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arabinogalactan proteins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797243/polymorphism-and-structure-of-style-specific-arabinogalactan-proteins-as-determinants-of-pollen-tube-growth-in-nicotiana
#1
Andrzej K Noyszewski, Yi-Cheng Liu, Koichiro Tamura, Alan G Smith
BACKGROUND: Pollen tube growth and fertilization are key processes in angiosperm sexual reproduction. The transmitting tract (TT) of Nicotiana tabacum controls pollen tube growth in part by secreting pistil extensin-like protein III (PELPIII), transmitting-tract-specific (TTS) protein and 120 kDa glycoprotein (120 K) into the stylar extracellular matrix. The three arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) are referred to as stylar AGPs and are the focus of this research. The transmitting tract regulates pollen tube growth, promoting fertilization or rejecting pollen tubes...
August 10, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792736/chemical-synthesis-of-oligosaccharides-related-to-the-cell-walls-of-plants-and-algae
#2
Christine Kinnaert, Mathilde Daugaard, Faranak Nami, Mads H Clausen
Plant cell walls are composed of an intricate network of polysaccharides and proteins that varies during the developmental stages of the cell. This makes it very challenging to address the functions of individual wall components in cells, especially for highly complex glycans. Fortunately, structurally defined oligosaccharides can be used as models for the glycans, to study processes such as cell wall biosynthesis, polysaccharide deposition, protein-carbohydrate interactions, and cell-cell adhesion. Synthetic chemists have focused on preparing such model compounds, as they can be produced in good quantities and with high purity...
August 9, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733593/fasciclin-like-arabinogalactan-proteins-ptflas-play-important-roles-in-ga-mediated-tension-wood-formation-in-populus
#3
Haihai Wang, Yanli Jin, Cuiting Wang, Bei Li, Chunmei Jiang, Zhencang Sun, Zhiping Zhang, Fanjing Kong, Hongxia Zhang
In Populus, the transcripts of fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins (FLAs) are accumulated in tension wood (TW) xylem, however their biological functions in TW formation are largely unknown. In this work, we demonstrated that PtFLA6, one of poplar TW-associated PtFLAs, was abundantly expressed in TW, and mainly localized in differentiating G-fibers. The bended stems of PtFLA6 antisense transgenic poplar showed decreased transcripts of PtFLAs, including PtFLA6, and reduced PtFLA6 like proteins, leading to inhibited TW differentiation and formation...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699115/non-cellulosic-polysaccharide-distribution-during-g-layer-formation-in-poplar-tension-wood-fibers-abundance-of-rhamnogalacturonan-i-and-arabinogalactan-proteins-but-no-evidence-of-xyloglucan
#4
Fernanda Trilstz Perassolo Guedes, Françoise Laurans, Bernard Quemener, Carole Assor, Véronique Lainé-Prade, Nathalie Boizot, Jacqueline Vigouroux, Marie-Claude Lesage-Descauses, Jean-Charles Leplé, Annabelle Déjardin, Gilles Pilate
RG-I and AGP, but not XG, are associated to the building of the peculiar mechanical properties of tension wood. Hardwood trees produce tension wood (TW) with specific mechanical properties to cope with environmental cues. Poplar TW fibers have an additional cell wall layer, the G-layer responsible for TW mechanical properties. We investigated, in two poplar hybrid species, the molecules potentially involved in the building of TW mechanical properties. First, we evaluated the distribution of the different classes of non-cellulosic polysaccharides during xylem fiber differentiation, using immunolocalization...
July 11, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687330/identification-of-peg-induced-water-stress-responsive-transcripts-using-co-expression-network-in-eucalyptus-grandis
#5
Modhumita Ghosh Dasgupta, Veeramuthu Dharanishanthi
Ecophysiological studies in Eucalyptus have shown that water is the principal factor limiting stem growth. Effect of water deficit conditions on physiological and biochemical parameters has been extensively reported in Eucalyptus. The present study was conducted to identify major polyethylene glycol induced water stress responsive transcripts in Eucalyptus grandis using gene co-expression network. A customized array representing 3359 water stress responsive genes was designed to document their expression in leaves of E...
