increased yield. Five acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases from plants and bacteria were first evaluated for regulating the chain length of fatty acids...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Theresa Greupner, Laura Kutzner, Fabian Nolte, Alena Strangmann, Heike Kohrs, Andreas Hahn, Nils Helge Schebb, Jan Philipp Schuchardt
The essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n3) can be converted into EPA and DHA. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a high-ALA diet on EPA and DHA levels in red blood cells (RBCs) and their oxylipins in the plasma of subjects with a low EPA and DHA status. Fatty acid concentrations [μg mL-1 ] and relative amounts [% of total fatty acids] in the RBCs of 19 healthy men (mean age 26.4 ± 4.6 years) were analyzed by means of GC-FID. Free plasma oxylipin concentrations were determined by LC-MS based targeted metabolomics...
February 20, 2018: Food & Function
Judith Hagenbuchner, Sabine Scholl-Buergi, Daniela Karall, Michael J Ausserlechner
Children diagnosed with Long-Chain-3-Hydroxy-Acyl-CoA-Dehydrogenase-Deficiency (LCHADD) or Very-Long-Chain-3-Hydroxy-Acyl-CoA-Dehydrogenase-Deficiency (VLCADD) frequently present with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or muscle weakness which is caused by the accumulation of fatty acid metabolites due to inactivating mutations in the mitochondrial trifunctional protein. By analyzing mitochondrial morphology we uncovered that mutations within the HADHA or the ACADVL gene not only affect fatty acid oxidation, but also cause significant changes in the DNM1L/MFN2 ratio leading to the significant accumulation of truncated and punctate mitochondria in contrast to network-like mitochondrial morphology in controls...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Haruto Yamanashi, William E Boeglin, Christophe Morisseau, Robert W Davis, Gary A Sulikowski, Bruce D Hammock, Alan R Brash
Lipoxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of the essential fatty acid linoleate represents a vital step in construction of the mammalian epidermal permeability barrier. Analysis of epidermal lipids indicates the linoleate is converted to a trihydroxy derivative by hydrolysis of an epoxy-hydroxy precursor. We evaluated different epoxide hydrolase (EH) enzymes in the hydrolysis of skin-relevant fatty acid epoxides and compared the products to those of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis. In the absence of enzyme, exposure to pH 5 or pH 6 at 37 deg C for 30 min hydrolyzed fatty acid allylic epoxyalcohols to four trihydroxy products...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Karima Hezbri, Imen Nouioui, Manfred Rohde, Cathrin Spröer, Peter Schumann, Maher Gtari, Hans-Peter Klenk, Maria Del Carmen Montero-Calasanz, Faten Ghodhbane-Gtari
A novel, non-motile, coccoid, Gram-stain-positive actinobacterium, designated BMG 862T , was isolated from a marble sample collected from the Bulla Regia monument, Northern Tunisia. Its taxonomic position was determined using a polyphasic approach. Results from chemotaxonomic analyses showed MK-9(H4), MK-8(H4) and MK-9(H2) as the predominant menaquinones. The major polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, glycophosphatidylinositol, hydroxy-phosphatidylethanolamine and three unidentified phospholipids...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Praveen Rahi, Rashmi Kurli, Aabeejjeet N Pansare, Mitesh Khairnar, Shubhangi Jagtap, Nisha B Patel, Syed G Dastager, Paul A Lawson, Yogesh S Shouche
A cultivation-based study of the microbial diversity of cellular phone screens led to the isolation of a Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped and non-endospore-forming bacterium, designated S2T63T , exhibiting phenotypic and genotypic characteristics unique to the type strains of closely related species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain is a member of Microbacterium, and most closely related to Microbacterium aurantiacum IFO 15234T and Microbacterium kitamiense Kitami C2T ...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"