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arabinogalactan proteins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937992/efficient-generation-of-mutations-mediated-by-crispr-cas9-in-the-hairy-root-transformation-system-of-brassica-carinata
#1
Thomas W Kirchner, Markus Niehaus, Thomas Debener, Manfred K Schenk, Marco Herde
A protocol for the induction of site-directed deletions and insertions in the genome of Brassica carinata with CRISPR is described. The construct containing the Cas9 nuclease and the guide RNA (gRNA) was delivered by the hairy root transformation technique, and a successful transformation was monitored by GFP fluorescence. PAGE analysis of an amplified region, presumably containing the deletions and insertions, demonstrated up to seven different indels in one transgenic root and in all analyzed roots a wildtype allele of the modified gene was not detectable...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936655/immunolocalization-of-agps-and-pectins-in-quercus-suber-gametophytic-structures
#2
Mário Luís da Costa, Ana Lúcia Lopes, Maria Isabel Amorim, Sílvia Coimbra
The arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are highly glycosylated proteins, ubiquitous in plants that have been linked to numerous aspects of sexual reproduction in several plant species, including the monoecious tree species Quercus suber. AGPs are found in cell membranes and cell walls of all types of tissues, including reproductive cells and organs. Pectins are cell wall components that also have been shown to change in composition and quantity during the maturations of the male and female gametophyte in cork oak...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931375/identification-of-fasciclin-like-arabinogalactan-proteins-in-textile-hemp-cannabis-sativa-l-in-silico-analyses-and-gene-expression-patterns-in-different-tissues
#3
Gea Guerriero, Lauralie Mangeot-Peter, Sylvain Legay, Marc Behr, Stanley Lutts, Khawar Sohail Siddiqui, Jean-Francois Hausman
BACKGROUND: The fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins (FLAs) belong to the arabinogalactan protein (AGP) superfamily and are known to play different physiological roles in plants. This class of proteins was shown to participate in plant growth, development, defense against abiotic stresses and, notably, cell wall biosynthesis. Although some studies are available on the characterization of FLA genes from different species, both woody and herbaceous, no detailed information is available on the FLA family of textile hemp (Cannabis sativa L...
September 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917919/structural-characteristics-of-water-soluble-polysaccharides-from-norway-spruce-picea-abies
#4
Evgeny G Shakhmatov, Vladimir A Belyy, Elena N Makarova
Arabinogalactan proteins and pectic polysaccharides were isolated from greenery of Picea abies by water extraction. Main elements of their structure were determined by ion-exchange chromatography, partial acid and enzymatic hydrolysis, and NMR spectroscopy. It was established that the backbone of pectin macromolecules of greenery of P. abies is represented by segments of partially methyl-esterified and acetylated 1,4-α-d-galactopyranosyluronan, and partially 2-O- and/or 3-O-acetylated RG-I with side chains consisting of highly-branched 1,5-α-l-arabinan segments...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893793/chemical-genomic-interaction-profiling-reveals-determinants-of-intrinsic-antibiotic-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#5
Weizhen Xu, Michael A DeJesus, Nadine Rücker, Curtis A Engelhart, Meredith G Wright, Claire Healy, Kan Lin, Ruojun Wang, Sae Woong Park, Thomas R Ioerger, Dirk Schnappinger, Sabine Ehrt
Chemotherapy for tuberculosis (TB) is lengthy and could benefit from synergistic adjuvant therapeutics that enhance current and novel drug regimens. To identify genetic determinants of intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) we applied a chemical genetic interaction (CGI) profiling approach. We screened a saturated transposon mutant library and identified mutants that exhibit altered fitness in the presence of partially-inhibitory concentrations of rifampicin, ethambutol, isoniazid, vancomycin and meropenem, antibiotics of diverse mechanisms-of-action...
