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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222917/diagnostic-modalities-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-and-associated-fibrosis
#1
REVIEW
Zobair M Younossi, Rohit Loomba, Quentin M Anstee, Mary E Rinella, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Giulio Marchesini, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Lawrence Serfaty, Francesco Negro, Stephen H Caldwell, Vlad Ratziu, Kathleen E Corey, Scott L Friedman, Manal F Abdelmalek, Stephen A Harrison, Arun J Sanyal, Joel E Lavine, Philippe Mathurin, Michael R Charlton, Zachary D Goodman, Naga P Chalasani, Kris V Kowdley, Jacob George, Keith Lindor
NAFLD is a spectrum comprised of isolated steatosis, NASH, advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The majority of NAFLD subjects do not have NASH and don't carry a significant risk for adverse outcomes (cirrhosis and mortality). Globally, the prevalence of NAFLD is approximately 25%. In Asia, a gradient of high prevalence rates to low rates are noted from urban to rural areas. Given the prevalence of NAFLD, the clinical and economic burden of NAFLD and NASH can be substantial. With increasing recognition as an important liver disease, the diagnosis of NASH still requires a liver biopsy which is suboptimal...
December 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222878/non-communicable-diseases-food-and-nutrition-in-vietnam-from-1975-to-2015-the-burden-and-national-response
#2
Tuan T Nguyen, Minh V Hoang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This review manuscript examines the burden and national response to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), food and nutrition security in Vietnam from 1975 to 2015. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We extracted data from peer-reviewed manuscripts and reports of nationally representative surveys and related policies in Vietnam. RESULTS: In 2010, NCDs accounted for 318,000 deaths (72% of total deaths), 6.7 million years of life lost, and 14 million disability-adjusted life years in Vietnam...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222667/drug-burden-and-its-association-with-falls-among-older-adults-in-new-zealand-a-national-population-cross-sectional-study
#3
Hamish A Jamieson, Prasad S Nishtala, Richard Scrase, Joanne M Deely, Rebecca Abey-Nesbit, Martin J Connolly, Sarah N Hilmer, Darrell R Abernethy, Philip J Schluter
BACKGROUND: Adverse outcomes associated with advanced diseases are often exacerbated by polypharmacy. OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated an association between exposure to anticholinergic and sedative medicines and falls in community-dwelling older people, after controlling for potential confounders. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of a continuously recruited national cohort of community-dwelling New Zealanders aged 65 years and over...
December 8, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222310/novel-alternate-hemostatic-agents-for-patients-with-inhibitors-beyond-bypass-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Margaret V Ragni
Inhibitor formation is among the most severe complications of hemophilia treatment. With a cumulative incidence of ∼30% in those with severe hemophilia A and ∼3% in those with severe hemophilia B, inhibitors are caused by a T-cell response directed against infused coagulation factor; these inhibitors neutralize factor VIII or IX activity and disrupt normal hemostasis. Inhibitor patients become unresponsive to standard factor treatment and, as an alternative, use bypass treatment (eg, recombinant factor VIIa or factor VIII inhibitor bypass activity)...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222306/therapy-of-primary-cns-lymphoma-role-of-intensity-radiation-and-novel-agents
#5
REVIEW
Andrés José María Ferreri
Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas represent a subgroup of malignancies with specific characteristics, an aggressive course, and unsatisfactory outcome in contrast with other lymphomas comparable for tumor burden and histological type. Despite the high sensitivity to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, remissions are frequently short lasting. Treatment efficacy is limited by several factors, including the biology and microenvironment of this malignancy and the "protective" effect of the blood-brain barrier, which limits the access of most drugs to the CNS...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222297/current-treatment-algorithm-for-the-management-of-patients-with-myelofibrosis-jak-inhibitors-and-beyond
#6
REVIEW
Claire N Harrison, Donal P McLornan
Myelofibrosis (MF) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by splenomegaly, constitutional symptoms, ineffective hematopoiesis, and an inherent risk of leukemic transformation. The past decade has seen a massive shift in available therapeutic options for our patients and we are learning how and when to use novel agents, either alone or in combination, during the disease course. This has translated into improved management of splenomegaly, significant amelioration in disease-related symptom burden for many, and may lead to improved survival...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222281/improved-biological-insight-and-influence-on-management-in-indolent-lymphoma-talk-3-update-on-nodal-and-splenic-marginal-zone-lymphoma
#7
