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Haematopoiesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714970/bone-marrow-adipocytes-promote-the-regeneration-of-stem-cells-and-haematopoiesis-by-secreting-scf
#1
Bo O Zhou, Hua Yu, Rui Yue, Zhiyu Zhao, Jonathan J Rios, Olaia Naveiras, Sean J Morrison
Endothelial cells and leptin receptor(+) (LepR(+)) stromal cells are critical sources of haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche factors, including stem cell factor (SCF), in bone marrow. After irradiation or chemotherapy, these cells are depleted while adipocytes become abundant. We discovered that bone marrow adipocytes synthesize SCF. They arise from Adipoq-Cre/ER(+) progenitors, which represent ∼5% of LepR(+) cells, and proliferate after irradiation. Scf deletion using Adipoq-Cre/ER inhibited haematopoietic regeneration after irradiation or 5-fluorouracil treatment, depleting HSCs and reducing mouse survival...
July 17, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699658/telomere-length-and-somatic-mutations-in-correlation-with-response-to-immunosuppressive-treatment-in-aplastic-anaemia
#2
Hee S Park, Si N Park, Kyongok Im, Sung-Min Kim, Jung-Ah Kim, Sang M Hwang, Dong S Lee
We investigated the frequencies of cytogenetic aberrations and somatic mutations of prognostic relevance in 393 patients with aplastic anaemia (AA). Clonality was determined by G-banding/fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (n = 245), and targeted capture sequencing was performed for 88 haematopoiesis-related genes (n = 70). The telomere length (TL) of bone marrow nucleated cells was measured at the single cell level by FISH (n = 135). Eighteen (4·6%) patients showed disease progression, and monosomy 7 (50·0%) was the most predominant cytogenetic evolution at disease transformation...
July 12, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693128/pediatric-haematopoiesis-and-related-malignancies
#3
Mingwei Jin, Shumei Xu, Qi An
Survival after acute paediatric (0-14 years), adolescent (15-19 years) and young adult (20-39 years) leukaemia has improved substantially over the last five decades, particularly for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute promyelocytic leukaemia. This progress represents one of the most successful achievements in the history of medicine and has been attributed to the development of effective chemotherapy regimens, improvement in supportive care, better risk stratification, use of targeted therapies, and advances in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690318/haematopoiesis-osteopontin-skews-lymphoid-myeloid-balance
#4
Kirsty Minton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680655/a-deterministic-method-for-estimating-free-energy-genetic-network-landscapes-with-applications-to-cell-commitment-and-reprogramming-paths
#5
Victor Olariu, Erica Manesso, Carsten Peterson
Depicting developmental processes as movements in free energy genetic landscapes is an illustrative tool. However, exploring such landscapes to obtain quantitative or even qualitative predictions is hampered by the lack of free energy functions corresponding to the biochemical Michaelis-Menten or Hill rate equations for the dynamics. Being armed with energy landscapes defined by a network and its interactions would open up the possibility of swiftly identifying cell states and computing optimal paths, including those of cell reprogramming, thereby avoiding exhaustive trial-and-error simulations with rate equations for different parameter sets...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676567/human-haematopoietic-stem-cell-development-from-the-embryo-to-the-dish
#6
REVIEW
Andrejs Ivanovs, Stanislav Rybtsov, Elizabeth S Ng, Edouard G Stanley, Andrew G Elefanty, Alexander Medvinsky
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge during embryogenesis and give rise to the adult haematopoietic system. Understanding how early haematopoietic development occurs is of fundamental importance for basic biology and medical sciences, but our knowledge is still limited compared with what we know of adult HSCs and their microenvironment. This is particularly true for human haematopoiesis, and is reflected in our current inability to recapitulate the development of HSCs from pluripotent stem cells in vitro In this Review, we discuss what is known of human haematopoietic development: the anatomical sites at which it occurs, the different temporal waves of haematopoiesis, the emergence of the first HSCs and the signalling landscape of the haematopoietic niche...
July 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673584/parp-inhibitors-in-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-therapy-how-a-synthetic-lethality-approach-can-be-a-valid-therapeutic-alternative
#7
Grigore Aristide Gafencu, Ciprian Ionuț Tomuleasa, Gabriel Ghiaur
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a malignancy in need of new therapeutic options. The current standard of care chemotherapy, leads to complete remission (CR) in the vast majority of adult patients under the age of 60. In contrast, CR rates in patients over the age of 60 reaches only 40-60%. While achievement of a CR is an important stepping stone in the treatment of AML, the majority of these patients experience relapse and die of their disease without adequate consolidation chemotherapy. Blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) can improve outcome in a select patient with AML but unfortunately, it is not a valid treatment option for the majority of older patients...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655167/identification-of-transcript-regulatory-patterns-in-cell-differentiation
#8
Arief Gusnanto, John Paul Gosling, Christopher Pope
Motivation: Studying transcript regulatory patterns in cell differentiation is critical in understanding its complex nature of the formation and function of different cell types. This is done usually by measuring gene expression at different stages of the cell differentiation. However, if the gene expression data available are only from the mature cells, we have some challenges in identifying transcript regulatory patterns that govern the cell differentiation. Results: We propose to exploit the information of the lineage of cell differentiation in terms of correlation structure between cell types...