September 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859611/transcript-profiling-of-genes-expressed-during-fibre-development-in-diploid-cotton-gossypium-arboreum-l
#6
Atul S Hande, Ishwarappa S Katageri, Mangesh P Jadhav, Sateesh Adiger, Savita Gamanagatti, Kethireddy Venkata Padmalatha, Gurusamy Dhandapani, Mogilicherla Kanakachari, Polumetla Ananda Kumar, Vanga Siva Reddy
BACKGROUND: Cotton fibre is a single cell and it is one of the best platforms for unraveling the genes express during various stages of fibre development. There are reports devoted to comparative transcriptome study on fiber cell initiation and elongation in tetraploid cultivated cotton. However, in the present investigation, comparative transcriptome study was made in diploid cultivated cotton using isogenic fuzzy-lintless (Fl) and normal fuzzy linted (FL) lines belong to Gossypium arboreum, diploid species at two stages, 0 and 10 dpa (days post anthesis), using Affymetrix cotton GeneChip genome array...
August 31, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797243/polymorphism-and-structure-of-style-specific-arabinogalactan-proteins-as-determinants-of-pollen-tube-growth-in-nicotiana
#7
Andrzej K Noyszewski, Yi-Cheng Liu, Koichiro Tamura, Alan G Smith
BACKGROUND: Pollen tube growth and fertilization are key processes in angiosperm sexual reproduction. The transmitting tract (TT) of Nicotiana tabacum controls pollen tube growth in part by secreting pistil extensin-like protein III (PELPIII), transmitting-tract-specific (TTS) protein and 120 kDa glycoprotein (120 K) into the stylar extracellular matrix. The three arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) are referred to as stylar AGPs and are the focus of this research. The transmitting tract regulates pollen tube growth, promoting fertilization or rejecting pollen tubes...
August 10, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792736/chemical-synthesis-of-oligosaccharides-related-to-the-cell-walls-of-plants-and-algae
#8
Christine Kinnaert, Mathilde Daugaard, Faranak Nami, Mads H Clausen
Plant cell walls are composed of an intricate network of polysaccharides and proteins that varies during the developmental stages of the cell. This makes it very challenging to address the functions of individual wall components in cells, especially for highly complex glycans. Fortunately, structurally defined oligosaccharides can be used as models for the glycans, to study processes such as cell wall biosynthesis, polysaccharide deposition, protein-carbohydrate interactions, and cell-cell adhesion. Synthetic chemists have focused on preparing such model compounds, as they can be produced in good quantities and with high purity...
August 9, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733593/fasciclin-like-arabinogalactan-proteins-ptflas-play-important-roles-in-ga-mediated-tension-wood-formation-in-populus
#9
Haihai Wang, Yanli Jin, Cuiting Wang, Bei Li, Chunmei Jiang, Zhencang Sun, Zhiping Zhang, Fanjing Kong, Hongxia Zhang
In Populus, the transcripts of fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins (FLAs) are accumulated in tension wood (TW) xylem, however their biological functions in TW formation are largely unknown. In this work, we demonstrated that PtFLA6, one of poplar TW-associated PtFLAs, was abundantly expressed in TW, and mainly localized in differentiating G-fibers. The bended stems of PtFLA6 antisense transgenic poplar showed decreased transcripts of PtFLAs, including PtFLA6, and reduced PtFLA6 like proteins, leading to inhibited TW differentiation and formation...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699115/non-cellulosic-polysaccharide-distribution-during-g-layer-formation-in-poplar-tension-wood-fibers-abundance-of-rhamnogalacturonan-i-and-arabinogalactan-proteins-but-no-evidence-of-xyloglucan
#10
Fernanda Trilstz Perassolo Guedes, Françoise Laurans, Bernard Quemener, Carole Assor, Véronique Lainé-Prade, Nathalie Boizot, Jacqueline Vigouroux, Marie-Claude Lesage-Descauses, Jean-Charles Leplé, Annabelle Déjardin, Gilles Pilate
RG-I and AGP, but not XG, are associated to the building of the peculiar mechanical properties of tension wood. Hardwood trees produce tension wood (TW) with specific mechanical properties to cope with environmental cues. Poplar TW fibers have an additional cell wall layer, the G-layer responsible for TW mechanical properties. We investigated, in two poplar hybrid species, the molecules potentially involved in the building of TW mechanical properties. First, we evaluated the distribution of the different classes of non-cellulosic polysaccharides during xylem fiber differentiation, using immunolocalization...