REVIEW
Catherine Thieblemont
Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) and nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL) are rare indolent chronic B-cell lymphomas. Prognosis is typically good with median survival around 10-15 years. Management is generally based on the presence of symptoms or high tumor burden. There are no standard treatments for these 2 entities, and therapeutic strategies are rapidly evolving. Clinical developments for these 2 entities are oriented by genomic studies, with largely overlapping mutational profiles involving the NOTCH, B-cell receptor (BcR) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling, chromatin remodeling, and the cytoskeleton...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222279/follicular-lymphoma-are-we-ready-for-a-risk-adapted-approach
#8
REVIEW
Brad S Kahl
Follicular lymphoma is the most common indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the Western hemisphere. The natural history of FL appears to have been favorably impacted by the introduction of rituximab after randomized clinical trials demonstrated that the addition of rituximab to standard chemotherapy induction has improved the overall survival. Yet, the disease is biologically and clinically heterogeneous with wide variations in outcomes for individual patients. The ability to accurately risk-stratify patients and then tailor therapy to the individual is an area of ongoing research...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222263/crisis-management-in-the-treatment-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-putting-right-what-can-go-wrong-emergency-complications-of-disease-and-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Rachael Hough, Ajay Vora
The improvement in overall survival in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) over the last 5 decades has been considerable, with around 90% now surviving long term. The risk of relapse has been reduced to such an extent that the risk of treatment-related mortality is now approaching that of mortality caused by relapse. Toxicities may also lead to the suboptimal delivery of chemotherapy (treatment delays, dose reductions, dose omissions), potentially increasing relapse risk, and short- and long-term morbidity, adding to the "burden of therapy" in an increasing number of survivors...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222245/novel-approaches-to-therapy-in-cml
#10
REVIEW
Ravi Bhatia
Treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) results in remission and prolongation of survival in most chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients but fails to eliminate the leukemia stem cells (LSCs) responsible for disease development and propagation. This accounts for the clinical observation that TKI discontinuation leads to rapid leukemia relapse. Most patients require continued treatment to prevent relapse, with associated risk of relapse, toxicity, teratogenic effects, financial burden, and noncompliance...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222165/innate-sex-bias-of-staphylococcus-aureus-skin-infection-is-driven-by-%C3%AE-hemolysin
#11
Moriah J Castleman, Srijana Pokhrel, Kathleen D Triplett, Donna F Kusewitt, Bradley O Elmore, Jason A Joyner, Jon K Femling, Geetanjali Sharma, Helen J Hathaway, Eric R Prossnitz, Pamela R Hall
Numerous studies have reported sex bias in infectious diseases, with bias direction dependent on pathogen and site of infection. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), yet sex bias in susceptibility to S. aureus SSTI has not been described. A search of electronic health records revealed an odds ratio of 2.4 for S. aureus SSTI in males versus females. To investigate the physiological basis of this bias, we compared outcomes between male and female mice in a model of S...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222034/management-of-invasive-candidiasis-and-candidemia-in-critically-ill-adults-expert-opinion-of-the-european-society-of-anaesthesia-esa-intensive-care-scientific-subcommittee
#12
REVIEW
Ruth-Aoibheann OLeary, Sharon Einav, Marc Leone, Krisztina Madách, Claude Martin, Ignacio Martin-Loeches
OBJECTIVE: The global burden of invasive fungal disease is increasing. Candida albicans remains the leading cause of fungal blood stream infections although non-albicans Candidal infections are emerging. Areas of controversy regarding diagnosis and management are hampering our ability to respond effectively to this evolving threat. The purpose of this narrative review is to address current controversies and provide recommendations to supplement guidelines. DIAGNOSIS OF INVASIVE CANDIDIASIS: Diagnosis of invasive candidiasis requires a combination of diagnostic tests and patient risk factors...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221893/cardioprotective-effect-of-influenza-and-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Andrzej Ciszewski
Due to the wide interaction between the respiratory and the circulatory systems, influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The review summarizes the results of recent studies and meta-analyses demonstrating that in this group of high-risk patients both vaccinations have potentially beneficial properties. However, in the era of Evidence Base Medicine, there is still a lack of randomized prospective clinical trials, especially those evaluating the effect of pneumococcal vaccination...
