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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142415/are-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-metabolites-the-protective-effect-of-4-hydroxytyrosol-on-human-red-blood-cell-membranes-and-oxidative-damage-4-hydroxyalkenals-compatible-in-hypertriglyceridemic-patients
#1
Giuseppe Gallo, Rosalinda Bruno, Adele Taranto, Guglielmo Martino
Background: Increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) are demonstrated in plasma of uremic patients. A study showed that the comparison of erythrocytes of healthy and diseased patients (obese, hypertensive, and Type 2 diabetics) with age is associated to a disturbed oxidant/antioxidant balance when obesity is associated with hypertension. 4-hydroxytyrosol is shown to significantly protect red blood cells (RBCs) from oxidative damage (4-HNE). In literature, there are partial discussions on the role of lipids and their oxidation products...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136819/alteration-in-the-liver-metabolome-of-rats-with-metabolic-syndrome-after-treatment-with-hydroxytyrosol-a-mass-spectrometry-and-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-based-metabolomics-study
#2
Ioanna Dagla, Dimitra Benaki, Eirini Baira, Nikolaos Lemonakis, Hemant Poudyal, Lindsay Brown, Anthony Tsarbopoulos, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis, Emmanouel Mikros, Evagelos Gikas
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a group of abnormalities that enhances the risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. The Mediterranean diet seems to be an important dietary pattern, which reduces the incidence of MetS. Hydroxytyrosol (HT) - a simple phenol found in olive oil - has received increased attention for its antioxidant activity. Recently, the European Foods Safety Authority (EFSA) claimed that dietary consumption of HT exhibits a protective role against cardiovascular disease. In this study, an experimental protocol has been setup, including isolated HT administration in a diet induced model of MetS in young Wistar rats, in order to find out whether HT has a protective effect against MetS...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128224/effect-of-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoate-hmtba-on-risk-of-biohydrogenation-induced-milk-fat-depression
#3
M Baldin, G I Zanton, K J Harvatine
Diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD) is a multifactorial condition resulting from the interaction of numerous risk factors, including diet fermentability and unsaturated fatty acids concentration, feed additives, and individual cow effects. 2-Hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoate (HMTBa) is a methionine analog that has been observed to increase milk fat in some cases, and interactions with MFD risk factors may exist. The objective was to evaluate the effect of HMTBa supplementation on milk fat synthesis in cows with different levels of milk production and fed diets with increasing risk of biohydrogenation-induced MFD...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115831/bacilotetrins-a-and-b-anti-staphylococcal-cyclic-lipotetrapeptides-from-a-marine-derived-bacillus-subtilis
#4
Fakir Shahidullah Tareq, Hee Jae Shin
LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy guided metabolic profiling and dereplication of a crude extract obtained from the fermentation of a marine-derived bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, followed by chromatographic isolation yielded two new cyclic-lipotetrapeptides, bacilotetrins A (1) and B (2). Based on extensive 1D and 2D NMR and high-resolution ESIMS data analysis, the structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated, revealing the unique structures of these lipopeptides consisting of three leucines and a glutamic acid residue cyclized with a lipophilic 3-hydroxy fatty acid...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113053/hplc-analysis-and-biochemical-characterization-of-lox-from-eschscholtzia-californica-cham
#5
Renáta Kollárová, Ivana Holková, Drahomíra Rauová, Barbora Bálintová, Peter Mikuš, Marek Obložinský
BACKGROUND: Plant lipoxygenases (LOXs, EC 1.13.11.12) are involved in lipid degradation, regulation of growth and development, senescence, and defence reactions. LOX represents the starting enzyme of the octadecanoid pathway. The aim of the work was to purify LOX from California poppy (Eschscholtzia californica Cham.), to determine its biochemical properties and to identify and quantify the products of LOX reaction with unsaturated fatty acids. METHODS: LOX from California poppy seedlings was purified by hydrophobic chromatography (Phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B) and by ion-exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose)...