July 4, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676820/arabinogalactan-proteins-are-involved-in-salt-adaptation-and-vesicle-trafficking-in-tobacco-by-2-cell-cultures
#6
Enrique Olmos, Jesús García De La Garma, Maria C Gomez-Jimenez, Nieves Fernandez-Garcia
Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a highly diverse family of glycoproteins that are commonly found in most plant species. However, little is known about the physiological and molecular mechanisms of their function. AGPs are involved in different biological processes such as cell differentiation, cell expansion, tissue development and somatic embryogenesis. AGPs are also involved in abiotic stress response such as salinity modulating cell wall expansion. In this study, we describe how salt-adaptation in tobacco BY-2 cell cultures induces important changes in arabinogalactan proteins distribution and contents...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637865/an-evolutionarily-distinct-family-of-polysaccharide-lyases-removes-rhamnose-capping-of-complex-arabinogalactan-proteins
#7
José Munoz-Munoz, Alan Cartmell, Nicolas Terrapon, Arnaud Baslé, Bernard Henrissat, Harry J Gilbert
The human gut microbiota utilizes complex carbohydrates as major nutrients. The requirement for efficient glycan degrading systems exerts a major selective selection pressure on this microbial community. Thus, we propose that this microbial ecosystem represents a substantial resource for discovering novel carbohydrate active enzymes. To test this hypothesis we screened the potential enzymatic functions of hypothetical proteins encoded by genes of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron that were upregulated by arabinogalactan arabinogalactan proteins or AGPs...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633298/protein-expression-in-tension-wood-formation-monitored-at-high-tissue-resolution-in-populus
#8
Joakim Bygdell, Vaibhav Srivastava, Ogonna Obudulu, Manoj K Srivastava, Robert Nilsson, Björn Sundberg, Johan Trygg, Ewa J Mellerowicz, Gunnar Wingsle
Tension wood (TW) is a specialized tissue with contractile properties that is formed by the vascular cambium in response to gravitational stimuli. We quantitatively analysed the proteomes of Populus tremula cambium and its xylem cell derivatives in stems forming normal wood (NW) and TW to reveal the mechanisms underlying TW formation. Phloem-, cambium-, and wood-forming tissues were sampled by tangential cryosectioning and pooled into nine independent samples. The proteomes of TW and NW samples were similar in the phloem and cambium samples, but diverged early during xylogenesis, demonstrating that reprogramming is an integral part of TW formation...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622474/larch-arabinogalactan-attenuates-myocardial-injury-by-inhibiting-apoptotic-cascades-in-a-rat-model-of-ischemia-reperfusion
#9
Sun-Ha Lim
We reported previously that supplementation with apple pectin, a dietary fiber, reduced myocardial injury in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion. In this study, we further investigated an arabinogalactan, one of the constituent polysaccharides of pectin, to determine which domains comprising pectin were responsible for the protection. In a rat model of 30-min ischemia followed by 3-h reperfusion, supplementation with larch arabinogalactan (LAG) over 50 mg/kg/day significantly reduced infarct size. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and immunoblot analyses showed that intake of LAG blocked the steps involved in apoptotic cascades through downregulation of gelsolin gene expression at the protein (Gelsolin) level, inhibition of p38 phosphorylation in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, decreased bax/bcl-2 ratio at the protein (Bax/Bcl-2) level, which was correlated with the ratio at the mRNA level, inhibition of the conversion of Procaspase protein to Caspase-3 protein, and consequently a decrease in apoptotic cells...