December 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221625/population-health-for-ckd-and-diabetes-lessons-from%C3%A2-the-indian-health-service
#14
Andrew Narva
Despite extensive clinical guidelines, innovative efforts to improve care, and well-funded efforts to raise awareness, limited progress has been made in reducing the burden of kidney disease in the United States, and the prevalence continues to increase worldwide. The Indian Health Service and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently reported a 54% decrease in the incidence of kidney failure among American Indian and Alaska Native people with diabetes. This decrease in end-stage renal disease incidence was associated with a population health approach to diabetes care based in the community and the primary clinical setting...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221610/alcohol-misuse-and-injury-outcomes-in-young-people-aged-10-24
#15
Louise Lester, Ruth Baker, Carol Coupland, Elizabeth Orton
PURPOSE: The burden of alcohol-attributable disease is a global problem. Young people often present to emergency health-care services with alcohol intoxication but little is known about how best to intervene at that point to improve future health outcomes. This study aimed to assess whether young people with an alcohol-specific hospital admission are at increased risk of injury following discharge. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted using a general population of 10- to 24-year-olds identified using primary care medical records with linked hospital admission records between 1998 and 2013...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221545/-globalhealth-twitter-conversations-on-malaria-hiv-tb-ncds-and-ntds-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#16
Isaac Chun-Hai Fung, Ashley M Jackson, Jennifer O Ahweyevu, Jordan H Grizzle, Jingjing Yin, Zion Tsz Ho Tse, Hai Liang, Juliet N Sekandi, King-Wa Fu
BACKGROUND: Advocates use the hashtag #GlobalHealth on Twitter to draw users' attention to prominent themes on global health, to harness their support, and to advocate for change. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe #GlobalHealth tweets pertinent to given major health issues. METHODS: Tweets containing the hashtag #GlobalHealth (N = 157,951) from January 1, 2014, to April 30, 2015, were purchased from GNIP Inc. We extracted 5 subcorpora of tweets, each with 1 of 5 co-occurring disease-specific hashtags (#Malaria, #HIV, #TB, #NCDS, and #NTDS) for further analysis...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221521/china-s-efforts-on-management-surveillance-and-research-of-noncommunicable-diseases-ncd-scorecard-project
#17
Xiao-Lei Zhu, Jie-Si Luo, Xiao-Chang Zhang, Yi Zhai, Jing Wu
BACKGROUND: The incidence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is rising dramatically throughout the world. Aspects of researches concerned with the improvement and development of prevention and control of NCDs have been conducted. Furthermore, the influence of most determinants of the major NCDs has showed that a broad and deep response involving stakeholders in different sectors is required in the prevention and control of NCDs. OBJECTIVE: China has experienced an increase in NCDs in a short period compared with many countries...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221518/measuring-healthy-lifestyle-and-mental-health-indicators-in-south-asian-women-using-the-your-health-quality-of-life-and-well-being-questionnaire
#18
Nida Ahmed, Sabahat Ahmed, Zartasht Carmichael, Amtul Salam Sami
INTRODUCTION: Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. A literature review has revealed that there is no specific questionnaire available to assess well-being within the community. METHODS: Fifty South Asian women were randomly selected to complete the "Your Health: Quality of Life and Well-being Questionnaire" assessing diet, lifestyle, and mental health among others. Data from the questionnaires was extracted and participants were categorised based on these findings...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221453/the-extra-cost-of-comorbidity-multiple-illnesses-and-the-economic-burden-of-non-communicable-diseases
#19
Sébastien Cortaredona, Bruno Ventelou
BACKGROUND: The literature offers competing estimates of disease costs, with each study having its own data and methods. In 2007, the Dutch Center for Public Health Forecasting of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment provided guidelines that can be used to set up cost-of-illness (COI) studies, emphasising that most COI analyses have trouble accounting for comorbidity in their cost estimations. When a patient has more than one chronic condition, the conditions may interact such that the patient's healthcare costs are greater than the sum of the costs for the individual diseases...
December 8, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221269/cluster-analysis-of-acute-ascending-aortic-dissection-provides-novel-insight-into-mechanisms-of-distal-progression
#20
Jennifer L Philip, Nilto C De Oliveira, Shahab A Akhter, Brooks L Rademacher, Christopher B Goodavish, Paul D DiMusto, Paul C Tang
Background: Whether primary tear size impacts extent of type A dissection is unclear. Using statistical groupings based on dissection morphology, we examined its relationship to primary tear area. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 108 patients who underwent acute ascending dissection repair from 2000-2016. Dissection morphology was characterized using 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of computed tomography (CT) scan images. Two-step cluster analysis was performed to group the dissections by examining the true lumen area as a fraction of the total aortic area at various levels...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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