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arabinogalactan proteins

Bing Hu, Lingyu Han, Zhiming Gao, Ke Zhang, Saphwan Al-Assaf, Katsuyoshi Nishinari, Glyn O Phillips, Jixin Yang, Yapeng Fang
Effects of temperature and solvent condition on phase separation-induced molecular fractionation of gum arabic/hyaluronan (GA/HA) mixed solutions were investigated. Two gum arabic samples (EM10 and STD) with different molecular weights and polydispersity indices were used. Phase diagrams, including cloud and binodal curves, were established by visual observation and GPC-RI methods. The molecular parameters of control and fractionated GA, from upper and bottom phases, were measured by GPC-MALLS. Fractionation of GA increased the content of arabinogalactan-protein complex (AGP) from ca...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Julia Puffal, Alam García-Heredia, Kathryn C Rahlwes, M Sloan Siegrist, Yasu S Morita
The mycobacterial cell envelope is a complex multilayered structure that provides the strength to the rod-shaped cell and creates the permeability barrier against antibiotics and host immune attack. In this review, we will discuss the spatial coordination of cell envelope biosynthesis and how plasma membrane compartmentalization plays a role in this process. The spatial organization of cell envelope biosynthetic enzymes as well as other membrane-associated proteins is crucial for cellular processes such as polar growth and midcell septum formation...
June 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Izabela Potocka, Kamila Godel, Izabela Dobrowolska, Ewa U Kurczyńska
During somatic embryogenesis (SE), explant cells undergo changes in the direction of their differentiation, which lead to diverse cell phenotypes. Although the genetic bases of the SE have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis thaliana, little is known about the chemical characteristics of the wall of the explant cells, which undergo changes in the direction of differentiation. Thus, we examined the occurrence of selected pectic and AGP epitopes in explant cells that display different phenotypes during SE...
April 26, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Stephan Klatt, Rajini Brammananth, Sean O'Callaghan, Konstantinos Andreas Kouremenos, Dedreia Tull, Paul K Crellin, Ross L Coppel, Malcolm J McConville
The complex cell envelopes of Corynebacterineae contribute to the virulence of pathogenic species (such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae) and capacity of non-pathogenic species (such as Corynebacterium glutamicum) to grow in diverse niches. The Corynebacterineae cell envelope comprises an asymmetric outer membrane, that overlays the arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex and the inner cell membrane. Dissection of the lipid composition of the inner and outer membrane fractions is important for understanding the biogenesis of this multi-laminate wall structure...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Trevor H Yeats, Antony Bacic, Kim L Johnson
Approximately 1% of plant proteins are predicted to be post-translationally modified with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that tethers the polypeptide to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. While the synthesis and structure of GPI anchors is largely conserved across eukaryotes, the repertoire of functional domains present in the GPI-anchored proteome has diverged substantially. In plants, this includes a large fraction of the GPI-anchored proteome being further modified with plant-specific arabinogalactan (AG) O-glycans...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Alexander Betekhtin, Anna Milewska-Hendel, Joanna Lusinska, Lukasz Chajec, Ewa Kurczynska, Robert Hasterok
The plant cell wall shows a great diversity regarding its chemical composition, which may vary significantly even during different developmental stages. In this study, we analysed the distribution of several cell wall epitopes in embryos of Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium). We also described the variations in the nucleus shape and the number of nucleoli that occurred in some embryo cells. The use of transmission electron microscopy, and histological and immunolocalisation techniques permitted the distribution of selected arabinogalactan proteins, extensins, pectins, and hemicelluloses on the embryo surface, internal cell compartments, and in the context of the cell wall ultrastructure to be demonstrated...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
S Malm, S Maaß, U E Schaible, S Ehlers, S Niemann
LytR-cpsA-Psr (LCP) domain containing proteins fulfil important functions in bacterial cell wall synthesis. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (Mtbc) strains, the causative agents of tuberculosis (TB), the genes Rv3484 and Rv3267 encode for LCP proteins which are putatively involved in arabinogalactan transfer to peptidoglycan. To evaluate the significance of Rv3484 for Mtbc virulence, we generated a deletion mutant in the Mtbc strain H37Rv and studied its survival in mice upon aerosol infection. The deletion mutant failed to establish infection demonstrating that Rv3484 is essential for growth in mice...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qing Yang, Lihong Wang, Jingfang He, Zhenbiao Yang, Xiaohua Huang
After rare earth elements [REE(III)] are anchored outside of the plasma membrane, REE(III) break plant evolution to initiate leaf cell endocytosis, which finally affects plant growth. However, the molecule for anchoring REE(III) in the acidic environment outside of the plasma membrane is not clear, which is crucial for exploring the mechanism of REE(III) breaking plant evolution. Here, lanthanum(III) [La(III)] and terbium(III) [Tb(III)] were respectively served as a representative of REE(III) without and with f electrons, and Arabidopsis was served as a representative of plants, cellular and molecular basis for arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) anchoring REE(III) outside of the plasma membrane was investigated...