July 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606543/structural-investigations-on-arabinogalactan-proteins-from-a-lycophyte-and-different-monilophytes-ferns-in-the-evolutionary-context
#10
Desirée Bartels, Birgit Classen
Today, understanding of cell wall evolution is incomplete due to limited knowledge of cell wall structure of non-flowering plants. Besides polysaccharides, proteoglycans like arabinogalactan-proteins are important constituents of the cell wall of most if not all seed plants. This article provides the first detailed characterization of AGPs from a lycophyte and different ferns, which are the closest living relatives to seed plants. The amount of protein in fern AGPs (6-12%) was in a range comparable to most seed plant AGPs...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490083/combining-hydrothermal-pretreatment-with-enzymes-de-pectinates-and-exposes-the-innermost-xyloglucan-rich-hemicellulose-layers-of-wine-grape-pomace
#11
Anscha J J Zietsman, John P Moore, Jonatan U Fangel, William G T Willats, Melané A Vivier
Chardonnay grape pomace was treated with pressurized heat followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, with commercial or pure enzymes, in buffered conditions. The pomace was unfermented as commonly found for white winemaking wastes and treatments aimed to simulate biovalorization processing. Cell wall profiling techniques showed that the pretreatment led to depectination of the outer layers thereby exposing xylan polymers and increasing the extractability of arabinans, galactans, arabinogalactan proteins and mannans...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482115/arabidopsis-thaliana-fla4-functions-as-a-glycan-stabilized-soluble-factor-via-its-carboxy-proximal-fasciclin-1-domain
#12
Hui Xue, Christiane Veit, Lindy Abas, Theodora Tryfona, Daniel Maresch, Martiniano M Ricardi, José Manuel Estevez, Richard Strasser, Georg J Seifert
Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins (FLAs) are involved in numerous important functions in plants but the relevance of their complex structure to physiological function and cellular fate is unresolved. Using a fully functional fluorescent version of Arabidopsis thaliana FLA4 we show that this protein is localized at the plasma membrane as well as in endosomes and soluble in the apoplast. FLA4 is likely to be GPI-anchored, is highly N-glycosylated and carries two O-glycan epitopes previously associated with arabinogalactan proteins...
August 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446636/insights-into-the-evolution-of-hydroxyproline-rich-glycoproteins-from-1000-plant-transcriptomes
#13
Kim L Johnson, Andrew M Cassin, Andrew Lonsdale, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Douglas E Soltis, Nicholas W Miles, Michael Melkonian, Barbara Melkonian, Michael K Deyholos, James Leebens-Mack, Carl J Rothfels, Dennis W Stevenson, Sean W Graham, Xumin Wang, Shuangxiu Wu, J Chris Pires, Patrick P Edger, Eric J Carpenter, Antony Bacic, Monika S Doblin, Carolyn J Schultz
The carbohydrate-rich cell walls of land plants and algae have been the focus of much interest given the value of cell wall-based products to our current and future economies. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), a major group of wall glycoproteins, play important roles in plant growth and development, yet little is known about how they have evolved in parallel with the polysaccharide components of walls. We investigate the origins and evolution of the HRGP superfamily, which is commonly divided into three major multigene families: the arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), extensins (EXTs), and proline-rich proteins...
June 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446635/pipeline-to-identify-hydroxyproline-rich-glycoproteins
#14
Kim L Johnson, Andrew M Cassin, Andrew Lonsdale, Antony Bacic, Monika S Doblin, Carolyn J Schultz
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are functional proteins that lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure. The study of IDPs is a rapidly growing area as the crucial biological functions of more of these proteins are uncovered. In plants, IDPs are implicated in plant stress responses, signaling, and regulatory processes. A superfamily of cell wall proteins, the hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), have characteristic features of IDPs. Their protein backbones are rich in the disordering amino acid proline, they contain repeated sequence motifs and extensive posttranslational modifications (glycosylation), and they have been implicated in many biological functions...
June 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438120/transcriptomic-analysis-links-gene-expression-to-unilateral-pollen-pistil-reproductive-barriers
#15
Amanda K Broz, Rafael F Guerrero, April M Randle, You Soon Baek, Matthew W Hahn, Patricia A Bedinger
BACKGROUND: Unilateral incompatibility (UI) is an asymmetric reproductive barrier that unidirectionally prevents gene flow between species and/or populations. UI is characterized by a compatible interaction between partners in one direction, but in the reciprocal cross fertilization fails, generally due to pollen tube rejection by the pistil. Although UI has long been observed in crosses between different species, the underlying molecular mechanisms are only beginning to be characterized...