June 24, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624829/preoperative-c-reactive-protein-values-as-a-potential-component-in-outcome-prediction-models-of-metastasized-renal-cell-carcinoma-patients-receiving-cytoreductive-nephrectomy
#9
Charis Kalogirou, Philipp Mulfinger, Ioannis Sokolakis, Markus Krebs, Hubert Kübler, Hubertus Riedmiller, Daniel Vergho
PURPOSE: To validate preoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) levels as a prognostic marker for survival in a metastasized renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patient cohort receiving cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN). PATIENTS AND METHODS: By chart review, 146 mRCC patients receiving CN at our tertiary referral centre from 1997 to 2015 were identified retrospectively. All relevant clinicopathological features including laboratory parameters were collected and correlated to overall survival, progression-free survival and cancer-specific survival (CSS)...
June 17, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611394/identification-of-the-ectoenzyme-cd38-as-a-marker-of-committed-preadipocytes
#10
A Carrière, Y Jeanson, J-A Côté, C Dromard, A Galinier, S Menzel, C Barreau, S Dupuis-Coronas, E Arnaud, A Girousse, V Cuminetti, J Paupert, B Cousin, C Sengenes, F Koch-Nolte, A Tchernof, L Casteilla
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Characterisation of the adipocyte cellular lineage is required for a better understanding of white adipose tissue homoeostasis and expansion. Although several studies have focused on the phenotype of the most immature adipocyte progenitors, very few tools exist to identify committed cells. In haematopoiesis, the CD38 ectoenzyme is largely used to delineate various stages of stem cell lineage commitment. We hypothesise that this marker could be used to identify committed preadipocytes...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611013/the-effect-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-the-granulocytic-differentiation-of-hl-60-cells
#11
Hossein Nikkhah, Elham Safarzadeh, Karim Shamsasenjan, Mehdi Yousefi, Parisa Lotfinejad, Mehdi Talebi, Mozhde Mohammadian, Farhoud Golafshan, Ali Akbar Movassaghpour
OBJECTIVE: The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types. They control the process of haematopoiesis by secreting regulatory cytokines and growth factors and by the expression of important cell adhesion molecules for cell-to-cell interactions. This investigation intended to examine the effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on the differentiation of the HL-60 cells according to morphological evaluation, flow cytometry analysis, andgene expression profile...
June 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605873/associations-of-urban-environmental-pollution-with-health-related-physiological-traits-in-a-free-living-bird-species
#12
Petra Bauerová, Jitka Vinklerová, Jakub Hraníček, Vojtěch Čorba, Libor Vojtek, Jana Svobodová, Michal Vinkler
Urban environmental pollution results in contamination of the tissues of synanthropic organisms by toxic trace elements with potential impacts on human health. Passerine birds may serve as convenient indicators of such contamination. In this study we investigated the effect of blood and plumage contamination with heavy metals (lead Pb, cadmium Cd, copper Cu, chromium Cr) and arsenic metalloid (As) on condition, health and ornamental colour in free-living great tit (Parus major) males from 13 cities across the Czech Republic (EU), mist netted during the early breading season (April-May)...
June 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600522/direct-competition-between-dna-binding-factors-highlights-the-role-of-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-1-in-the-erythroid-megakaryocyte-switch
#13
Laura J Norton, Samantha Hallal, Elizabeth S Stout, Alister P W Funnell, Richard C M Pearson, Merlin Crossley, Kate G R Quinlan
The Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family of transcription factors play critical roles in haematopoiesis. KLF1, the founding member of the family, has been implicated in the control of both erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. Here we describe a novel system using an artificial dominant negative isoform of KLF1 to investigate the role of KLF1 in the erythroid/megakaryocytic switch in vivo. We developed murine cell lines stably overexpressing a GST-KLF1 DNA binding domain fusion protein (GST-KLF1 DBD), as well as lines expressing GST only as a control...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593990/loss-of-asxl2-leads-to-myeloid-malignancies-in-mice
#14
Jianping Li, Fuhong He, Peng Zhang, Shi Chen, Hui Shi, Yanling Sun, Ying Guo, Hui Yang, Na Man, Sarah Greenblatt, Zhaomin Li, Zhengyu Guo, Yuan Zhou, Lan Wang, Lluis Morey, Sion Williams, Xi Chen, Qun-Tian Wang, Stephen D Nimer, Peng Yu, Qian-Fei Wang, Mingjiang Xu, Feng-Chun Yang
ASXL2 is frequently mutated in acute myeloid leukaemia patients with t(8;21). However, the roles of ASXL2 in normal haematopoiesis and the pathogenesis of myeloid malignancies remain unknown. Here we show that deletion of Asxl2 in mice leads to the development of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-like disease. Asxl2(-/-) mice have an increased bone marrow (BM) long-term haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors compared with wild-type controls. Recipients transplanted with Asxl2(-/-) and Asxl2(+/-) BM cells have shortened lifespan due to the development of MDS-like disease or myeloid leukaemia...