November 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110259/antifungal-activity-of-lactobacillus-pentosus-%C3%A5-ock-0979-in-the-presence-of-polyols-and-galactosyl-polyols
#6
Lidia Lipińska, Robert Klewicki, Michał Sójka, Radosław Bonikowski, Dorota Żyżelewicz, Krzysztof Kołodziejczyk, Elżbieta Klewicka
The antifungal activity of Lactobacillus pentosus ŁOCK 0979 depends both on the culture medium and on the fungal species. In the control medium, the strain exhibited limited antagonistic activity against indicator food-borne molds and yeasts. However, the supplementation of the bacterial culture medium with polyols (erythritol, lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol) or their galactosyl derivatives (gal-erythritol, gal-sorbitol, gal-xylitol) enhanced the antifungal properties of Lactobacillus pentosus ŁOCK 0979...
November 6, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107179/uptake-and-metabolism-of-water-borne-progesterone-by-the-mussel-mytilus-spp-mollusca
#7
Tamar I Schwarz, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Benjamin H Maskrey, Alexander P Scott
Previous studies have shown that mussels can pick up 17β-estradiol [E2] and testosterone [T] from water, metabolize them and conjugate them to fatty acids (esterification), leading to their accumulation in tissue. A key requirement for the esterification process is that a steroid must have a 'reactive' hydroxyl group to conjugate to a fatty acid (which in T, and probably E2, is the β-hydroxyl group on carbon 17). Progesterone (P) lacks any hydroxyl groups and theoretically cannot be esterified and hence should not accumulate in mussels in the same way as E2 or T...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102139/short-communication-supplementation-of-colostrum-and-milk-with-5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan-affects-immune-factors-but-not-growth-performance-in-newborn-calves
#8
Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Ranya Özçelik, Laura L Hernandez, Rupert M Bruckmaier
In ruminants, colostrum is the main source of immunoglobulins for the newborn animal, conferring immune protection until the immune system becomes active and able to synthesize its own immunoglobulins. Serotonin (5-HT), a biogenic amine derived from tryptophan, has stimulatory effects on many physiological processes, including components of the innate (mastocytes, eosinophils, and natural killer cells) and adaptive (T and B lymphocytes) immune systems. Based on the known effects of 5-HT on the immune system, we hypothesized that increased concentrations of 5-HT, through administration of its precursor 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), may positively affect development of the calf's immune system and therefore support health and growth performance during the first weeks of life...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098735/glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-disorders-in-the-chickens-with-dexamethasone-induced-oxidative-stress
#9
Z-P Lv, Y-Z Peng, B-B Zhang, H Fan, D Liu, Y-M Guo
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term treatment with dexamethasone (DEX) on the antioxidation and nutrition metabolism in broiler chickens. Broilers were placed on a high-nutrient diet for 41 days, and half were given orally DEX-supplemented water at 20 mg/L every other day from 19 to 41 days of age. DEX treatment downregulated superoxide dismutase activity as well as the mRNA expression of CuZn-superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase with a decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio and an increase in malondialdehyde level in the liver of broilers...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098469/supplementation-of-arachidonic-acid-rich-oil-in-european-sea-bass-juveniles-dicentrarchus-labrax-diets-effects-on-growth-performance-tissue-fatty-acid-profile-and-lipid-metabolism
#10
S Torrecillas, M B Betancor, M J Caballero, F Rivero, L Robaina, M Izquierdo, D Montero
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) levels (from 1 to 6% of total fatty acids) on European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles' growth performance, tissue fatty acid profile, liver morphology as well as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis, triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis and lipid transport. A diet with total fish oil (FO) replacement and defatted fish meal (FM) containing a 0.1-g ARA g(-1) diet was added to the experimental design as a negative control diet...