April 24, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433159/glucuronoarabinoxylans-as-major-cell-walls-polymers-from-young-shoots-of-the-woody-bamboo-phyllostachys-aurea
#16
Víctor Martín Zelaya, Paula Virginia Fernández, Andrea Susana Vega, Anita Ida Mantese, Ana Ailén Federico, Marina Ciancia
Young shoots of Phyllostachys aurea showed glucuronoarabinoxylans (GAX) as the major hemicellulosic components, being extracted in major amounts with 1M KOH (ratio Xyl:Ara:GlcA, 100:67:8), but also with water, showing a broad structural variability. Mixed linkage glucans were also present, but in minor amounts, mostly concentrated in the 4M KOH extracts, while pectin polymers were very scarce. Arabinogalactan proteins were an important part of water extracts, determined by the presence of the typical arabinogalactan structures (3- and 6-linked Gal p; terminal and 5-linked Ara f), in addition to small amounts of hydroxyproline (2-3% of total protein) and positive reaction to Yariv's reagent...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424711/genomic-molecular-evolution-and-expression-analysis-of-genes-encoding-putative-classical-agps-lysine-rich-agps-and-ag-peptides-in-brassica-rapa
#17
Tianyu Han, Heng Dong, Jie Cui, Ming Li, Sue Lin, Jiashu Cao, Li Huang
Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) belong to a class of Pro/Hyp-rich glycoproteins and are some of the most complex types of macromolecules found in plants. In the economically important plant species, Brassica rapa, only chimeric AGPs have been identified to date. This has significantly limited our understanding of the functional roles of AGPs in this plant. In this study, 64 AGPs were identified in the genome of B. rapa, including 33 classical AGPs, 28 AG peptides and three lys-rich AGPs. Syntenic gene analysis between B...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267501/evolution-of-plant-cell-wall-arabinogalactan-proteins-from-three-moss-genera-show-structural-differences-compared-to-seed-plants
#18
Desirée Bartels, Alexander Baumann, Malte Maeder, Thomas Geske, Esther Marie Heise, Klaus von Schwartzenberg, Birgit Classen
Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are important proteoglycans of plant cell walls. They seem to be present in most, if not all seed plants, but their occurrence and structure in bryophytes is widely unknown and actually the focus of AGP research. With regard to evolution of plant cell wall, we isolated AGPs from the three mosses Sphagnum sp., Physcomitrella patens and Polytrichastrum formosum. The moss AGPs show structural characteristics common for AGPs of seed plants, but also unique features, especially 3-O-methyl-rhamnose (trivial name acofriose) as terminal monosaccharide not found in arabinogalactan-proteins of angiosperms and 1,2,3-linked galactose as branching point never found in arabinogalactan-proteins before...
May 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254574/structural-insight-of-an-antioxidative-arabinogalactan-protein-of-aegle-marmelos-fruit-gum-and-it-s-interaction-with-%C3%AE-lactoglobulin
#19
Kaushik Bera, Sayani Ray, Washim Raja, Bimalendu Ray
The complication of arabinogalactan protein (AGP) structure, a significant ingredient of gum polysaccharides, not merely hinders the allocation of its role, but restricts its utilization as well. Here, we describe structural details of an AGP purified from Aegle marmelos fruit gum. This AGP (310×10(3)g/mol), which is water-soluble, contains β-1,3-linked galactopyranosyl main chain substituted at O-6 position with side chains containing galactose and arabinose residues. Also data on sugar composition, ring size, glycosidic linkage pattern, anomeric configuration and sequence of monosaccharide units of a number of oligosaccharides produced from this AGP by chemical and enzymatic methods were acquired...
June 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218299/expression-and-distribution-of-extensins-and-agps-in-susceptible-and-resistant-banana-cultivars-in-response-to-wounding-and-fusarium-oxysporum
#20
Yunli Wu, Wei Fan, Xiaoquan Li, Houbin Chen, Tomáš Takáč, Olga Šamajová, Musana Rwalinda Fabrice, Ling Xie, Juan Ma, Jozef Šamaj, Chunxiang Xu
Banana Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is soil-borne disease of banana (Musa spp.) causing significant economic losses. Extensins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are cell wall components important for pathogen defence. Their significance for Foc resistance in banana was not reported so far. In this study, two banana cultivars differing in Foc sensitivity were used to monitor the changes in transcript levels, abundance and distribution of extensins and AGPs after wounding and Foc inoculation...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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