July 11, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687330/identification-of-peg-induced-water-stress-responsive-transcripts-using-co-expression-network-in-eucalyptus-grandis
#11
Modhumita Ghosh Dasgupta, Veeramuthu Dharanishanthi
Ecophysiological studies in Eucalyptus have shown that water is the principal factor limiting stem growth. Effect of water deficit conditions on physiological and biochemical parameters has been extensively reported in Eucalyptus. The present study was conducted to identify major polyethylene glycol induced water stress responsive transcripts in Eucalyptus grandis using gene co-expression network. A customized array representing 3359 water stress responsive genes was designed to document their expression in leaves of E...
September 5, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676820/arabinogalactan-proteins-are-involved-in-salt-adaptation-and-vesicle-trafficking-in-tobacco-by-2-cell-cultures
#12
Enrique Olmos, Jesús García De La Garma, Maria C Gomez-Jimenez, Nieves Fernandez-Garcia
Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a highly diverse family of glycoproteins that are commonly found in most plant species. However, little is known about the physiological and molecular mechanisms of their function. AGPs are involved in different biological processes such as cell differentiation, cell expansion, tissue development and somatic embryogenesis. AGPs are also involved in abiotic stress response such as salinity modulating cell wall expansion. In this study, we describe how salt-adaptation in tobacco BY-2 cell cultures induces important changes in arabinogalactan proteins distribution and contents...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637865/an-evolutionarily-distinct-family-of-polysaccharide-lyases-removes-rhamnose-capping-of-complex-arabinogalactan-proteins
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
José Munoz-Munoz, Alan Cartmell, Nicolas Terrapon, Arnaud Baslé, Bernard Henrissat, Harry J Gilbert
The human gut microbiota utilizes complex carbohydrates as major nutrients. The requirement for efficient glycan degrading systems exerts a major selection pressure on this microbial community. Thus, we propose that this microbial ecosystem represents a substantial resource for discovering novel carbohydrate active enzymes. To test this hypothesis we screened the potential enzymatic functions of hypothetical proteins encoded by genes of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron that were up-regulated by arabinogalactan proteins or AGPs...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633298/protein-expression-in-tension-wood-formation-monitored-at-high-tissue-resolution-in-populus
#14
Joakim Bygdell, Vaibhav Srivastava, Ogonna Obudulu, Manoj K Srivastava, Robert Nilsson, Björn Sundberg, Johan Trygg, Ewa J Mellerowicz, Gunnar Wingsle
Tension wood (TW) is a specialized tissue with contractile properties that is formed by the vascular cambium in response to gravitational stimuli. We quantitatively analysed the proteomes of Populus tremula cambium and its xylem cell derivatives in stems forming normal wood (NW) and TW to reveal the mechanisms underlying TW formation. Phloem-, cambium-, and wood-forming tissues were sampled by tangential cryosectioning and pooled into nine independent samples. The proteomes of TW and NW samples were similar in the phloem and cambium samples, but diverged early during xylogenesis, demonstrating that reprogramming is an integral part of TW formation...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622474/larch-arabinogalactan-attenuates-myocardial-injury-by-inhibiting-apoptotic-cascades-in-a-rat-model-of-ischemia-reperfusion
#15
Sun-Ha Lim
We reported previously that supplementation with apple pectin, a dietary fiber, reduced myocardial injury in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion. In this study, we further investigated an arabinogalactan, one of the constituent polysaccharides of pectin, to determine which domains comprising pectin were responsible for the protection. In a rat model of 30-min ischemia followed by 3-h reperfusion, supplementation with larch arabinogalactan (LAG) over 50 mg/kg/day significantly reduced infarct size. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and immunoblot analyses showed that intake of LAG blocked the steps involved in apoptotic cascades through downregulation of gelsolin gene expression at the protein (Gelsolin) level, inhibition of p38 phosphorylation in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, decreased bax/bcl-2 ratio at the protein (Bax/Bcl-2) level, which was correlated with the ratio at the mRNA level, inhibition of the conversion of Procaspase protein to Caspase-3 protein, and consequently a decrease in apoptotic cells...