May 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Shihao Su, Tetsuya Higashiyama
The arabinogalactan protein (AGP) family is one of the most complex protein families and is ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. Moreover, it has been demonstrated to play various roles during plant reproduction. A typical AGP contains a hydroxyproline-rich core protein with high heterogeneity and varying numbers of polysaccharide side chains. However, the functions of the polysaccharide components (i.e. AG sugar chains) remain largely unknown due to the general difficulties associated with studying sugar chains in glycobiology...
March 2018: Plant Reproduction
S E Mallikarjuna, Shylaja M Dharmesh
Swallow root pectic oligosaccharide fraction (SRO1) from swallow root pectic polysaccharide (SRPP) possessed a molecular size of 831 Da. Structural analysis revealed that it is a rhamnogalacturonan I type, bearing arabinogalactan side chain with β-d-(1→4) galactose along with α-l-Araf (1→5)-α-l-Araf (1→3) structure on α-d-GalA-OAc-(1→2)-α-l-Rha-(1→4)- linear backbone. β-d (1→4) linked galactose being the specific sugar for galectin-3, SRO1 had potentials in inhibiting galectin-3 mediated cancer progression...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Huijun Jiao, Xing Liu, Shuguang Sun, Peng Wang, Xin Qiao, Jiaming Li, Chao Tang, Juyou Wu, Shaoling Zhang, Shutian Tao
BACKGROUND: The hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) superfamily, comprising three families (arabinogalactan-proteins, AGPs; extensins, EXTs; proline-rich proteins, PRPs), is a class of proline-rich proteins that exhibit high diversity and are involved in many aspects of plant biology. RESULTS: In this study, 838 HRGPs were identified from Chinese white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) by searching for biased amino acid composition and conserved motifs. 405 HRGPs were derived from whole genome duplication (WGD) events which is suggested to be the major force of driving HRGPs expansion and the recent WGD event shared by apple and pear generated most duplicated HRGPs in pear...
February 17, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Kotaro Konno, Sachiko Shimura, Chihiro Ueno, Toru Arakawa, Masatoshi Nakamura
MLX56 family defense proteins, MLX56 and its close homolog LA-b, are chitin-binding defense proteins found in mulberry latex that show strong growth-inhibitions against caterpillars when fed at concentrations as low as 0.01%. MLX56 family proteins contain a unique structure with an extensin domain surrounded by two hevein-like chitin-binding domains, but their defensive modes of action remain unclear. Here, we analyzed the effects of MLX56 family proteins on the peritrophic membrane (PM), a thin and soft membrane consisting of chitin that lines the midgut lumen of insects...
March 2018: Phytochemistry
Sue Lin, Xiaoyan Yue, Yingjing Miao, Youjian Yu, Heng Dong, Li Huang, Jiashu Cao
Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are extensively glycosylated hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins ubiquitous in all plant tissues and cells. AtAGP6 and AtAGP11, the only two functionally known pollen-specific classical AGP encoding genes in Arabidopsis, are reported to have redundant functions in microspore development. BcMF18 and BcMF8 isolated from Brassica campestris are the orthologues of AtAGP6 and AtAGP11, respectively. In contrast to the functional redundancy of AtAGP6 and AtAGP11, single-gene disruption of BcMF8 led to deformed pollen grains with abnormal intine development and ectopic aperture formation in B...