June 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579852/treatment-of-myelofibrosis-old-and-new-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Alessandra Iurlo, Daniele Cattaneo
Myelofibrosis (MF) is a BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm that is mainly characterised by reactive bone marrow fibrosis, extramedullary haematopoiesis, anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, constitutional symptoms, leukaemic progression, and shortened survival. As such, this malignancy is still orphan of curative treatments; indeed, the only treatment that has a clearly demonstrated impact on disease progression is allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, but only a minority of patients are eligible for such intensive therapy...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574591/bone-marrow-adipocytes-support-haematopoietic-stem-cell-survival
#16
Domenico Mattiucci, Giulia Maurizi, Valerio Izzi, Lorenzo Cenci, Marco Ciarlantini, Stefania Mancini, Emanuela Mensà, Raffaele Pascarella, Marco Vivarelli, Attilio Olivieri, Pietro Leoni, Antonella Poloni
In bone marrow (BM), haematopoietic elements are mingled with adipocytes (BM-A), which are the most abundant stromal component in the niche. BM-A progressively increase with ageing, eventually occupying up to 50% of BM cavities. In this work, the role played by BM-A was explored by studying primary human BM-A isolated from hip surgery patients at the molecular level, through microarray analysis, and at the functional level, by assessing their relationship with primary human haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) by the long-term culture initiating cell (LTC-IC) assay...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561053/mitochondria-link-metabolism-and-epigenetics-in-haematopoiesis
#17
John C Schell, Jared Rutter
Due to their varied metabolic and signalling roles, mitochondria are important in mediating cell behaviour. By altering mitochondrial function, two studies now identify metabolite-induced epigenetic changes that have profound effects on haematopoietic stem cell fate and function.
May 31, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541275/engineering-the-haemogenic-niche-mitigates-endogenous-inhibitory-signals-and-controls-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-blood-emergence
#18
Nafees Rahman, Patrick M Brauer, Lilian Ho, Tatiana Usenko, Mukul Tewary, Juan Carlos Zúñiga-Pflücker, Peter W Zandstra
Efforts to recapitulate haematopoiesis, a process guided by spatial and temporal inductive signals, to generate haematopoietic progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have focused primarily on exogenous signalling pathway activation or inhibition. Here we show haemogenic niches can be engineered using microfabrication strategies by micropatterning hPSC-derived haemogenic endothelial (HE) cells into spatially-organized, size-controlled colonies. CD34+VECAD+ HE cells were generated with multi-lineage potential in serum-free conditions and cultured as size-specific haemogenic niches that displayed enhanced blood cell induction over non-micropatterned cultures...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516957/asxl2-is-essential-for-haematopoiesis-and-acts-as-a-haploinsufficient-tumour-suppressor-in-leukemia
#19
Jean-Baptiste Micol, Alessandro Pastore, Daichi Inoue, Nicolas Duployez, Eunhee Kim, Stanley Chun-Wei Lee, Benjamin H Durham, Young Rock Chung, Hana Cho, Xiao Jing Zhang, Akihide Yoshimi, Andrei Krivtsov, Richard Koche, Eric Solary, Amit Sinha, Claude Preudhomme, Omar Abdel-Wahab
Additional sex combs-like (ASXL) proteins are mammalian homologues of additional sex combs (Asx), a regulator of trithorax and polycomb function in Drosophila. While there has been great interest in ASXL1 due to its frequent mutation in leukemia, little is known about its paralog ASXL2, which is frequently mutated in acute myeloid leukemia patients bearing the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 (AML1-ETO) fusion. Here we report that ASXL2 is required for normal haematopoiesis with distinct, non-overlapping effects from ASXL1 and acts as a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor...
May 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516481/massive-mediastinal-enlargement-due-to-extramedullary-haematopoiesis-in-a-patient-with-myh9-related-thrombocytopenia
#20
Carlo Zaninetti, Emanuela Boveri, Federica Melazzini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
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