November 2, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095663/solvent-extraction-and-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-analysis-of-annona-squamosa-l-seeds-for-determination-of-bioactives-fatty-acid-fatty-oil-composition-and-antioxidant-activity
#11
Mohammad Zahid, Muhammad Arif, Md Akhlaquer Rahman, Kuldeep Singh, Mohd Mujahid
The yield and fatty oil components of the seed kernels of Annona squamosa L. (Family: Annonaceae) were determined by solvent extraction method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Seeds were extracted with ethanol and further fractionated with n-hexane. The free radical-scavenging activities of both ethanolic and n-hexane fraction against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were determined by UV spectrophotometer at 517 nm. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of numerous bioactive compounds including steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, fatty acids, and different types of ester compounds...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093330/the-anti-hyperlipidemia-effects-of-raw-polygonum-multiflorum-extract-in-vivo
#12
Zhong Xian, Yan Liu, Wenjuan Xu, Feipeng Duan, Zhonghui Guo, Hongbin Xiao
Polygonum multiflorum is widely used in the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia in traditional Chinese Medicine. In this study, the effects and relevant mechanisms of lipid-regulation by raw Polygonum multiflorum (RPM) were investigated. The results indicated that the basal plasma lipids, such as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG), were significantly decreased in RPM treatment groups compared with the model group, especially in the RPM high dose group...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091479/case-study-the-effect-of-nutritional-intervention-on-body-composition-and-physical-performance-of-a-female-squash-player
#13
Christopher Rosimus
The body composition of a squash player may affect athletic performance as carrying excessive body fat may increase injury risk and impair agility and speed. This case study outlines the effect of a nutritional intervention on body composition, vitamin D status and physical performance of a female squash player. A structured, 6-week moderate energy-restricted diet (70-78% of Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) of 2300 kcal was implemented with weekly support. A daily supplement of vitamin D, omega 3 fatty acids, and a multivitamin/multimineral and whey protein was used...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083064/fatty-acid-chain-shortening-by-a-fungal-peroxygenase
#14
Andrés Olmedo, José C Del Río, Jan Kiebist, René Ullrich, Martin Hofrichter, Katrin Scheibner, Angel T Martínez, Ana Gutiérrez
A recently discovered peroxygenase from the fungus Marasmius rotula (MroUPO) is able to catalyze the progressive one-carbon shortening of medium and long-chain mono- and dicarboxylic acids by itself alone, in the presence of H2O2. The mechanism, analyzed using H218O2, starts with an α-oxidation catalyzed by MroUPO generating an α-hydroxy acid, which is further oxidized by the enzyme to a reactive α-keto intermediate whose decarboxylation yields the one-carbon shorter fatty acid. Compared with the previously characterized peroxygenase of Agrocybe aegerita, a wider heme access channel, enabling fatty acid positioning with the carboxylic end near the heme cofactor (as seen in one of the crystal structures available) would be at the origin of the unique ability of MroUPO shortening carboxylic acid chains...
October 30, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058644/undibacterium-amnicola-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-freshwater-stream
#15
Wen-Ming Chen, Tsai-Ying Hsieh, Chiu-Chung Young, Shih-Yi Sheu
Strain KYPY9(T), isolated from the Funglin Stream in Taiwan, was characterized using a polyphasic taxonomy approach. Cells of KYPY9(T) were Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, motile by means of a single polar flagellum, rod-shaped and formed light yellow colonies. Optimal growth occurred at 20-25 °C, at pH 7 and with 0 % NaCl. The results of phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that KYPY9(T) represented a member of the genus Undibacterium and the sequence similarity between the 16S rRNA genes of KYPY9(T) and of the type strains of other species of the genus Undibacterium ranged from 94...