April 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Shuangshuang Luo, Wenfang Hu, Yue Wang, Bin Liu, Hanwei Yan, Yan Xiang
74 phytocyanin genes were identified in the Populus trichocarpa genome. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the PC proteins into four subfamilies (UCs, PLCs, SCs, and ENODLs). Closely related PC proteins share similar motifs, implying similar functions. Expression profiles of PtPC genes were analyzed in response to drought and salt-stress. Phytocyanins (PCs) are blue copper proteins associated with electron carrier activity that have a large influence on plant growth and resistance. The majority of PCs are chimeric arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs)...
May 2018: Planta
Juan Ignacio Cagnola, Gonzalo Javier Dumont de Chassart, Silvia Elizabeth Ibarra, Claudio Chimenti, Martiniano María Ricardi, Brent Delzer, Hernán Ghiglione, Tong Zhu, María Elena Otegui, José Manuel Estevez, Jorge José Casal
Abortion of fertilized ovaries at the tip of the ear can generate significant yield losses in maize crops. To investigate the mechanisms involved in this process, 2 maize hybrids were grown in field crops at 2 sowing densities and under 3 irrigation regimes (well-watered control, drought before pollination, and drought during pollination), in all possible combinations. Samples of ear tips were taken 2-6 days after synchronous hand pollination and used for the analysis of gene expression and sugars. Glucose and fructose levels increased in kernels with high abortion risk...
March 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Mercedes Verdugo-Perales, Rosabel Velez-de la Rocha, Josefina León-Félix, Tomas Osuna-Enciso, José B Heredia, Juan A Osuna-Castro, Maria A Islas-Osuna, J Adriana Sañudo-Barajas
Lysine-rich (Lys-rich) proteins encoded by AGP17 , AGP18 , and AGP19 genes are cell wall-associated glycopeptides related to sexual reproduction in flowering plants. This subclass belongs to classical arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) widely studied in model plants like Arabidopsis . In this study, we identified the CaAGP18 cDNA from bell pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.), as well as its expression pattern during vegetative and reproductive development. The deduced amino acid sequence revealed a Lys-rich AGP18 protein of 238 amino acids residues in length with an estimated molecular mass of 22...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Agata Leszczuk, Ewa Szczuka
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Arabinogalactan proteins are present in the extracellular matrix and their occurrence is developmentally regulated. The studies were carried out to localise arabinogalactan proteins in ovary cells of Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (strawberry) during megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, and formation of the embryo. METHODS: The research included studies of ovary histochemistry and immunofluorescence labelling of AGP epitopes was performed with antibodies JIM13, JIM15 and MAC207...
February 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Juan M Losada, Jose I Hormaza, Jorge Lora
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The pawpaw, Asimina triloba , is an underutilized fruit crop native to North America that belongs to the mainly tropical, early-divergent family Annonaceae. Asimina is the only genus within the Annonaceae with species adapted to cold climates. A thorough analysis of its reproductive biology, specifically pollen-pistil interaction during the progamic phase, is essential to understand both its adaptation to cold climates and how to optimize its fertilization and fruit set...
December 2017: American Journal of Botany
Samira Bernardino Ramos do Prado, Gabrielle Fernandez Ferreira, Yosuke Harazono, Tânia Misuzu Shiga, Avraham Raz, Nicholas C Carpita, João Paulo Fabi
Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a fleshy fruit with a rapid pulp softening during ripening. Ripening events are accompanied by gradual depolymerization of pectic polysaccharides, including homogalacturonans, rhamnogalacturonans, arabinogalactans, and their modified forms. During intermediate phases of papaya ripening, partial depolymerization of pectin to small size with decreased branching had enhanced pectin anti-cancer properties. These properties were lost with continued decomposition at later phases of ripening...
November 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Adriano M Gigante, Cheri M Hampton, Rebecca S Dillard, Filipa Gil, Maria João Catalão, José Moniz-Pereira, Elizabeth R Wright, Madalena Pimentel
All dsDNA phages encode two proteins involved in host lysis, an endolysin and a holin that target the peptidoglycan and cytoplasmic membrane, respectively. Bacteriophages that infect Gram-negative bacteria encode additional proteins, the spanins, involved in disruption of the outer membrane. Recently, a gene located in the lytic cassette was identified in the genomes of mycobacteriophages, which encodes a protein (LysB) with mycolyl-arabinogalactan esterase activity. Taking in consideration the complex mycobacterial cell envelope that mycobacteriophages encounter during their life cycle, it is valuable to evaluate the role of these proteins in lysis...
November 17, 2017: Viruses
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