July 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606543/structural-investigations-on-arabinogalactan-proteins-from-a-lycophyte-and-different-monilophytes-ferns-in-the-evolutionary-context
#16
Desirée Bartels, Birgit Classen
Today, understanding of cell wall evolution is incomplete due to limited knowledge of cell wall structure of non-flowering plants. Besides polysaccharides, proteoglycans like arabinogalactan-proteins are important constituents of the cell wall of most if not all seed plants. This article provides the first detailed characterization of AGPs from a lycophyte and different ferns, which are the closest living relatives to seed plants. The amount of protein in fern AGPs (6-12%) was in a range comparable to most seed plant AGPs...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490083/combining-hydrothermal-pretreatment-with-enzymes-de-pectinates-and-exposes-the-innermost-xyloglucan-rich-hemicellulose-layers-of-wine-grape-pomace
#17
Anscha J J Zietsman, John P Moore, Jonatan U Fangel, William G T Willats, Melané A Vivier
Chardonnay grape pomace was treated with pressurized heat followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, with commercial or pure enzymes, in buffered conditions. The pomace was unfermented as commonly found for white winemaking wastes and treatments aimed to simulate biovalorization processing. Cell wall profiling techniques showed that the pretreatment led to depectination of the outer layers thereby exposing xylan polymers and increasing the extractability of arabinans, galactans, arabinogalactan proteins and mannans...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482115/arabidopsis-thaliana-fla4-functions-as-a-glycan-stabilized-soluble-factor-via-its-carboxy-proximal-fasciclin-1-domain
#18
Hui Xue, Christiane Veit, Lindy Abas, Theodora Tryfona, Daniel Maresch, Martiniano M Ricardi, José Manuel Estevez, Richard Strasser, Georg J Seifert
Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins (FLAs) are involved in numerous important functions in plants but the relevance of their complex structure to physiological function and cellular fate is unresolved. Using a fully functional fluorescent version of Arabidopsis thaliana FLA4 we show that this protein is localized at the plasma membrane as well as in endosomes and soluble in the apoplast. FLA4 is likely to be GPI-anchored, is highly N-glycosylated and carries two O-glycan epitopes previously associated with arabinogalactan proteins...
August 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446636/insights-into-the-evolution-of-hydroxyproline-rich-glycoproteins-from-1000-plant-transcriptomes
#19
Kim L Johnson, Andrew M Cassin, Andrew Lonsdale, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Douglas E Soltis, Nicholas W Miles, Michael Melkonian, Barbara Melkonian, Michael K Deyholos, James Leebens-Mack, Carl J Rothfels, Dennis W Stevenson, Sean W Graham, Xumin Wang, Shuangxiu Wu, J Chris Pires, Patrick P Edger, Eric J Carpenter, Antony Bacic, Monika S Doblin, Carolyn J Schultz
The carbohydrate-rich cell walls of land plants and algae have been the focus of much interest given the value of cell wall-based products to our current and future economies. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), a major group of wall glycoproteins, play important roles in plant growth and development, yet little is known about how they have evolved in parallel with the polysaccharide components of walls. We investigate the origins and evolution of the HRGP superfamily, which is commonly divided into three major multigene families: the arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), extensins (EXTs), and proline-rich proteins...
June 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446635/pipeline-to-identify-hydroxyproline-rich-glycoproteins
#20
Kim L Johnson, Andrew M Cassin, Andrew Lonsdale, Antony Bacic, Monika S Doblin, Carolyn J Schultz
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are functional proteins that lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure. The study of IDPs is a rapidly growing area as the crucial biological functions of more of these proteins are uncovered. In plants, IDPs are implicated in plant stress responses, signaling, and regulatory processes. A superfamily of cell wall proteins, the hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), have characteristic features of IDPs. Their protein backbones are rich in the disordering amino acid proline, they contain repeated sequence motifs and extensive posttranslational modifications (glycosylation), and they have been implicated in many biological functions...
June 2017: Plant Physiology
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