October 23, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043953/nonomuraea-glycinis-sp-nov-a-novel-actinomycete-isolated-from-the-root-of-black-soya-bean-glycine-max-l-merr
#16
Zhilei Li, Wei Song, Junwei Zhao, Xiaoxin Zhuang, Yue Zhao, Xiangjing Wang, Wensheng Xiang
A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-BB2C19(T), was isolated from the root of black soya bean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] collected from Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China, and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The strain was an aerobic, Gram-stain-positive actinomycete that formed extensively branched substrate mycelium and aerial hyphae. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H0). The major cellular fatty acid profile consisted of iso-C16 : 0, 10-methyl C17 : 0 and 10-methyl C18 : 0...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030856/mitochondrial-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa-synthase-deficiency-unique-presenting-laboratory-values-and-a-review-of-biochemical-and-clinical-features
#17
Erin Conboy, Filippo Vairo, Matthew Schultz, Katherine Agre, Ross Ridsdale, David Deyle, Devin Oglesbee, Dimitar Gavrilov, Eric W Klee, Brendan Lanpher
We report an 8-month-old infant with decreased consciousness after a febrile episode and reduced oral intake. He was profoundly acidotic but his lactate was normal. Serum triglycerides were markedly elevated and HDL cholesterol was very low. The urine organic acid analysis during the acute episode revealed a complex pattern of relative hypoketotic dicarboxylic aciduria, suggestive of a potential fatty acid oxidation disorder. MRI showed extensive brain abnormalities concerning for a primary energy deficiency...
October 14, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019678/total-synthesis-and-biological-mode-of-action-of-wap-8294a2-a-menaquinone-targeting-antibiotic
#18
Hiroaki Itoh, Kotaro Tokumoto, Takuya Kaji, Atmika Paudel, Suresh Panthee, Hiroshi Hamamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu, Masayuki Inoue
WAP-8294A2 (lotilibcin, 1) is a potent antibiotic with superior in vivo efficacy to vancomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Despite the great medical importance, its molecular mode of action remains unknown. Here we report the total synthesis of complex macrocyclic peptide 1 comprised of 12 amino acids with a β-hydroxy fatty-acid chain, and its deoxy analogue 2. A full solid-phase synthesis of 1 and 2 enabled their rapid assembly and the first detailed investigation of their functions...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018344/xanthates-as-useful-probes-for-testing-the-active-sites-of-cytochromes-p450-4a11-and-2e1
#19
Tsveta Stoyanova, Iglika Lessigiarska, Momir Mikov, Ilza Pajeva, Stanislav Yanev
Xanthates (alkyl or aryl derivatives of dithiocarbonic acid) have been shown to be selective mechanism-based inactivators of cytochromes P450 2B1/2B6 and 2E1 due to covalent binding of a reactive intermediate to apoprotein after double hydrogen abstraction at α-carbon atom, suggesting interaction of the xanthate dithiocarbonic head with the enzyme heme. The structures of xanthates with a long alkyl chain are similar to the fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids (FA) such as lauric acid (LA), are metabolized by different cytochrome P450 isoforms to ω- and (ω-1)-hydroxy products, in humans done by CYP4A11 and CYP2E1, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018033/expression-and-functional-characterization-of-breast-cancer-associated-cytochrome-p450-4z1-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#20
Matthew G McDonald, Sutapa Ray, Clara J Amorosi, Katherine A Sitko, John P Kowalski, Lorela Paco, Abhinav Nath, Byron M Gallis, Rheem A Totah, Maitreya J Dunham, Douglas M Fowler, Allan E Rettie
CYP4Z1 is an 'orphan' P450 enzyme that has provoked interest because of its hypothesized role in breast cancer through formation of the signaling molecule 20-HETE. We expressed human CYP4Z1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and evaluated its catalytic capabilities towards arachidonic and lauric acids (AA and LA). Specific and sensitive mass spectrometry assays enabled discrimination of the regioselectivity of hydroxylation of these two fatty acids. CYP4Z1 generated 7-, 8-, 9-, 10- and 11-hydroxy LA, while the 12-hydroxy metabolite was not detected...
October 10, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
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